Elaeagnaceae

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The cosmopolitean Elaeaegnaceae family includes 3 genera with 50 species. In Europe, only Hippophae rhamnoides is endemic. Elaeaegnus angustifolius and E. pungens are partially naturalized. Shepheria canadensis is distributed thoughout Western North America. The xylem and phloem of 3 genera with 4 species has been analyzed. Elaeaegnus angustifolia L. Elaeaegnus pungens Thunb. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Shepherdia canadensis Nutt The xylem and phloem of 3...

Discussion in relation to previous studies

Tropical genera have been described by many authors according to Gregory (1994), but Linum (Linum suffruticosum and L. tenuifolium) was only a detailed subject at Schweingruber (1990). The characterization of 7 Linum species and Adenoli-num lewisii is new to this study. Present features in relation to the number of analyzed species I growth rings distinct and recognizable 9 2.1 only one ring 2 4 semi-ring-porous 10 9 vessels predominantly solitary 10 II vessels predominantly in clusters 3 13...

Characteristics of the xylem of the subfamily Paronychioideae

Anatomical structures in this subfamily are very heterogeneous. The 6 genera are mainly characterized by the following features Acanthophyllum Presence of thick-walled vessels, pervasive parenchyma, successive cambia and crystal druses in the cortex and the absence of rays (Fig. 24). Dicheranthus Presence of tangential bands of fibers and parenchyma, and large rays with unlignified cell walls. The vessels are very small (Fig. 25). Herniaria Presence of thick-walled vessels (2 pm), pervasive...

Characteristics of the bark of the subfamily Paronychioideae

There are no special features for the subfamily of Paronychioideae (Figs. 28 and 35). Fig. 31. Distinct radial rows of parenchyma with very small groups of sieve tubes characterize the phloem. Crystal druses occur in the phloem and the cortex. Root collar of a 30 cm-high, perennial plant, dry meadow, dry valley, Valais, Switzerland. Silene otites (Caryophylloidaea), transverse section. Fig. 29. Simple bark structure. The phloem and the cortex are continuous. Sieve tubes in the phloem are...

Characteristics of the phloem and the cortex

The phloem is fairly uniform (Figs. 8 and 10). In all analyzed species small groups of fibers can be found (Figs. 10 and 11) as well as variable numbers of crystal druses in the phloem (Fig. 8), cortex and pith. P. suffruticosa has a well-developed phellem (Fig. 9). Fig. 3. Perforations with 3 bars. Ray cells Fig. 4. Perforations with 3 bars and living Fig. 5. 1-3-seriate rays with axially elon- with small pits. Stem of a 1 m-high, culti- fibers (nuclei in red). Annual shoot of a cul- gated...

Characteristic of the phloem and the cortex

Annual species have only one ring (Fig. 1). Annual rings are distinct in all perennial species (Figs. 2 and 3). Ring distinctness is indicated by semi-ring-porosity (Figs. 2 and 3). Earlywood vessel diameter varies from 15-25 pm in annual and from 20-50 pm in perennial species. Vessel density varies from 300-500 mm2. Simple perforations (Fig. 4) and fibers with distinctly bordered pits are characteristic of all species (Fig. 5). Fibers have large pits and are mostly fairly thick-walled (Fig....

Droseraceae

Medicinal Botanical Garden

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The Droseraceae family has 4 genera with 110 species. Drosera and Aldrovanda occur worldwide in wet habitats, Drosophyllum grows in SW-Europe on dry sites. In Europe there are 3 endemic genera (Aldrovanda, Drosera, Drosophyllum) with 5 species. Representatives of the family Drosearaceae are absent on the Canary Islands and in the Sahara. 4 Droseraceae species are analyzed. Life forms analyzed Studies from other authors Semi-woody chamaephytes 1 1...

Analyzed species

Alliaria officinalis Cavara & Grande Aubrieta deltoides (L.) DC. Aurinia saxatilis Griesb. Barbarea intermedia Boreau Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Biscutella brevicaulis Jord. Biscutella cichoriifolia Lois. Biscutella laevigata L. Brassica nigra (L.) Koch Brassica oleracea L. Brassica rapa L. Brassica repanda (Willd.) DC. Braya alpina Sternb. & Hoppe Braya humilis (C.A. Mey) B.L. Rob. Bunias erucago L. Bunias orientalis L. Cakile edentula Jord. Cakile maritima Scop....

Characteristics of the xylem

Annual rings occur in the present material in all analyzed species (Figs. 1-5). Ring distinctness is always indicated by flat radial latewood fibers (Fig. 3). The wood is diffuse-porous or semi-ring-porous. Site conditions seem to determine the size and the distribution of vessels (Figs. 1 and 2). Earlywood vessel diameter varies from 30-60 pm and vessel density from 300-500 mm2. Two types of vessel arrangement have been observed Most species have distinct intra-annual tangential rows of...

Cistaceae

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The cosmopolitean Cistaceae family includes 8 genera with 200 species. In Europe, there are 5 genera with 74 species. The xylem and phloem of 4 genera with 35 species are analyzed here. Nanophanerophytes 0.5-4 m Dwarf shrubs Hemicryptophytes Studies from other authors 10 3 genera Plants analyzed from different vegetation zones Cistus albidus L. Cistus clusii Dunal Cistus creticus L. Cistus crispus L. Cistus ladanifer L. Cistus laurifolius L. Cistus...

Bark Features

All characteristics under R (Rinde bark) include the phloem and the cortex but not parts outside of the active cork cambium (phellogen). For further definitions see R1 Groups of sieve tubes present. Irregularly arranged groups of R1 Groups of sieve tubes present. Irregularly arranged groups of Fig. 181. Thalictrum alpinum, Fig. 182. Aquilegia vulgaris, Ranunculaceae, herb. Ranunculaceae, herb. Fig. 181. Thalictrum alpinum, Fig. 182. Aquilegia vulgaris, Ranunculaceae, herb. Ranunculaceae, herb....

Fig Garden In Tbilisi

Fibers are thick and thin- to thick-walled (Figs. 1 and 2) and have small pits with slit-like apertures. Transitions between both features occur within individuals. The occurrence of tension wood is a specific feature for all species analyzed (Fig. 5). Parenchyma is paratracheal and marginal (Fig. 5). Rays are 3-7 cells wide in all species (Fig. 6) and consist of procumbent cells or are heterocellular, with one to a few rows of square and upright cells. Prismatic crystals are frequent in Celtis...

Medicinal Stauntonia Chnensis Fruit

Stem of a 4 m-long liana, cultivated, Botanical Garden Z rich, Switzerland. Stauntonia hexa-petala, tangential section. Fig. 9. Uniseriate and multiseriate rays. Stem of a 4 m-long liana, cultivated, Botanical Garden Z rich, Switzerland. Sinofranchetia chinensis, tangential section. Fig. 10. Large ray with sheet cells. Stem of a 4 m-long liana, cultivated, Botanical Garden Z rich, Switzerland. Stauntonia hexa-petala, tangential section. Fig. 13....

Euphorbiaceae

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The Euphorbia family includes 320 genera with 6100 species. Most of the species grow in the tropics. In Europe, there are 7 genera with 118 species. The majority belongs to the genus Euphorbia (105 species). Many species are endemic to the Canary Islands. The xylem and phloem of 7 genera with 48 species are analyzed here. 6 of species are endemic to the Canary Islands. Bark-slides are missing for 8 of the 48 species. Woody chamaephytes 4...

Analyzed material

The xylem and phloem of 5 genera with 8 species are analyzed here. Boscia arabica L. Cadaba longifolia DC . Cadaba rotundifolia Forsk. Capparis spinosa L. Cleome arabica Pestalozzi Cleome brachyphylla Vahl ex DC. Cleome isomeris Greene Maerua crassifolia Forssk. Studies from other authors 1 many Phanerophytes > 4 m Nanophanerophytes 0.5-4 m Hemicryptophytes Plants analyzed from different vegetation zones The xylem and phloem of 5 genera with 8 species are analyzed here. Studies from other...

Argemone Transverse Section

All cells in the very small xylem of the center are unligni-fied. The phloem is small and the cortex extremely large. Top of a bulb of a 10 cm-high perennial herb (geophyte), hill zone, dry meadow, Martigny, Valais, Switzerland. Corydalis solida, transverse section. Fig. 3. Distinct rings of a semi-ring-porous xylem. All cell walls are unlignified. Rays are absent. Root collar of 20 cm-high perennial hemicryptophyte, subalpine zone, limestone gravel, Mt. Ventoux,...

Characteristics of the phloem the cortex and the pith

Following Metcalfe and Chalk (1957), the cortex is divided in three zones (Fig. 1) Under the epidermis are thin-walled parenchymatic cells (assimilating tissue). Below is a belt with central vascular bundles (phloem in the center), embedded in slightly sclerotized cells. An endodermis seperates the cortex from the cork zone consisting square, pitless prismatic cells (shoe box-like Fig. 6). This zone arises from the pericycle zone, which consists mainly of spirally thickened, very long,...

Preparation of the Plant Material

For wood anatomical studies and for age determinations the most important plant part is the transition zone between root and stem, (root collar). For rhizomes the oldest end of the rhizome system has been used. For collection the plant was usually excavated. Plant material was conserved in the field in 40 ethanol or any commercial alcohol, and stored and transported in thick-walled plastic bags which were collectively stored in plastic boxes. Each sample was labeled with a sticker inscribed...

Clusiaceae

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The Clusiaceae family includes 38 genera with 1100 species. Most of the species grow in the tropics of the southern hemisphere. In Europe, there is 1 genus (Hypericum) with 62 species. Three species are endemic on the Canary Islands. The xylem and phloem of one genus with 18 species are analyzed here. Plants analyzed from different vegetation zones Hypericum androsaemum L. Hypericum balearicum L. Hypericum canariense L. Hypericum coris L. Hypericum...

Ericaceae

Xylem Arbutus

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The cosmopolitan Ericaceae family includes 130 genera with 2700 species. In Europe, there are 24 families with 66 species. Included here are the Pyrolaceae and Empetraceae. The xylem and phloem of 23 genera with 59 species are analyzed here. Hemicryptophytes and geophytes 1 Plants analyzed from different vegetation zones Studies from other authors 20 genera Andromeda polifolia L. Arbutus andrachne L. Arbutus canariensis Veill. Arbutus unedo L. Daboecia...

Rhizomes

Hydrophyte Stem Level

The anatomical differences between rhizomes and stems are the following The amount of aerenchyma is reduced and there are no metaxylem-borne lacunes (Figs. 14 and 15). Crystallized fibers and crystals are absent. Fig. 1. Stem with scattered vascular bundles surrounded by a loose aerenchymatic tissue. Flower stem of a hydrophyte, 1 m below water level, hill zone, Federsee, Bavaria, Germany. Nuphar lutea, transverse section. Fig. 1. Stem with scattered vascular bundles surrounded by a loose...

Ecological trends and relations to life forms

Tropical Botanical Garden Greenhouse

Since all analyzed species are from the tropical zone, no ecological trends could be detected. Tangentially enlarged parenchyma cells are characteristic of the cortex of all species (Fig. 13). Cell walls are often thickened like collenchyma (Fig. 13). The cortex of Piper nigrum contains a few lignified fibers and Piper methysticum contains a belt of smaller cells between the phloem and the cortex (Fig. 15). Half moon-shaped parenchyma sieve tube groups stand outside the vessel fiber strips of...

Subgroup 2 Astragalus and Oxytropis

Unlignified Fibers

All species with annual rings are semi-ring-porous (Figs. 19-21) or ring-porous. Ring-porosity occurs only in the genus Astragalus (Fig. 22). Vessels of all species are thick-walled (Figs. 26 and 30). Most species have round intervessel pits, arranged in alternating and rarely in opposite position (Fig. 23) and pits with horizontally enlarged apertures (variable degree of scalariform pits Fig. 24). Transitions between alternating and horizontally enlarged pits are frequent. Exclusively round...

Types without secondary growth

Terrestrial plants Soldanella sp. and Primula sp. Soldanella sp. A small xylem is surrounded by a small phloem and a large cortex. The pith is filled with sclerenchyma cells Fig. 1 . Intervessel pits are scalariform Fig. 2 . There is no phellem. Primula sp. Anastomosing concentric vascular bundles Figs. 3 and 4 occupy a parenchymatic stem Figs. 5 and 6 or surround a pith Fig. 7 . A few rows of rectangular cells form the phellem Fig. 8 . A central cylinder Fig. 9 is surrounded by a large...

Number of species worldwide and in Europe

The cosmopolitean Malvaceae family includes 75 genera with 1500 species. In Europe, there are 9 genera with 40 endemic species. The xylem and phloem of 11 genera with 25 species are analyzed here. The xylem and phloem of 11 genera with 25 species are analyzed here. Plants analyzed from different vegetation zones Rings are exceptionally distinct in Hibiscus syriacus Fig. 1 , and distinct in Lavatera oblongifolia and all Sphaeralacea species Figs. 2 and 3 . Ring boundaries of most species are...

Crassulaceae

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The Crassulaceae family includes 35 genera with 1500 species. In Western Europe there are 12 genera with 101 species. The majority belongs to Sedum 57 and Sempervivum 23 . Most of the species are widespread from tropical to boreal regions and often grow in arid habitats Judd et al. 2002 . Four genera with 75 species are endendemic to Macaronesia, from which the majority belongs to Aeonium 35 , Monanthes 16 and Aichryson 4 . The xylem and phloem from 31...

Subgroup 3 Chamaephytes hemicrytophytes and therophytes excluding species in the subgroups 1 and

Transverse Section Ginger

Described are 11 chamaephytes, 58 hemicryptophytes and 15 therophytes. Since we do not have more slides from species from single genera or ecological units we have to accept that the group is taxonomically and anatomically heterogenic. The following paragraph will give an impression of the possible structural variability. A few species were also placed in subgroup 1. Therophytes have only one ring Figs. 38 and 39 . Rings are absent in a few species of arid regions Figs. 40, 41 and 49 . The...

Subgroup 1 Species with dendritic and diagonal vesselpatterns

The group includes the following genera and a few species of some genera Adenocarpus, Anagyris foetida, Anthyllis cytisoides, A. terniflora, Calicotome, Caragana, Chamacytistusproliferus, Co-lutea, Coronilla juncea, C. minima, C. valentina, Crotalaria saha-rae, Cytisophyllum, Cytisus, Dorycnium, Echinospartium, Erina-cea, Genista, Hippocrepis emerus, Laburnum, Lotus corniculatus, Lygos, Ononis speciosa, Petteria, Senna, Spartium, Spartocytisus, Staurocanthus, Teline, Ulex. A pure anatomical...

Characteristic features of taxa

Aloe Vera Root Section

Some features characterize single species or groups of species Relatively high plant ages are typical of some Eriogonum species Eriogonum jamesii 38 years, Fig. 1 . The age of all species in other genera varies from 1-9 years. The absence of annuals therophytes is typical for the genera Calligonum, Eriogonum, Oxyria and Reynoutria. Calligonum co-mosum and C. crinitum are distingushed from all other species in the family of Polygonaceae by their ring-porosity Fig. 2 , storied fibers and...

Cucurbitaceae

Metaxylem Vessels

Number of species, worldwide and in Europe The cosmopolitean Cucurbitaceae family includes 118 genera with 825 species. In Europe, there are 8 genera with 14 species. This number includes cultivated species, e.g. Cucumis and Cucurbita. Bryonia dioeca Jacq., shoot and tuber Bryonia verrucosa Ait. Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad., shoot and tuber Cucurbita maxima Duch. ex Lam., root collar Cucurbita pepo L., shoot Cucumis sativus L., shoot Ecballium elaterinum L. Rich., shoot and tuber The xylem...

Definition of Anatomical Features

Prismatic Crystals Plants

Precondition for a valuable comparison of anatomical structures is the definition and coding of features. Here, we separately define ring distinctness and microscopic features. Classification of Ring Distinctness after Schweingruber and Poschlod 2005 Type a Growth-ring numbers can be exactly determined All ring boundaries are clearly demarcated Figs. 1-3 . In this case the number of observed growth rings corresponds to the true age of the plant tissue. Growth rings in the collar of primary...

Acknowledgements

Without the patience of my wife Elisabeth at home and on countless fieldtrips the present work would not have been possible. I have to thank many colleagues and institutions The Federal Research Institute provided me at Birmensdorf a scientific infrastructure. Many colleagues in the mechanical workshop Arthur K lliker , the carpenter shop Sigi Witzemann, Albert Buchwalder , the IT-Departement Bert H wecke , the library Christine Matter, Claudia Gr tter-Berger and friends supported the study....