Characteristics of the xylem

The xylem of both species is diffuse-porous and has distinct rings (Fig. 1). Vessels are solitary (Figs. 1 and 6). Vessel walls have scalariform perforations with >15 bars (Fig. 2), helical thickenings, tylosis (Fig. 3) and vessel-ray pits with horizontally enlarged apertures (Fig. 4). Fibers have large pits with slitlike apertures (>3 pm; Fig. 5) and are mostly thin- to thick-walled (Fig. 6). The distribution of axial parenchyma is mostly scanty paratracheal, rarely apotracheal, and diffuse in aggregates (Fig. 6). Rays are heterocellular with central procumbent and

2-6 marginal, square and upright cells (Fig. 7). Rays are 2-4-se-riate with sheet cells (Fig. 8). A few crystal druses were observed in Staphylea colchica.

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