Characteristics of the xylem

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Annual rings are absent. Vessels are solitary (Figs. 1 and 2). Vessel diameter varies from 50-120 pm and vessel density from 100-150/mm2. Large simple perforations are oblique at the distal ends of the vessels. Inter-vessel pits are round. Some vessels contain dark-staining substances. Fiber cell walls contain small, round pits (Fig. 3). Parenchyma cells are arranged mainly in uniseriate tangential bands (Fig. 2). Rays 1-3 cells in width are very high (>25 cells; Fig. 4). Rays are exclusively homocellular with square and upright cells. Ray cells of Nepenthes ampullaria contain irregular bowl-like inclusions (oil?; Fig. 5).

500 Mm

500 Mm

Fig. 3. Small round bordered pits at the radial walls of fibers. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, understory, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes alata, radial section.

Left Fig. 1. A large pith is surrounded by a small xylem (red), phloem, a phellem (blue) v and a bark (red). The cortex and the pith contain vascular bundles. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, understory, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes ampullaria, transverse section.

Right Fig. 2. Solitary parenchyma cells in 'P3 tangential bands, large vessels and uniseriate rays are characteristic. Cells of the central part of the pith are thin-walled. The pith is surrounded by a belt of thick-walled ligni-fied cells and a belt of thin-walled unligni-fied cells. The phloem contains many small sieve-tube groups. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, understory, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes am-pullaria, transverse section.

F100 Mm

Fig. 5. Bowl-like inclusions (oil?) in upright ray cells. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, understory, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes ampullaria, radial section.

Fig. 3. Small round bordered pits at the radial walls of fibers. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, understory, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes alata, radial section.

Fig. 4. Mainly high, uniseriate rays with upright cells characterize the two species analyzed. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, under-story, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes alata, tangential section.

Fig. 5. Bowl-like inclusions (oil?) in upright ray cells. 60 cm-high dwarf shrub, understory, tropical greenhouse, Botanical Garden Zürich, Switzerland. Nepenthes ampullaria, radial section.

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