In Indonesia, two kinds of standard are used, live and dead. Live standards are trees such as: dadap, Glyriddia, kapok, etc., while dead standards are made of hard timber poles, like iron wood, seram, seru, mendora etc. Experiments suggest that concrete poles give poor growth and productivity. Live standards are mainly used by small holders in Lampung while dead ones are widely used in Bangka, East Kalimantan and West Kalimantan. Now due to high price and the difficulty of getting good timber poles, live standards are being increasingly introduced in Bangka and West Kalimantan.
Under normal conditions, well rooted cuttings begin to grow after about 25 days, when shades may be reduced. The cutting with new shoots are to be tied around the standard in such a way that the young plant stands upward. Best string is made of plant materials such as leaf sheath of banana, fibre of jute, hemp, etc. However string made of plastic material can also be used but not advisable, mainly because such materials are commonly too tight and often affect vine or branch development of the plants. Proper management will help the plants to produce adhering roots and firm attachment to standard. The process of tying should continue, to make sure that all nodes are attached properly to the standard.
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