Criteria for Early Selection of Resistant Grape Cultivars to Downy and Powdery Mildew

Grapevine breeding is one of the most promising methods to preserve genetic diversity, but it also allows the selection of specific genetic traits, such as resistance to pathogens. Each cross produces a large number of germplasms (collection of genetic resources), and a rapid way to estimate the downy mildew resistance level is absolutely necessary to avoid long and tedious field observations. For this purpose, artificial inoculations of seedlings with P. viticola sporangia or the conidia of E....

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Nematophagous Fungi

The teleomorphs of most nematode-trapping species are located within Orbilia, and their type of trapping apparatus arranged their taxonomic position 52 . These fungi were also classified according to their genetic data as follows Arthrobotrys adhesive three-dimensional networks , Dactylellina stalked adhesive knobs and or non-constricting rings , Drechslerella constricting rings and Gamsylella adhesive branches and unstalked knobs 53 . Our knowledge about growth and development of trapping...

Endoparasitic Fungi 4221 Introduction

Most of these fungi are obligate parasites and poor saprotrophic competitors in soil, but usually have a broad nematode host range. These obligate parasites live their whole vegetative life cycle inside their infected hosts 11, 16 . Endoparasitic fungi infect vermiform plant-parasitic nematodes using their spores conidia or zoospores . The spores can be ingested by the nematode which germinate in the intestines mostly the esophagus or mastax , or adhere firmly on the nematode cuticle when the...

Egg and Female Parasitic Fungi 4231 Introduction

Paecilomyces Lilacinus

In contrast with the numerous migrating nematodes, some plant-pathogenic nematodes spend the majority of their life cycle inside plant roots or on their surface in cysts and or in root knots. These sedentary stages persist in the soil and serve as a selective substratum for fungal colonization by egg parasites. Many opportunistic soil fungi have been isolated from the eggs, cysts and sedentary females that lay their eggs in gelatinous matrices, such as Meloidogyne spp. and Tylenchulus...