Modern History

The modern chapter in the colourful history of pepper begins with the advent of Portuguese on the scene, with the landing of the Portuguese sailor Vasco de Gama at Kappad beach near Kozhikode (Calicut) on May 20, 1498. This event, indeed, was also the beginning of the colonial era. The arrival of Gama in Kozhikode sealed the fate of Arab trade in Indian spices once and for all. Gama and his men returned to Portugal immensely rich. This financial lure led Dom Mannuel, the Portuguese King, to...

Cultivation

Holdings should be kept clean by continuous, regular and proper cultivation. Excessive weeds and other foreign materials in the holdings can affect the growth of main crops, besides that, badly cultivated holdings are congenial for development of certain insect pests and plant pathogens. Normally, the bigger the plants the slower the weed growth. Pepper is susceptible to excess water and water logging may easily occur in an uncultivated garden. To maintain good condition and good rooting for...

Conversion of Aerial Roots to Normal Roots

Ravindran and Remashree (1998) studied in detail the structure of aerial roots and the changes occurring during its conversion to normal roots in Piper colubrinum, a South American species, resistant to most diseases and insect pests. This species produces aerial prop roots from the lower nodes. The aerial root is externally bound by the epidermis with a thick cuticle over it. A hypodermis of 2-3 layers followed by sclerenchymatous patches are present. The cortex consists of 20-25 layers of...

Stem Anatomy

Piper Argyrophyllum Anatomy

The dimorphic branches of pepper exhibit minor variations in their anatomical features, though the basic structure remains the same in both. The orthotropic stem Table 2.6 Spike (female) characters of Piper spp. closely related to pepper. Table 2.6 Spike (female) characters of Piper spp. closely related to pepper. Figure 2.6 T.S. of leaf petiole showing the central mucilage canal (mu) and the vascular bundles. Figure 2.6 T.S. of leaf petiole showing the central mucilage canal (mu) and the...

Production of Synthetic Seeds

Production of artificial seeds or synthetic seeds, consisting of somatic embryos or shoot buds enclosed in a biodegradable protective coating can be an ideal system for low cost plant movement, propagation, conservation and exchange of germplasm. Since it is important to produce disease free plantlets, encapsulation of disease free buds utilising tissue culture technique serves as an easy and safe delivery system. Pepper shoot buds of 0.5 cm were used for production of synthetic seeds and could...

Plantation Management

As almost all pepper plantings are undertaken by small holders, so the sizes of holdings are relatively small ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 ha. The average size is about 0.65 ha. In general the economic condition of the family is low, except for small number of holders and in certain periods of good prices and good harvest. There are two types of pepper plantings applied by small holders in Indonesia (1) extensive cultivation in Lampung and (2) fairly intensive one in Bangka, South Sumatra. In...

Bush Pepper

Bush pepper is a welcome alternative to the climbing pepper as it has potential for cultivation in homestead situations. The plagiotropic lateral fruiting branches of pepper exhibit sympodial growth and these branches when rooted and planted grow into a bush (Fig. 4.1.11). These bushes produce more fruiting branches and start flowering from the first year itself. The Table 4.1.16 Nutrient DRIS norms for pepper. Table 4.1.16 Nutrient DRIS norms for pepper. Figure 4.1.11 Bush pepper developed...

Mineral Nutrition

The nutritional requirements of pepper are to be considered in the light of agroecological conditions, soil nutrient status and incidence of diseases that affect yield to a great extent. In Kerala, India, pepper is grown predominantly as an intercrop in laterite soils, generally poor in fertility and nutrient retention capacity. The clay is of kaolinitic in nature. Forest loam is found in Western Ghats which are shallow in depth, well-drained and having high organic matter. These are low to...

Other Constituents of Black Pepper

Starch is a predominant constituent of black pepper ranging from 35-40 per cent of its weight. There are no reports on the characterisation of the nature of starch present in pepper. The protein of pepper has not been investigated in any detail because pepper is used in only small amounts to flavour foods and hence not expected to contribute to nutritive value. Pepper contains fat ranging from 1.9-9.0 per cent. Bedi et al. (1971) and Salzer (1975) have determined the fatty acid composition. The...

Fertilizer Recommendations

The Brazilian Government (IPEAN 1966) has developed fertilizer recommendation based on the following scheme. Equations have been developed for predicting the changes in soil nutrient levels per kilogram of fertilizer active ingredient applied. But in general practice, the growers apply 200 to 300 g NPK (12 12 17) mixture, 500 g of lime and 300 g thermophosphate per plant per year. Organics used are castor, cotton and carapnut cakes, 1-2 kg per plant or poultry waste 1-2 kg or cattle manure...

Nutrition of Nursery Plants

History Black Pepper Plantation

The exact requirement of the nutrients for proper growth and development of pepper plants in nursery has not been worked out. Studies on nutrients removed Table 4.1.3 showed that rooted pepper plants of about three months with four to five leaves removed 64.8, 3.3, 54.8, 24.5, 11.2, 8.1 mg of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S respectively. Among the major nutrients studied, consumption of N was highest followed by K and Ca. The micro nutrients utilized were 0.978, 0.191, 0.128 and 0.451 mg of Fe, Mn, Zn...

Recent History

The post second world war history of pepper is just a continuation. India, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brazil are the major producers and exporters of pepper, but this again is a history chequered by many ups and downs. Pepper cultivation has also spread to Vietnam, China, Pacific Islands, Caribbean Islands, etc. It has become a commercial crop in Vietnam, Thailand and China. Currently pepper is grown as a commercial crop in an area of 404,000 ha, producing around 180,000 m. tons of pepper...

Cultural Practices

As a pepper plant grows it should be tied to the standard as often as required so that the stem gets firmly attached to the support. The young plant should be protected from hot sun during summer months by artificial shade. Pruning the terminal portion of the plant can also be practiced to encourage the development of lateral shoots and hence the higher production of spikes. Kurien and Nair 1988 showed that pruning of terminal shoot increased the number of spikes produced and the number of...

Rooted Cuttings Production

The annual requirements of pepper planting material is very large in India, running to millions. Such heavy demands led to large scale production of pre-rooted cuttings in polybags. Many studies have been carried out in various pepper growing countries for developing an efficient propagation technique for pepper. Such a technique is required for large scale production of the new breeding lines also. When the large scale production of pepper cuttings started in India in Kerala , three node...

Multiple Cropping

Areca Nut And Pepper

Multiple cropping in pepper garden is an age-old practice followed in India. Multiple cropping is a system in which two or more crops are grown in the same field in a year, at the same time, or one after the other, or a combination of both. The average size of holdings, in majority of the pepper growing countries, is not adequate enough to sustain an average family. The pepper crop is very much prone to the vagaries of monsoon, incidence of pests and diseases, drought etc. The price fluctuation...

Disease Management in Nurseries

Pepper being a perennial crop, producing disease free planting material is the first step in disease management. P. capsici, which occurs on all parts of pepper and infect all stages of the plants, calls for greater precaution to prevent the introduction of the fungus to newer areas. The disease management strategy includes collection of disease free planting material, disinfection of nursery mixture and an integrated control measures Sarma et al. 1988a, 1988b, Anandaraj and Sarma 1995 . Runner...

Standards or Supports

In India, pepper is trailed on a variety of trees. For large scale planting, dadap Erythrina indica, E. lithosperma , Garuga pinnata, Grevillia robusta silky oak, but wrongly called as silver oak, the latter is Grevillia parallela a small slender tree of north Australia are used. Glyricidia is not very popular. Ailanthus and Pajanalia rheedii are two other common standards. When grown as an intercrop, pepper is trailed on arecanut and coconut. In the Dakshina Kannada, Uttara Kannada and Shimoga...

Grafting

An effective method to prevent foot rot caused by Phytophthora capsici is grafting pepper on a resistant root stock such as Piper colubrinum Link. Studies on grafting was carried out mainly at Sarawak in Malaysia. Recently some studies are being carried out in India also. One of the earliest studies in this field was that of Albuquerque 1969 in Brazil. He found that among the various Piper spp. resistant to Phytophthora only P. colubrinum showed success in grafting and is reported to be upto 95...

India

Nematode Damage Black Pepper Vines

Black pepper is cultivated as a monocrop in most of the pepper growing countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Brazil etc. while in Kerala, India, it is mostly grown as a mixed crop in homesteads, trailed either on arecanut or coconut palms or other trees, or as a companion crop in coffee or cocoa plantations. Crops like banana, elephant foot yam, colocasia, ginger, turmeric and a variety of vegetables are also grown along with pepper in homestead gardens in India. Such crop combinations play an...

Chemical Control

Nematicides are chemicals used to kill or stall the activity of nematodes and consist of two groups, soil fumigants and systemic nematicides. Most of the nematicides are applied to soil and are translocated from roots to shoots. Use of nematicides was a major component in the management programmes of plant parasitic nematodes in several crops before the importance of the biological control was realized. However, high cost and environmental hazards due to their indiscriminate use are limiting...

Cultural Methods

Nematode management through cultural methods are generally less expensive, but have to be modified and adopted depending on the situation. They are primarily preventive and aim at suppressing the nematode population by providing favourable conditions for the growth of the plants and associated rhizosphere microorganisms antagonistic to pathogens. Crop rotation, mulching with organics, soil amendments, flooding, fallowing, phytosanitation, planting nematode free plants are some of the cultural...