Control Measures

One of the major aspects of plant pathology is to enhance crop production by introducing genetically improved (high-yielding, less susceptible to pathogens) cultivars, enhanced soil fertility via chemical fertilisation, pest control via synthetic pesticides, and irrigation. Besides physical control methods e.g. mowing, slashing, burning, flooding, hand removal, physical barriers (i.e. netting, fences), use of pesticides is very common method for controlling various phytopathogens. The use of synthetic pesticides in the US began in the 1930s and became widespread after World War II. By 1950, pesticide was found to increase farm yield far beyond pre-World War II levels. Farmers depend heavily on synthetic pesticides to control insects in their crops. There are many classes of synthetic pesticides. The main classes consist of organochlorines (e.g., Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane: DDT, toxaphene, dieldrin, aldrin), organophosphates (e.g., diazinon, glyphosate, malathion), carbamates (e.g., carbofuran, aldicarb, carbaryl), and pyrethroids (e.g., fenpropanthrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin). The use of synthetic pesticides in agriculture comes with a cost for the environment, and the health of animals and humans. Exposure to pesticides can cause acute or chronic effects on animals and humans, especially in the reproductive, endocrine, and central nervous systems. So in 1996, US Environment protection agency (EPA) applied Food Quality Protection Act [108] which regularizes the pesticide registration procedures. Therefore, the need for discovery and development of some natural product-based pesticides gain momentum. Organic pesticides like rotenone obtained from Derris root and pyrethrum obtained from Chrysanthemum flower heads were discovered in nineteenth century at the time of European Agriculture revolution. Such organic pesticides are the chemicals that plants use to protect themselves from parasites and pathogens. Essential oils such as pine oil, clove oil, citronella oil are commercialized in various compositions and have herbi-cidal activity [109]. Inorganic pesticides like borates, silicates and sulphur, work as poisons by physically interfering with the pests. Current inorganic pesticides are relatively low in toxicity and have low environmental impact. Borate insecticides, for example Bora Care and Timbor, in particular, have many uses in structural pest management. Biorational pesticides are those synthetic, organic, or inorganic pesticides that are both, low toxic and exhibit a very low impact on the environment [110]. These are some direct methods of controlling pathogens by applying chemicals, besides this biological and genetic control methods are some of the methods which are being dynamically used since last decades. Both methods are described here in brief.

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