Plant CAZymes the quest for function

Plant enzymes have always been included in CAZy and the underlying classifications. Plant biology entered the genomic era in 2000 with the landmark completion of the genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis Genome Initiative 2000). The availability of this genome led to a gradual shift from independent 'classical' small-scale studies yielding protein and CAZyme characterization on a number of plants to a more systematic comparison of multiple organisms to Arabidopsis. In...

Structures and distribution of pDglucans synthesized by GT2 and GT48 enzymes

Structures Enzymatiques

The (1,4)- -d-glucans (cellulose), (1,3)- -d-glucans and (1,3 1,4)- -d-glucans are all polysaccharides that are composed predominantly of -linked gluco-syl residues and, in plants, are generally linear polysaccharides with few or no branches or main chain substitutions. Despite these similarities, the different linkage configurations between the P-glucosyl residues have dramatic effects on the final conformations and hence biological functions of the three polysaccharides (Fig. 5.2). While the...

Oligosaccharide synthesis basic principles and key features

The lack of a glycan equivalent to site-directed mutagenesis with which to 'dial up' required sequences leaves chemical and enzymatic synthesis as the primary routes to obtaining specific glycan structures. Although enzymatic synthesis shows great promise, the rather modest range of enzymes currently available limits its impact. Mirroring Merrifield's classic work on solid-phase peptide synthesis in the 1960s Merrifield 1963 , the recent development of an equivalent for oligosaccharide...

Identification of the functions of other GT2 enzymes from plants

Following the identification of the CesA gene family as the source of cellulose synthase enzymes, bioinformatic analyses of the CesA genes, EST databases and in the genome sequences of Arabidopsis and rice revealed that the CesA genes were in fact a subgroup within a larger, cellulose synthase gene super-family Richmond amp Somerville 2000 Fig. 5.4 . The other eight subgroups were referred to as cellulose synthase-like Csl genes and were assumed to encode polysaccharide synthases that mediated...