Endosperm

The endosperm is of the nucellar type. The endosperm nuclei divide and arrange themselves along the periphery of the embryosac (Fig. 2.19). Cell formation is

Figure 2.19 Development of endosperm. 1. Four nucleate endosperm. At one end is 2-celled proembryo and at the other end is seen the antipodal cells (x298); 2. Outline of the embryosac with 16 endosperm nuclei and the dividing antipodal cells (x57); 3. Magnified view of the chalazal part of the embryosac (x533); 4. Chalazal end of an embryosac with many antipodal cells (x533); 5. Whole mount of top-shaped endosperm (x35); 6. Diagram of l.s. of fruit at preglobular stage of embryo; 7. Chalazal portion of fig. 6, magnified to show cellular endosperm, crushed antipodal cells and the perisperm cells filled with starch grains (x342). emb—embryo, end—endosperm, anti—antipodals, peri—perisperm (After Kanta 1962).

Figure 2.19 Development of endosperm. 1. Four nucleate endosperm. At one end is 2-celled proembryo and at the other end is seen the antipodal cells (x298); 2. Outline of the embryosac with 16 endosperm nuclei and the dividing antipodal cells (x57); 3. Magnified view of the chalazal part of the embryosac (x533); 4. Chalazal end of an embryosac with many antipodal cells (x533); 5. Whole mount of top-shaped endosperm (x35); 6. Diagram of l.s. of fruit at preglobular stage of embryo; 7. Chalazal portion of fig. 6, magnified to show cellular endosperm, crushed antipodal cells and the perisperm cells filled with starch grains (x342). emb—embryo, end—endosperm, anti—antipodals, peri—perisperm (After Kanta 1962).

initiated near the periphery and proceeds towards the centre. The cells situated near the periphery are richly protoplasmic and those towards the centre are larger and highly vacuolated. Only a part of the endosperm is consumed by the developing embryo, the bulk of it persists in the mature seed (Kanta 1962).

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