White/Yellow spots occurs on the stem and are caused by lichens. Brown spots caused by unknown pathogen have been recorded on pepper (Sarma et al. 1991). These diseases seldom occur and do not cause serious losses. No detailed information is available on them.
Black pepper is propagated vegetatively through cuttings. Three types of planting materials are used for propagation. In the first type orthotropic terminal shoots are taken from the plants during rainy season and planted directly in the field. In the second type, the runner shoots which are produced from the base of the vine during rainy season, are allowed to trail on the ground or are kept coiled around the base of plants and taken at the time of producing the cuttings. The third type, the cuttings are allowed to trail on 1.2 m long bamboo splits filled with potting mixture and arranged in an angle of 45°. As the vine grows, it is tied to the bamboo split to ensure contact with the potting mixture. Roots are produced at each node and when the cutting has grown to the length of the bamboo split, the plants are cut from the bottom leaving 23 nodes and cut into bits, each node with a leaf and roots,and planted in individual polythene bags (Sivaraman 1991). In the latter method cuttings are produced the year round and the conditions are favourable for the diseases to develop. Depending on the type of nursery the disease problems also vary.
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