Strategies To Maintain Optimal Bone Health

The Truth About Osteoporosis

Discover Easy Strategies To Maintain Optimal Bone Health And Reverse Osteoporosis. Here is a quick preview of the valuable information youll have at your fingertips: Statistics can lead to false conclusions. Bone Quality or Quantity? Density or Strength? Find what matters! What happens to unabsorbed calcium? How do prescribed medications fit in the equation? What is the 4-R Program and can it help reverse osteoporosis? What part does protein play in bone health? What contribution does lifestyle make? Am I unknowingly my own worst enemy? What about inflammation and stress? How do they impact my bones?Does an acidic system affect the progress of osteoporosis? Who would suspect this sneaky culprit (in your tap water) as contributing to loss of bone health? Discover 4 easy steps for relieving stress. What part do hormones play in osteoporosis? How to encourage new bone growth. Find 7 steps to a workable exercise program. Look at the whole body. 12 steps to changing habits effortlessly.

The Truth About Osteoporosis Overview

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Inulin and Bone Health

For this is probably enhanced passive and active mineral transport across the intestinal epithelium, mediated by increased levels of butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids and decreased pH (ScholzAhrens and Schrezenmeir, 2002). Improvements in calcium and iron absorption may help prevent osteoporosis and anemia, respectively (Ohta et al., 1998 Weaver and Liebman, 2002). Fructooli-gosaccharide ingestion enabled rats, for instance, to recover from experimentally induced anemia and to increase levels of minerals in their bones (Ohta et al., 1998 Oda et al., 1994). Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone mass and density that causes the bones, especially in postmenopausal women, to become fragile and vulnerable to fracture. It is a growing global problem, which can be alleviated by dietary approaches. Calcium is a key factor in bone strength. By optimizing peak bone mass in early adulthood and by minimizing bone loss during the postmenopausal period, the risk,...

Processing and utilization

Isoflavones also can be extracted from lactoserum waste water. Soybean isoflavone consists of flavone glycoside (97-98 ) and aglycones (2-3 ). Agly-cones have biological activity. Isoflavone glycoside is separated from agly-cones by the actions of different isoflavone-glucosidases, and the genistein with biological activity is then released. Genistein can attenuate postmeno-pausal osteoporosis in humans. Isoflavones have inhibitory effects on the early transformation and proliferation of cancer cells. They can effectively inhibit the angiogenesis of a cancer structure and thus block the supply of nutrients to cancer cells. Therefore, isoflavone is of therapeutic use in breast cancer, colon cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, leukaemia and others.

Processing and Products

The global goal for soybean processing and utilization is to strengthen the development of new food, feed, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and industrial products, including co-products and ingredients for speciality applications. As of now, soybean derivatives are gaining importance not only in nutritious food products, but also as sources of phytochemicals and nutraceuticals to reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes and so on. The emphasis in the non-food or industrial products markets is on biodegradable adhesives, plastics, coatings, inks, lubricants, biodiesel and more.

Dehydroepiandrosterone

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is synthesized in the adrenal glands, liver, testes, and brain. This substance is converted to androstenedione, which is the precursor to other androgens, and improves insulin sensitivity. DHEA levels begin declining at approximately age 25. Studies have indicated that DHEA supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and decreases both subcutaneous and visceral fat.56 Specifically, animal studies have shown that DHEA decreases both body weight and the cytokine TNF-alpha, which is implicated in causing insulin resistance.57 A six-month study on adults showed that DHEA supplementation at 100 mg per day increased IGF-1. However, only the male subjects had decreased fat-body mass and increased muscle strength. Women had increases in total-body mass and had androgen levels that were above normal. No changes were seen in cortisol levels, lipid profiles, glucose levels, fasting insulin levels, bone-mineral density, or basal metabolic rates.58

Oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose

Oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) are present in soybean and soy products and constitute about 0.5 and 4.0 of the seed, respectively. Although they are considered undesirable due to their flatus-inducing properties, recent studies have indicated that they also have beneficial effects. They have been reported to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in the colon (Tomomatsu, 1994), which provides various health effects. They also inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Clostridia perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria) and enhance bulking of the stool, which dilutes the toxins produced by certain Gram-negative bacteria and eliminate them from the intestines. They convert sugars into lactic and acetic acid and thus reduce the colonic pH, which is beneficial for colonic mucosa. Furthermore, they reduce the risk of colon cancer (Pool-Zobel et al., 2002), modulate the immune system (Bland et al., 2004) and contribute to bone health (Nzeusseu et...

Reasons for increases in the price of soybean products

Declined slightly in response to increasing dietary health and livestock-related food safety concerns. Soybean is perceived as having health benefits that address these concerns. In the USA, the Federal Food and Drug Administration allows foods containing 5 g of soybean protein per serving to be labelled as reducing heart disease (Ash et al., 2006). The use of high amounts of soy protein (soy isoflavones) in fortified foods and supplements for the prevention of osteoporosis is growing rapidly.

The bean with an ideal ratio of n6 to n3

Apart from rapeseed (Brassica species) and canola (Brassica campestris) oil, soybean oil is the important source of a-linolenic acid (n-3), an omega-3 fatty acid, for vegetarians, among various vegetable oils available on the global market. The dietary intake of linoleic and linolenic acid needs to be well balanced and the ratio of n-6 n-3 should be around 5 1 this is near to human cell membranes, as indicated in a clinical study (Chan et al., 1993). An imbalance in the n-6 n-3 ratio has been suggested as a cause of many chronic diseases such as diabetes, CVD and osteoporosis (Simopoulos et al.,

Flavonoids phytoestrogens of Epimedium brevicornum Max hoary goat weed

A 24-mon randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at the Chinese University of Hong Kong and Shanghai University of Chinese Medicine reported the beneficial effect of hoary goat weed in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Eighty five participants were assigned a daily dose of hoary goat weed or placebo. All the women received 300 mg of calcium daily. According to researchers, flavonoids (phytoestrogens) of hoary goat weed may be responsible for increase in bone mineral density at the hip and lumber region thus exerting a useful effect in osteoporosis. The herb contains iicarin and flavonoids genistein and daidezin.

Nutraceuticallaboratory Test Interactions

Support patients with high cholesterol, cancer, HIV, diabetes, allergies, and other conditions Promote bone health treat OA enhance mental functioning increase muscle mass, (illustrates benefits of using trace minerals therapeutically) Support patients with OA and other joint conditions, including TMJ disease elevate estrogen levels Bone-mineral density as serum iron and ferritin Vitamin B12 false decrease in vitamin B12 levels Occult stool false-negative guaiac results Bone mineral density may increase Plasma 11-hydroxycorticosteroid may increase Urinary 17-hydroxycorticosteroid may decrease Gastrin may increase Glucose may decrease Uptake of I-131 may decrease Insulin may increase plasma insulin Lipase may falsely decrease test results Magnesium may falsely decrease test results

Nutritional and Economic Benefits

It can be processed into a number of fermented and non-fermented food products. Research into phytochemicals has shown that soybean contains phytoestrogens, and so may help in managing irregular periods, premenstrual syndrome, menopausal hot flushes and post-menopausal problems such as osteoporosis, fatigue and vaginal dryness (Holt, 1998 Connie, 1999). It may also help guard against cancers, including prostate cancer. The US Food and Drug Administration has approved a health claim stating that 25 g of soy protein in a daily diet low in saturated fat and cholesterol can help reduce total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (FDA, 1999). Various research studies undertaken the world over have indicated that the inclusion of soy foods in the daily diet not only provides good-quality protein, but also helps prevent diseases such as diabetes, breast cancer, osteoporosis, heart attack and memory loss (Holt, 1998 Patricia and Newton, 1998 Messina, 2002 SOPA, 2002). The use of...

Homocysteine

Associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, elevated plasma levels of the amino acid homocysteine are affected by genetic, physiologic, and nutritional factors. Increased homocysteine levels are considered to be, collectively, an independent predictor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolism and are correlated with significant risk of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular occlusive disease, cerebral vascular occlusive disease, and retinal vascular disease.77 Research has also shown that elevated homocysteine is associated with an increase risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, cognitive impairment, pregnancy complications, and osteoporosis.78 The association between homocysteinemia and CVD is causal, because an increase in plasma homocysteine precedes the onset of cardiovascular disease.79 Desirable plasma levels are below 10 mmol L. The plasma concentration ranges for mild, moderate, and severe homocysteinemia are, respectively 15-25 25-50...

Perspectives

Accumulating evidences, mostly from animal and some from human studies, have indicated that isoflavones have multiple, beneficial pharmacological activities, particularly in the prevention of osteoporosis and the genesis of estrogen-dependent cancer (Bingham etal., 1999). However, safe and effective dose range of dietary phytoestrogens necessary to achieve a significant beneficial health effect without undesirable side effects remain to be established. To provide a guideline for dietary isoflavones intake, the pharmacokinetic properties (ADME) of various isoflavones from different types of foods must be understood. In the food industry, improvements in food technology and genetic modifications of the isoflavone bearing agricultural products to enhance and modify isoflavone constituents must also be achieved.

Conclusion

In the past decades, major stride was made in women's health by launching SERM, e.g. tamoxifen and raloxifene (Jordan, 1998). Their promising results on the chemopre-vention of breast cancer in clinical studies shed light on the development of new SERM in pharmaceutical industry. Isoflavones have become prominent agents for estrogen-dependent diseases because they can protect women from osteoporosis and exhibit anti-estrogenic properties in the breast, uterus and prostate tissue to prevent cancer formation. They are natural compounds derived from edible plants that have been consumed by Asians, South Americans, and vegetarians for long periods apparently without any undesirable side effects (Olsen and Love, 1997). Clinical and experimental evaluation of those isoflavones could led to the discovery of more efficacious agents with better phar-macokinetic properties. Further, balanced diets containing proper isoflavone contents could be recommended for pre- and post-menopausal women and...

Isoflavones

Osteoporosis Osteoporosis, literally meaning 'porous bone', is a metabolic disease of bone characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissues, making the individuals prone to fracture. This is a global disease affecting 150 million individuals worldwide, cutting across ethnicity and race. Although an inadequate intake of calcium and vitamin D, unhealthy lifestyles marked by excessive alcohol and tobacco consumption and lack of exercise have been cited as some of the causes of the disease, the onset of menopause with a concomitant decline in estrogen renders women prone to the disease. Worldwide, the population of postmenopausal women is expected to reach 1.2 billion by 2030, indicating the magnitude of the problem that will exist in just a few years from now. Messina et al. (2004) reviewed studies showing a positive effect of soy product intake on bone health. Several studies looking at the role of soy isoflavones on bone mineral density have been conducted with peri- or...

Acid Blockers

Animal studies have demonstrated that cimetidine significantly decreases intestinal calcium transport.20 Cimetidine also alters vitamin D metabolism by altering the enzyme vitamin D 25-hydroxylase activity, suppressing the seasonal increase in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D rose significantly after withdrawal of the drug.21 A small study performed with the PPI omeprazole demonstrated that serum levels of beta-carotene were decreased with increased gastric pH.22 These findings raise the question of the long-term potential consequence for increased risk of osteoporosis, other vitamin D-linked disease states, such as various cancers and multiple sclerosis, and altered RNA and DNA production as a consequence of lowered B12 and folate.

Pharmacology

The effects of the compounds isolated from A. ilicifolius on the function of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were tested. Acteoside, isoacteoside, and (+)-lyoniresinol 3a-O-beta-glucopyranoside (30 microM) increased the growth and differentiation of osteoblasts significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that A. ilicifolius leaves may help prevent osteoporosis.

Medicinal uses

There is no denying that soybean has many health benefits. These benefits are mainly derived from the quality of the soybean proteins and from the isoflavones, genistein and daidzein. Soybean has been shown to be beneficial in conditions of lactose intolerance, high cholesterol, heart disease, cancer, menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis and diabetes. The isoflavone genistein seems to inhibit bone breakdown and may have similar effects to estrogens in maintaining bone tissue. Diets that are high in animal protein cause more calcium to be excreted in the urine. Replacing animal protein with soy protein may help to prevent calcium loss from the bones and reduce osteoporosis risk.