Selection from Germplasm Panchami and Pournami

Panchami and Pournami are selections from germplasm. Two promising lines identified in the germplasm collections of the IISR were compared against two promising cultivars, Panniyur 1 and Karimunda and with introduced Kuching, the ruling cultivar in Malaysia. Of the two lines, one was a high yielding line from an elite mother vine of cv. Aimpiriyan, and the other was cv. Ottaplackal (named after the house of the farmer from where this was collected). The latter was found to be tolerant to root knot nematode—Meloidogyne incognita. The performance of these two cultivars was much superior to the prevailing varieties (Ravindran et al. 1992b, c).

Scheme 2.1 Flow chart of clonal selection programme in pepper.

Panchami and Pournami have good yield contributing characters (Nirmal Babu and Ravindran 1992). Panchami has medium long spikes (11.2 cm mean), high spiking intensity (77 spikes/100 nodes), high percentage of hermaphrodite flowers (91.5 %) and high fruit set (82 %). The spikes have the typical 5-rowed arrangement of fruits and the twisted nature of the spike as in the cv. Aimpiriyan. It is a late maturing type, fruits coming to harvesting about 8-9 months after flowering (Ravindran et al. 1992b). Pournami was selected based on its good yield potential and its tolerance to root knot nematodes. Studies showed that Pournami supported only a low population of nematodes both in roots and in soil around the plant. The root galling index was also lower (Ravindran et al. 1992c).

106 P.N.RAVINDRAN, K.NIRMAL BABU, B.SASIKUMAR and K.S.KRISHNAMURTHY Selection in OP Progenies

Pepper being heterozygous and propagated mainly through cuttings, segregation of characters can be expected in the open pollinated and selfed progenies. Because of the geitonogamous mode of pollination the open pollinated progenies are comparable to selfed offsprings. There is thus a fair chance to locate useful genotypes in open pollinated progenies. Comparative genetic variability with in open pollinated progenies of a few varieties of black pepper was reported by Ibrahim et al. (1986). From the studies carried out at Sarawak (Malaysia), Sim (1993) has identified five promising genotypes. They are the third generation open pollinated progenies from the cvs. Balancotta, Cheriakanikkadan and Kalluvally (all of them introduced from India). These five lines (14552-14556) were multiplied and tested in replicated trials. Of these, line 14556 was the most promising, having long, well set spikes, and was less susceptible to Phytophthora foot rot, and is also less susceptible to black berry disease caused by Colletotrichum than the cv. Kuching.

Selection in OP progenies was carried out at the Pepper Research Station, Panniyur (Kerala). Two cultivars Panniyur 2 and 5 were developed through selection in op progenies of cvs. Balankotta and Perumkodi respectively. Panniyur 2 has an average yield of 2570 kg/ha (dry) and Panniyur 5, 1098 kg/ha (dry). They have 35.7 per cent dry recovery. Panniyur 2 has 6.6 per cent piperine and 10.9 per cent oleoresin and 3.4 per cent oil, while Panniyur 5 has 5.5 per cent piperine, 12.3 per cent oleoresin and 3.8 per cent oil. Panniyur-2 and 5 have moderately good yield contributing characters such as medium long spike (12.3 and 13.1 cm), high bisexual flowers (97 and 96%), fruit set (74 and 87%), number of fruits/spike (74 and 103), fruit volume (120 and 104 cc/1000 fruits) and higher fruit weight (127 and 110 g/1000 fruits).

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