India

Black pepper is affected by several diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, virus and mycoplasma, besides nutritional disorders. Crop losses due to diseases and pests are identified as major causes of low productivity of pepper in India (Sarma and Anandaraj 1997). The earliest record of diseases of pepper in India was that of Barber (1903, 1905). Butler (1906) also recorded the death of pepper and Rao (1929) isolated Phytophthora from diseased pepper, but the etiology remained inconclusive. Ridley...

Pollen Morphology Germination and Pollination Biology

Piper spp. exhibit much uniformity in pollen morphology, except for the variation in size. Pollen grains are small, the diameter along the equatorial axis ranges from 8.018.0 m and along the polar axis, between 6.5-15.0 m. Grains are monosulcate, the sulcus extending upto the lateral extremities. Very rarely the grains are non aperturate or porate (Rahiman 1981). The sulcus is in the form of a narrow slit with thick borders all along the periphery. The exine surface is reticulate, the bronchi...

Intercultivar Hybridization

Considerable intercultivar variability exists in pepper for yield, quality and morphological features. This aspect coupled with viable sexual reproduction and vegetative multiplication have made hybrid breeding in black pepper very attractive. Genetic improvement through hybridization generally involves three main steps (1) Selection of parents (2) Production of progeny and (3) Selection of superior genotypes to be developed into clones (varieties). Hybridization work in pepper was started by...

Time of spiking and harvesting

Pepper flowering and harvesting depend on the climatic factors, the most important being rainfall. In most growing countries the flowering coincides with the major rainy season (monsoon) and the crop takes about 7-8 months to come to full maturity. The flowering and harvesting seasons of major growing countries are given below (Lawrence 1981). Table 4.1.A3 Spiking and harvesting seasons* Country Spiking time Harvesting time Table 4.1.A3 Spiking and harvesting seasons* Country Spiking time...

Pruning ofPepper

Pruning is a regular practice in most pepper growing countries though in India there is no such practice. Pruning is reported to be essential to shape the plants and to stimulate development of axillary shoots. Trials have been carried out in Sarawak, to test the efficiency of different pruning methods. Three methods of pruning are in vogue in Malaysia (Anon. 1981). When the vines are six months old (having approximately nine nodes), the shoots are pruned back to approximately 30 cm (3-4 nodes)...

Seed Germination

Pepper seed is recalcitrant and viability is retained only for about a week. Storing at 5 C after removing the seed coat prolongs viability. If sown within a few days after harvesting, ripe seeds germinate easily in 20-25 days. Ghawas and Maaraf (1983) showed that seeds stored in poly bags, at 4 C and 42 per cent RH retained viability for 40 days. Removal of pericarp enhanced germination. Keeping seeds in shade for three days after harvest was reported to be beneficial (Ibrahim et al. 1993)....

Climatic Requirements

Pepper is grown in the humid tropics, its cultivation confined to the tropical zones of the Asia Pacific Region mainly India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam. Outside of the Asia Pacific region, this is grown in Brazil and Madagascar. Even in tropics, the cultivation is concentrated in tracts having hot, humid climate. The characteristic climatic requirements for pepper are high rainfall, uniform temperature, high relative humidity which is typical of the hot and humid...

Normal and Aerial Root Anatomy

Pepper plants possess adventitious root system as they are developed from stem cuttings. Even when plants are grown from seeds, the primary root (tap root) ceases to Figure 2.9 L.S. of an orthotropic shoot tip showing dome shaped meristem, leaf initials, central mucilage canal and numerous pearl glands, m meristem, mu mucilage canal pg pearl glands, If leaf initials. Figure 2.9 L.S. of an orthotropic shoot tip showing dome shaped meristem, leaf initials, central mucilage canal and numerous...

Slow Decline of Pepper

Slow decline disease of pepper is a debilitating disease, where the affected plants survive for several years and death of plants occur gradually over a period of 3-4 years. This disease was earlier referred to as slow wilt (Nambiar, 1978, Nambiar and Sarma 1977, Sarma and Nambiar 1982) as slow decline in Malaysia (Kueh and Sim 1992c, Varughese and Anuar 1992) and Yellow disease (De Waard 1979, Zaragoza et al. 1991) or Yellows disease in Indonesia (Sitepu and Kasim 1991). Studies on the...

Stem Anatomy

Piper Argyrophyllum Anatomy

The dimorphic branches of pepper exhibit minor variations in their anatomical features, though the basic structure remains the same in both. The orthotropic stem Table 2.6 Spike (female) characters of Piper spp. closely related to pepper. Table 2.6 Spike (female) characters of Piper spp. closely related to pepper. Figure 2.6 T.S. of leaf petiole showing the central mucilage canal (mu) and the vascular bundles. Figure 2.6 T.S. of leaf petiole showing the central mucilage canal (mu) and the...

Production of Synthetic Seeds

Production of artificial seeds or synthetic seeds, consisting of somatic embryos or shoot buds enclosed in a biodegradable protective coating can be an ideal system for low cost plant movement, propagation, conservation and exchange of germplasm. Since it is important to produce disease free plantlets, encapsulation of disease free buds utilising tissue culture technique serves as an easy and safe delivery system. Pepper shoot buds of 0.5 cm were used for production of synthetic seeds and could...

Plantation Management

As almost all pepper plantings are undertaken by small holders, so the sizes of holdings are relatively small ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 ha. The average size is about 0.65 ha. In general the economic condition of the family is low, except for small number of holders and in certain periods of good prices and good harvest. There are two types of pepper plantings applied by small holders in Indonesia (1) extensive cultivation in Lampung and (2) fairly intensive one in Bangka, South Sumatra. In...

Bush Pepper

Bush pepper is a welcome alternative to the climbing pepper as it has potential for cultivation in homestead situations. The plagiotropic lateral fruiting branches of pepper exhibit sympodial growth and these branches when rooted and planted grow into a bush (Fig. 4.1.11). These bushes produce more fruiting branches and start flowering from the first year itself. The Table 4.1.16 Nutrient DRIS norms for pepper. Table 4.1.16 Nutrient DRIS norms for pepper. Figure 4.1.11 Bush pepper developed...

Mineral Nutrition

Black Pepper Cultivation

The nutritional requirements of pepper are to be considered in the light of agroecological conditions, soil nutrient status and incidence of diseases that affect yield to a great extent. In Kerala, India, pepper is grown predominantly as an intercrop in laterite soils, generally poor in fertility and nutrient retention capacity. The clay is of kaolinitic in nature. Forest loam is found in Western Ghats which are shallow in depth, well-drained and having high organic matter. These are low to...

Other Constituents of Black Pepper

Starch is a predominant constituent of black pepper ranging from 35-40 per cent of its weight. There are no reports on the characterisation of the nature of starch present in pepper. The protein of pepper has not been investigated in any detail because pepper is used in only small amounts to flavour foods and hence not expected to contribute to nutritive value. Pepper contains fat ranging from 1.9-9.0 per cent. Bedi et al. (1971) and Salzer (1975) have determined the fatty acid composition. The...

Fertilizer Recommendations

The Brazilian Government (IPEAN 1966) has developed fertilizer recommendation based on the following scheme. Equations have been developed for predicting the changes in soil nutrient levels per kilogram of fertilizer active ingredient applied. But in general practice, the growers apply 200 to 300 g NPK (12 12 17) mixture, 500 g of lime and 300 g thermophosphate per plant per year. Organics used are castor, cotton and carapnut cakes, 1-2 kg per plant or poultry waste 1-2 kg or cattle manure...

Nutrition of Nursery Plants

History Black Pepper Plantation

The exact requirement of the nutrients for proper growth and development of pepper plants in nursery has not been worked out. Studies on nutrients removed Table 4.1.3 showed that rooted pepper plants of about three months with four to five leaves removed 64.8, 3.3, 54.8, 24.5, 11.2, 8.1 mg of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S respectively. Among the major nutrients studied, consumption of N was highest followed by K and Ca. The micro nutrients utilized were 0.978, 0.191, 0.128 and 0.451 mg of Fe, Mn, Zn...

Recent History

The post second world war history of pepper is just a continuation. India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brazil are the major producers and exporters of pepper, but this again is a history chequered by many ups and downs. Pepper cultivation has also spread to Vietnam, China, Pacific Islands, Caribbean Islands, etc. It has become a commercial crop in Vietnam, Thailand and China. Currently pepper is grown as a commercial crop in an area of 404,000 ha, producing around 180,000 m. tons of pepper...

Propagation of Pepper

Many experiments have been carried out in pepper growing countries for developing a successful method of propagation from stem cuttings. Some of the additional information are presented here. Single node stem cuttings with the attached leaf quick dipped in IBA at a concentration of 2 mg ml in 50 per cent alcohol gave 75 per cent rooting in 21 days in a standard cocoa propagator with coir dust as the medium Copper 1955 . Traditional Indian method of using semi hardwood cuttings with 3-4 nodes...

Cultural Practices

As a pepper plant grows it should be tied to the standard as often as required so that the stem gets firmly attached to the support. The young plant should be protected from hot sun during summer months by artificial shade. Pruning the terminal portion of the plant can also be practiced to encourage the development of lateral shoots and hence the higher production of spikes. Kurien and Nair 1988 showed that pruning of terminal shoot increased the number of spikes produced and the number of...

Rooted Cuttings Production

The annual requirements of pepper planting material is very large in India, running to millions. Such heavy demands led to large scale production of pre-rooted cuttings in polybags. Many studies have been carried out in various pepper growing countries for developing an efficient propagation technique for pepper. Such a technique is required for large scale production of the new breeding lines also. When the large scale production of pepper cuttings started in India in Kerala , three node...

Multiple Cropping

Areca Nut And Pepper

Multiple cropping in pepper garden is an age-old practice followed in India. Multiple cropping is a system in which two or more crops are grown in the same field in a year, at the same time, or one after the other, or a combination of both. The average size of holdings, in majority of the pepper growing countries, is not adequate enough to sustain an average family. The pepper crop is very much prone to the vagaries of monsoon, incidence of pests and diseases, drought etc. The price fluctuation...

Disease Management in Nurseries

Pepper being a perennial crop, producing disease free planting material is the first step in disease management. P. capsici, which occurs on all parts of pepper and infect all stages of the plants, calls for greater precaution to prevent the introduction of the fungus to newer areas. The disease management strategy includes collection of disease free planting material, disinfection of nursery mixture and an integrated control measures Sarma et al. 1988a, 1988b, Anandaraj and Sarma 1995 . Runner...

Grafting

Graft Union

An effective method to prevent foot rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is grafting pepper on a resistant root stock such as Piper colubrinum Link. Studies on grafting was carried out mainly at Sarawak in Malaysia. Recently some studies are being carried out in India also. One of the earliest studies in this field was that of Albuquerque 1969 in Brazil. He found that among the various Piper spp. resistant to Phytophthora only P. colubrinum showed success in grafting and is reported to be upto 95...

Estimation of Piperine

The alkaloid piperine is generally accepted as the active bite component in black pepper. The homologues and analogues of piperine are minor or trace compounds and their contribution to pungency is small. Despite the controversey over the nature of pungent compounds in pepper, piperine content has been taken as a measure of the total pungency. Methods for estimation of piperine may well be explained on the basis of its structural characteristics. i Total nitrogen estimated by Kjeldahl's method,...

Chemical Control

Nematicides are chemicals used to kill or stall the activity of nematodes and consist of two groups, soil fumigants and systemic nematicides. Most of the nematicides are applied to soil and are translocated from roots to shoots. Use of nematicides was a major component in the management programmes of plant parasitic nematodes in several crops before the importance of the biological control was realized. However, high cost and environmental hazards due to their indiscriminate use are limiting...