Bark of the Rubiaceae family has a simple construction. It is characterized by radially oriented parenchyma and sieve tubes (Figs. 17-20) and the absence of sclerenchyma (Fig. 20). The presence of rhaphides in idioblasts (Fig. 21) is common but not mandatory; e.g. they were found only in one of the 3 specimens of Galium mollugo analyzed. Rhaphides seem to be absent in the bark of Crucianella maritima and Putoria calabrica. Sclere-ids are only present in the cortex of the shrub Plocama pendula
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