Bark Features

All characteristics under R (Rinde = bark) include the phloem and the cortex but not parts outside of the active cork cambium (phellogen). For further definitions see http://www.caf.wvu.edu/Bark/whatis.htm

R1 Groups of sieve tubes present. Irregularly arranged groups of sieve elements in the phloem.

R1 Groups of sieve tubes present. Irregularly arranged groups of sieve elements in the phloem.

Fig. 181. Thalictrum alpinum, Fig. 182. Aquilegia vulgaris, Ranunculaceae, herb. Ranunculaceae, herb.

R2 Groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows.

R2 Groups of sieve tubes in tangential rows.

Fig. 184. Berberis vulgaris, Ber-beridaceae, shrub. Sieve tubes are compressed black.

R3 Distinct ray dilatations. Wedge-like zone of parenchyma cells.

R3 Distinct ray dilatations. Wedge-like zone of parenchyma cells.

Fig. 185. Hypericum reflexum, Clusiaceae, shrub. Dilatation between a slightly structured phloem with oil ducts.

Fig. 183. Erysimum asperum, Brassicaceae, herb. Groups of sieve tubes in radial and tangential rows.

Fig. 184. Berberis vulgaris, Ber-beridaceae, shrub. Sieve tubes are compressed black.

Fig. 185. Hypericum reflexum, Clusiaceae, shrub. Dilatation between a slightly structured phloem with oil ducts.

Fig. 186. Armeria arenaria, Plumbaginaceae, shrub. A dilatation in the radial continuation of a xylem ray.

R4 Sclereids in phloem and cortex. Groups of cells with ligni-fied, thick-walled cell walls. See also Fig. 186.

R6 Sclereids in radial rows. sc sc

Fig. 187. Carrichtera annua, Fig. 188. Alyssum lusitanicum, Brassicaceae, herb. Single sclere- Brassicaceae, herb. Large groups ids or small groups in the cortex. of sclereids in phloem and cortex.

R6 Sclereids in radial rows. sc sc

Fig. 190. Marrubium vulgare, Lamiaceae, chamaephyte. Formation of sclereids occurs in older phloem.

Fig. 187. Carrichtera annua, Fig. 188. Alyssum lusitanicum, Brassicaceae, herb. Single sclere- Brassicaceae, herb. Large groups ids or small groups in the cortex. of sclereids in phloem and cortex.

Fig. 189. Diplotaxis tenuifo-lia, Brassicaceae, herb. Large groups of sclereids between ray dilatations.

Fig. 190. Marrubium vulgare, Lamiaceae, chamaephyte. Formation of sclereids occurs in older phloem.

R.6.1 Sclereids in tangential

R.6.1 Sclereids in tangential

Fig. 192. Myricaria german- Fig. 193. Tamarix balanse, Fig. 194. Mahonia fremontii, ica, Tamaricaceae, small tree. Tamaricaceae, small tree. Arc Fig. 191. Arabis hirsuta, Bras- Square groups radially and tan sicaceae, herb. Small band-like gentially arranged. groups.

Berberidaceae, shrub. Tangen-

Fig. 192. Myricaria german- Fig. 193. Tamarix balanse, Fig. 194. Mahonia fremontii, ica, Tamaricaceae, small tree. Tamaricaceae, small tree. Arc Fig. 191. Arabis hirsuta, Bras- Square groups radially and tan sicaceae, herb. Small band-like gentially arranged. groups.

Berberidaceae, shrub. Tangen-

shaped groups in the sieve-tube tial bands of sclereids between region and V-shaped groups in thin-walled sieve-tube/paren-

the rays.

chy ma zones.

R7 With prismatic crystals. Solitary rhombohedral or octahedral crystals. See Fig. 171.

Fig. 195. Marrubium alysson, Lamiaceae, chamaephyte.

R7.1 With acicular crystals. Small needle-like crystals which do not occur in bundles.

Fig. 196. Phytolacca americana, Phytolaccaceae, large herb.

R8 With crystal druses. Compound, irregular, star-shaped crystals.

R8 With crystal druses. Compound, irregular, star-shaped crystals.

Fig. 197. Buxus sempervirens, Buxaceae, shrub. Single druse.

Fig. 198. Buxus sempervirens, Buxaceae, shrub. Irregular distribution of druses in the phlo-

R9 With crystal sand. Small, irregular crystals. See also Fig. 178.

R10 Phloem not well structured. Sieve tubes and parenchyma cells cannot be distinguished in the transverse section.

R9 With crystal sand. Small, irregular crystals. See also Fig. 178.

Fig. 200. Teucrium luteum, La-miaceae, hemicryptophyte.

Fig. 201. Buxus sempervirens, Fig. 202. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Buxaceae, shrub. Caryophyllaceae, Alsinoideae, herb.

Fig. 199. Piper nigrum, Pipera-ceae, shrub.

Fig. 200. Teucrium luteum, La-miaceae, hemicryptophyte.

Fig. 201. Buxus sempervirens, Fig. 202. Arenaria serpyllifolia, Buxaceae, shrub. Caryophyllaceae, Alsinoideae, herb.

sc sc sc

R11 With rhaphides. Bundles of needle-like crystals.

■H WROmK

LK

nyjH

50 |jm

juJS W^Arf p xBST ' ? ^

Fig. 203. Parthenocissus inserta, Fig. 204. Impatiens balfourii, Vitaceae, liana. Rhaphides in Balsaminaceae, therophyte. the center and druses at the periphery of the ray.

R12 With laticifers.

R12 With laticifers.

SvW

50_ym

50_ym

Fig. 205. Drimys winteri, Win- Fig. 206. Sonchus pustulatus, As-

teraceae, tree. Laticifers in the teraceae, shrub.

phloem.

R12 With ducts.

duct duct duct duct duct

R12.1 Excretions produced by cells which are anatomically not different from parenchyma cells.

Fig. 210. Mertensia ciliata, Boraginaceae, herb.

Fig. 207. Artemisia dracunculus, Asteraceae, herb.

Fig. 208. Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae, herb.

Fig. 209. Pleurospermum austria-cum, Apiaceae, herb.

R12.1 Excretions produced by cells which are anatomically not different from parenchyma cells.

Fig. 210. Mertensia ciliata, Boraginaceae, herb.

R14 Cortex with aerenchyma. Parenchyma tissue with large intercellular spaces.

R14 Cortex with aerenchyma. Parenchyma tissue with large intercellular spaces.

Fig. 211. Menyanthes trifoliata, Fig. 212. Myriophyllum spica- Fig. 213.

Menyanthaceae, herb. Irregu- tum, Haloragaceae, herb. Large ceae, herb.

larly distributed spaces in the aerenchyma exists outside of cortex. the central cylinder.

Fig. 211. Menyanthes trifoliata, Fig. 212. Myriophyllum spica- Fig. 213.

Menyanthaceae, herb. Irregu- tum, Haloragaceae, herb. Large ceae, herb.

larly distributed spaces in the aerenchyma exists outside of cortex. the central cylinder.

cernua, Astera- Fig. 214. Primula farinosa, Primulaceae, herb. With large intercellulars.

R17 Phelloids. Structural variation of phellem (Evert 2GG7).

R17 Phelloids. Structural variation of phellem (Evert 2GG7).

Fig. 215. Antennaria canescens, Fig. 216. Sideritis hirsuta, Lami-Asteraceae, herb. Uni-seriate, aceae, herb. Intra-xylary, uni-se-phellem-like layer of cells. riate, phellem-like layer of cells.

Phellem.

phe phe e phe

Fig. 217. Alchemilla alpina, Ro- Fig. 218. Saxifraga caesia, Saxi-saceae, herb. Radial orientation fragaceae, herb. Thick-walled of rectangular cork cells. cork cells.

Unknown chemical composition of excretions.

Unknown chemical composition of excretions.

Fig. 219. Cichorium intybus, As- Fig. 220. Cichorium intybus, As- Fig. 221. Peucedanum ostruthi- Fig. 222. Acinos arvensis, La-teraceae, herb. Normal light. teraceae, herb. Polarized light. um, Apiaceae, herb. Polarized miaceae, herb. Polarized light.

light.

Fig. 219. Cichorium intybus, As- Fig. 220. Cichorium intybus, As- Fig. 221. Peucedanum ostruthi- Fig. 222. Acinos arvensis, La-teraceae, herb. Normal light. teraceae, herb. Polarized light. um, Apiaceae, herb. Polarized miaceae, herb. Polarized light.

light.

P1 Pith with medullary phloem or vascular bundles.

P1 Pith with medullary phloem or vascular bundles.

Fig. 191. Abronia fragrans, Nyc-taginaceae, herb. Irregular arrangement of the vascular bundles in the pith.

Fig. 190. Atriplex patula, Ama-ranthaceae, herb. Star-like arrangement of the vascular bundles in the pith.

Fig. 191. Abronia fragrans, Nyc-taginaceae, herb. Irregular arrangement of the vascular bundles in the pith.

Fig. 192. Vinca major, Apocy-anaceae, herb. With groups of sieve tubes at the periphery of the pith.

P2 Pith with lacitifers or intercellular canals.

Fig. 193. Liquidambar styraci-flua, Hamamelidaceae, tree. Duct surrounded by unlignified parenchyma cells.

5. Monographic Descriptions

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Building Your Own Greenhouse

Building Your Own Greenhouse

You Might Just End Up Spending More Time In Planning Your Greenhouse Than Your Home Don’t Blame Us If Your Wife Gets Mad. Don't Be A Conventional Greenhouse Dreamer! Come Out Of The Mould, Build Your Own And Let Your Greenhouse Give A Better Yield Than Any Other In Town! Discover How You Can Start Your Own Greenhouse With Healthier Plants… Anytime Of The Year!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment