Know Your Healthy Berries
Acai, Maqui And Many Other Popular Berries That Will Change Your Life And Health. Berries have been demonstrated to be some of the healthiest foods on the planet. Each month or so it seems fresh research is being brought out and new berries are being exposed and analyzed for their health giving attributes.
The Brazilian pepper is a shrub or small tree that is native to Brazil but has been widely planted in southern Florida, its genus name derives from the Greek word for the mastic tree and its specific epithet, terebinthifolius t refers to the turpentine odor of its foliage. It is an attractive plant for ornamental purposes and produces its bright red berries most spectacularly near the Christmas season. It was officially introduced to Florida by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1848 and was propagated and distributed widely, Since then, the Brazilian pepper has taken well to the southern and south-central peninsula where it forms nearly impenetrable thickets and has become a troublesome weed that threatens the state's native tlora and fauna. Although the plant is a threat to all of south Florida s plant communities, it is particularly detrimental to the flalwoods, hammocks, and landward edge of the mangrove fringe. The fruit is relished by mockingbirds, robins, and cedar...
Expression of VvADHl and VvADH2 was also examined in developing seedless berries from 2 to 16 weeks post-flowering (WPF), and in skin and flesh of berries at various developmental stages (Fig. 3). Transcripts of VvADHl accumulate predominantly during stage I of berry development in Cabernet Sau-vignon, with a maximum observed 4 WPF, and with a significant lower level thereafter. On the contrary, VvADH2 transcript levels were relatively high in ripening berries even if transcripts were also observed in young berries. For both isogenes, the levels of transcript accumulation were higher in the berry than in other organs, and transcript levels in berry skin and flesh were similar. Although both tissues result from very different developmental processes and have strong metabolic and functional differences, it is interesting to notice that no effect at the transcript expression level could be observed. From these data, it is clear that except for tendrils at stage 4 for VvADHl, both VvADHs...
These plants are similar to the closely related blueberries 111 lacking true end buds and in having small, short-stalked leaves that are mostly elliptic. Also, the twigs are slender, often green or red, and the flowers are small and mostly whitish. 1 he fruits (10 to many seeds) are small blue to black berries (red in 1 species), generally in lengthened clusters, and usually edible. None 280 V. HUCKLEBERRIES. BILBERRIES, ETC. of these species, however, have twigs densely covered with fine warty speckles as in the true blueberries p. 277).
The Ulmaceae is a worldwide family of 15 genera and upwards to about 200 species. The family is composed mostly of temperate tree species and encompasses four genera in the I nited States, all of which are represented in Florida. These genera include Ulmus t or the true elms Celt is. which is made up of the hack berries or sugar-berries Planer a, a monotypic genus that occurs only in the southeastern United States and Trema, one of the family's few tropical genera and the only U.S, member of the family confined strictly to southern Florida,
Its appearance is similar to that of the one-seed juniper, and the two are hard to tell apart. If the berries are handy to compare, those of the Utah juniper are marble size, reddish brown or bluish with a powdery coating (p. 96) and mealy and fibrous those of the one-seed juniper are pea size, copper colored or blue and succulent when fresh. The one-seed juniper almost always has several branches arising from the ground, whereas the Utah juniper has a definite trunk. The Hopi Indians use the Utah juniper for medicine and ceremonial purposes and the berries for beads. The Navajo Indians use the wood for hogans, firewood and fenceposts, and the shreddy bark for bedding.
The berries are copper color (rarely bluish), succulent and unappetizing, but can be eaten if need be (the Indians ate them ). The berry is usually one seeded, but occasionally two seeded. The Spanish name for the berry is nebrina. The Navajo made use of its bark (garments, blankets, sandals), wood (firewood, fenceposts, hogans), twigs (prayersticks, stirrers), seeds (necklaces, anklets, wristlets), medicine (cure for flu ), gum (chewing gum) and bark and berries (green dye). Its shreddy bark makes an excellent kindling for starting campfires.
In urban forests walking tends to be the most common recreational activity. Other common activities are cycling, jogging, picnicking as well as picking berries and mushrooms (Fig. 1). However, there exist clear differences between European countries. Cycling within forests is not that common in Italy. Picking berries and mushrooms is relatively infrequent in Dutch and Danish forests, while cross-country skiing in winter is very common in Finland, Sweden and Norway. These differences are related to the recreation possibilities that the nearest forests in one's environment offer, in combination with the forests' proximity. Using a forest environment for daily physical exercise takes place only if such an environment is available nearby (Tyrvainen 2001 De Vries and Goossen 2002).
The consumptive use values of forests include values of market-priced products such as timber, game, berries and mushrooms. Timber is traditionally seen as the most important market-priced product of forests in many rural areas across Europe. However, the values of timber production and of picking mushrooms and berries in urban forests are lower than in rural areas. This is because the environmental conditions for growth are limited due to pollution, fragmentation of forests and trampling effects. In addition, the net revenues from timber are usually fairly small if any, because management of areas is relatively expensive due to small-scale management practices. Moreover, the market price of berries and mushrooms reflects their true value only partially, as the recreational value of their picking is excluded. The value of game is also unimportant as hunting is often not allowed in urban areas.
Birds, coyotes, foxes, and javelina relish the small, orange berries, which ripen throughout the summer and fall. By feeding on the fruits, these animals help disperse the seeds. Caterpillars of hackberry and snout butterflies (Aster-ocampa leilia and Libytheana bachmanii larvata) eat the foliage, as do deer. The dense shrubs also provide cover for quail and nesting sites for white winged doves.
Cause Blueberry maggots. If you find , white maggots inside berries, you've discovered the larvae of the blueberry maggot fly. This insect, closely related to the apple maggot fly, deposits eggs just under the skin of the fruit from late June to August. Eggs hatch into fruit-devouring maggots that later drop to the soil and pupate over the winter. To reduce the number of maggots that pupate in the soil through the next winter, harvest frequently and destroy any infested berries you find. Another control is to trap adult flies on sticky red spheres like the ones used to trap apple maggot flies. Hang 1 trap per highbush plant or 1 per several lowbush plants before the first berries turn blue. For information on making these maggot fly traps, see Fruit dimpled brown tunnels through flesh on page 22. Berries shriveled and webbed together with silk. Causes Cherry fruitworms cranberry fruitworms. Berries will contain sawdustlike material and either a white...
New leaves with black centers growing tips wilted. Cause Mummy berry. This fungal disease spreads most easily in cold, wet spring weather. Fbr more information, see Berries drop early mature berries turn gray, shriveled, and hard on page 45. Cane dieback. Causes Blueberry cane canker Fusicoccum canker. Blueberry cane canker, most prevalent in the South, shows up as reddish, conical stem swellings. The next year these swellings become blisterlike, light gray, and then black and fissured. If this disease is a problem in your area, plant rabbiteye blueberries, which are not susceptible to cane canker. Or plant highbush cultivars resistant to cane canker, including 'Atlantic' and 'Jersey'.
The soft, bluish berries are actually cones, since juniper is a conifer, like pine or spruce. Birds relish the cones and no doubt disperse the seeds from place to place. The wood makes a fragrant campfire that burns quite hot. It has been used for fenceposts and corrals.
Branches may also be specialized for propagation and for reproduction rather than photosynthetic activity. Herbaceous plants such as strawberries have a main stem with only a few branches. Each branch extends far from the parent plant but finally touches the ground to establish a new plant. The new plant becomes independent of the parent and the linking stem can be severed with no harm to the new plant. These branches are called runners or stolons. Runners do not change the form of the parent plant, but instead duplicate the entire plant at a nearby location. The length of the runner prevents both plants from competing for the same resources, and the strategy is an effective means of vegetative propagation.
One of the most useful small shrubs of our area and used by man throughout the Southwest, accounting for its numerous popular names. Livestock, birds and other animals make use of it for food, (berries, browse) and other purposes (retreats, roosts). The berries were also boiled to just the right consistency and spread on rocks to dry in the sun, after which they were stored for fiJture use, usually to be reconstituted into soup or sauce, but occasionally they Were nibbled on in the dry state.
Low yielding cultivars had large canopy surface area and accumulated 80 per cent of dry matter in laterals, whereas high yielding cultivars accumulated only 50 per cent of dry matter in laterals. Dry matter distribution in fruits is low in low yielding cultivars and high in the high yielding cultivar Panniyur-1 (Mathai and Nair 1990). Panniyur-1 has more laterals, spikes and berries, has higher mean berry weight, higher rate of photosynthesis and translocation and also higher yield compared to four other cultivars (Mathai 1986). The efficient dry matter partitioning capacity of high yielding cultivars was strongly influenced by their total biomass production. For high economic yield biomass production of laterals should be high.
Tween these two phases there is a relatively short lag phase during which the berry weight and volume remains constant. Veraison is characterised by berry softening and colour changes, and berries undergo major changes in chemical composition, rapid increase sugars accumulation and organic acid depletion (Coombe 1992). The conduction of sap within the fruit is via the phloem and xylem networks, in a double vascular system, central and peripheral. The fruit is connected to the bunch by a pedicel.
In addition to the production of wood, the production function of plantations also extends to other plant products and animals that may be harvested for human consumption. Forest products that are not related to timber have been important to human beings since the hunting and gathering age. The importance of non-wood forest products (NWFPs) for the livelihood systems of people all over the world, in developing as well as industrialized countries, has been clearly pointed out in the literature (Wickens, 1991 SCBD, 2001 Chamberlain et al, 2002 Ticktin, 2004 Kaushal and Melkani, 2005 Emery et al, 2006). Here, the term non-wood forest products (NWFPs) will be used for all the biological material (other than wood products) that can be utilized within the household, be marketed or have social, cultural or religious significance (Wickens, 1994). Typically this includes nuts, fruits, berries, mushrooms, herbs, bark, resin, rubber, etc. This definition does not include forage, which sustains...
Potassium is the principal cation accumulated by the berry during the entire growth period (pre- and post-veraison) (Conradie 1981, Possner and Kliewer 1985, Doneche and Chardonnet 1992, Schaller et al. 1992, Creasy et al. 1993, Boselli et al. 1995) with a sharp increase at the onset of ripening (Ollat and Gaudillere 1996, Rogiers et al. 2001, 2006a,b) also, the accumulation of K+ in the berry seems to be linked to the accumulation of fruit dry matter and flesh weight in relation to plant water status (Fig. 3a). K+ is the principal osmotically active cation in the berry's phloem and would appear to contribute to the flow of phloem sap (loading of soluble sugars), thus helping to establish an osmotic gradient between the leaves (source) and the berries (sink) (Very and Sentenac 2003).
The strongest berry compartment sinks for the phloem-mobile nutrients varied for each element. In Grenache noir berries, Mg++ accumulation at veraison was identical in the flesh and the seeds. During ripening, Mg++ accumulation in the flesh was much higher than in the skin and seeds (Fig. 4c1, c2, c3). The flesh is always richer in Mg++ than the skin, which concurs with the results of Doneche and Chardonnet (1992) and Rogiers et al. (2006b). On the other hand, seeds essentially stopped accumulating Mg++ at veraison, leading to drastically reduced levels during ripening. This suggests that, in Grenache noir berries, the seeds became isolated in some way after veraison with regard to Mg++ accumulation. This isolation, however, appeared to be limited to the seeds, since the flesh and skin continued to accumulate most of the Mg++ after this time. The quantity of this element increased during ripening but at different rates depending on the response of berry to vine water deficit rather...
Taxonomy The waxy berries resemble the porcelain eyes once used in dolls, hence the common name doll's eyes. Ecology This plant catches your eye both in spring when feathery clusters of white flowers are present and in late summer and fall when colorful white berries appear on stout red stalks. The numerous stamens give the apetalous flowers a distinctly feathery appearance. Doll's eyes flowers lack nectar but have a citrus-like odor that attracts pollen-collecting bees, syrphid flies, and beetles that function as pollinators when they inadvertently brush pollen onto receptive stigmas while foraging. The European snout beetle uses the flowers as a mating site (rather than as a food source), and as it scrambles over the flowers, pollination occurs. The opportunity for cross-pollination is enhanced by the stigmas being receptive for several days before the anthers release pollen.
This juniper is very similar to both Utah and one-seed junipers, but its needles are smaller, it grows more upright (p. 96 ), and has 2 (sometimes 3) seeds in its berries. Scalelike foliage and stringy bark are also characteristic of this species. It is the most widespread and treelike of the junipers, although it rarely exceeds 30 to 40 feet in height and 2 feet in diameter. Its bark is reddish to gray brown and scaly, becoming stringy and ridged on older limbs. The pea-size, blue berries are juicy and edible (p. 96 ). The Indians ate the berries raw or cooked, or dried them for winter use. They are also an important source of food for birds and small animals.
The D. peltata has a vinelike growth pattern, reaching 6 to 10 inches tall. It bears white flowers in season. The plant is dormant during summer in its native Australia but begins new growth each autumn from its underground tuber. With luck, and you need it to grow this particular carnivore, the plant will send up its new shoots and flower by spring. After setting seed, in early summer, the vines droop and usually set roots as those portions pi the stem touch the marshy ground again. That's much like the way black raspberries drop their branches to the ground and set new roots to produce new plants. Another example might be the spider plant that sets new plants at the ends of stems which can then be cut apart and repotted.
Small, yellow, fragrant blossoms, borne in clusters, are followed by blue black, pea-size berries which can be eaten from the bush, but their flavor is supposedly improved after they are dried. They make good jellies, especially when the juice is mixed half and half with apple juice. Sometimes they are crushed in water, a minimum of sugar added, to produce a lemonadelike drink.
A significant base for inference about constructing stable forest systems with limited genetic diversity, may be derived from naturally occurring clonal systems. Such systems are common in nature, and are generally long-lived, stable, productive and adaptive (Jackson et al. 1985). The socio-political environmental notion that clonal systems are alien is incorrect. These natural systems, many of extreme scale, stability and ecological importance, beg for an explanation. Such perennial, tree and tree-like, systems include various species within the genera Populus Salix (poplar willow), Acacia, Pseudoacacia, Eucalyptus, Phyllostachys (bamboo), Vaccinium Gaylussacia (blue huckle-berries), Rhizophora (mangrove), Liquidambar (sweetgum), Ulmus (elm), and Paulownia, among others. It may be possible to study these systems (Ellstrand and Roose 1987 Tuskan et al. 1996) and derive information guidance on the relative diversity of pest resistance mechanisms necessary for stable and productive...
The fruit expands at non-uniform rates from setting to maturation. In most fruit, the developmental patterns are described as a single or double sigmoid curve (Fig. 15.2). The sigmoid curve developmental patterns occur when the increase in fresh weight or diameter of the fruit is plotted after anthesis. Fruits having single sigmoid curves undergo slow enlargement at the early and last stages of growth, while growth is considerably faster during the middle developmental stage. Examples of fruits with this developmental pattern include apples, pears, pineapples, bananas, avocados, strawberries, oranges, tomatoes and melons. On the other hand, fruits with the double sigmoid pattern exhibit two periods of rapid growth that are separated by a period of relatively slow growth. This type of fruit includes all stone fruits, figs, blackcurrants, raspberries, blueberries, grapes and olives (Crane 1964 Coombe 1976). In addition, kiwifruit development showed a triple sigmoid growth curve (Coombe...
Flat-topped to umbrella-shaped clusters of delicate white flowers terminate the branch ends. The resulting berries are dark blue and covered with a whitish, powdery coating (bloom) and are in rather dense clusters. A favorite of the Indians who ate the berries fresh, cooked or dried. The fruits which re barely palatable to us are an important source of food for many species of birds. Robins become so eager for the fruits that they sometimes consume them before they are fully ripe. Aptly named, as its berries resemble clusters of shiny black beads. Unlike the other two elders, its berries have no powdery coating. Birds, deer and other wildlife eat the berries and foliage. New Mexican blueberry elder is considered by some botanists as a variety of blueberry elder, differing only by having narrower leaves and blue black berries with a white bloom.
Generally there is reduced expression of aquaporins during ripening (Schlosser et al. 2008). Increased backflow, reduced phloem inflow and continued transpiration would all combine to cause a net loss of water from berries. Cultivars like Chardonnay have very low xylem-to-berry hydraulic conductance (Tyerman et al. 2004), so despite membrane breakdown in the mesocarp, back-flow from berries may be restricted. In contrast, berries of Thompson Seedless maintain hydraulic connection with the vine (Tilbrook and Tyerman 2008), but they do not loose weight because all cells remain vital. These differences between cultivars emphasises that caution is needed when attempting to generalise from observations on one variety.
The leaves are rounded and thickish, their upper surfaces dull grayish green and soft hairy and their lower surfaces paler and with longer, soft hairs. The flowers are pink to rose colored and have shorter tubes than mountain snowberry. The white, globular berries persist through most of the w.nter. Cattle, sheep and goats browse its twigs and foliage.
Due to their extreme morphological diversity and their ability to tolerate a wide range of growing conditions, the cacti have received much interest by horticulturists since they were first brought to Europe by Christopher Columbus in the 1490s. The Indian fig, or Opuntia ficus-indica, is now widely cultivated throughout the Mediterranean region and in other places for its tasty and sweet multiseeded berries. Other species of cacti are grown for food for humans nopales nopalitos are young Opuntia stems, while the dragon fruit favored by southeast Asians is the berry of an epiphytic cactus, Hylocereus un-datus, originally from Central America. Perhaps the most widely grown cactus is also an epiphyte, originating from mountainous regions in south cen-
Cuticular waxes of grape berries had previously been used by Grncarevic and Radler (1967) to assess their effect cuticular transpiration. A refined method allowing the measurement of diffusion coefficients of lipophilic molecules in cuticular wax was developed with barley leaf wax (Schreiber and Schonherr 1993b).
Similar species (1) Tundra and (2) Dwarf Bilberries are more northern. (3) Labrador Tea, (4) Leatherleaf, and (5) Bog Rosemary (Plate 65) all lack green leaf undersides, 6) See Farkle-berry. Bilberries with angled twigs have thin leaves. Remarks Ruffed grouse eats fruits.
Plant hormones play an important role in the formation and maturation of fruit. Fleshy fruits grow and thicken in response to hormonal growth signals emitted by fertilized seeds. In strawberries, for example, seed formation is highly successful except for the tip of the fruit, which is poorly developed. Where seeds are underdeveloped, so is the fruit. The stimulus for fruit production in this plant can be replaced by a plant hormone known as auxin, which is often produced by developing seeds. Fruit maturation and the development of fruit color are triggered by a later-occurring hormonal signal, produced by the gas ethylene. For grocery stores, fruit is often picked before becoming ripe because unripe fruit is not as easily bruised. To ripen the fruits for sale, a human-made gas related to ethylene is used after harvest, causing the immature fruit to develop its characteristic color and texture.
This is a delicate plant whose slender creeping stems root in wet ground. The leathery leaves are lance shaped and very tiny, less than W long. The reddish, threadlike flowering stems hold tiny dark pink blossoms with four reflexed petals. The plant later bears tiny tart cranberries, though not in abundance here.
VvSUC11 is expressed in flowers and fruits whereas VvSUC12 expression is restricted to berries and young leaves. In addition, VvSUC11 is expressed in both young and expanded leaves. VvSUC27 expression is closely related to sink activity since its transcripts are strongly accumulated in flowers and unripe berries, roots and tendrils but poorly present in mature leaves (Davies et al. 1999). VvSUC27 expression is associated with the early stages of berry development, VvSUC11 and VvSUC12 transcription concomitantly increases with post-veraison sugar accumulation, which suggests a direct pathway for sucrose acquisition by berry cells (Davies et al. 1999). However, information regarding sucrose uptake in berry along ripening is scarce. Sucrose uptake activity has been demonstrated in berry slices (Conde et al. unpublished results) but further investigation, such as sucrose transporters localization in berry flesh is needed (Hayes et al. 2007).
Small white flowers grow in flat-topped clusters at branch ends and bloom in June and July. The orange red berries follow in early fall and are relished by a number of species of wildlife. They are also eaten by people, but if you try them, be sure that they are fully ripe
Quite showy when in flower, these common roadside plants attract considerable attention during the late spring and summer. Some species become troublesome in cultivated fields and are difficult to eradicate. An alkaloid, solanine, reported as present in the leaves and unripe fruits of several species, renders them poisonous. Pima Indians add the crushed berries of Solanum elaeagnifolium to milk in making cheese.
In Indonesia, two kinds of pepper products are produced, white and black pepper. White pepper, is produced from ripe berries by separating them from skin (pericarp). The peeling is done by submerging the ripe berries in running water for about 10 days, depending on the size of container bag used for that purpose. The water help the pericarp to rot. Then the berries are washed and rinsed in running water, dried under natural sun shine to produce white pepper. Processing for black pepper is much more simple. The berries are harvested at maturity, separated from their spikes and dried under sunshine or in a drier or room using artificial heat. Contamination in black pepper is higher than in white pepper, foreign particles and microorganisms in the pepper are always becoming serious problems. Studies, conducted by Hasanah (1985) in Lampung revealed that contaminations occur in all levels concerned in trading and pepper processing small holders, middlemen, exporters processors. To improve...
The mountain dove (Zenaidura macroura) rejects the gray seeds and eagerly eats the mottled ones, leading Cook et al. (1971) to propose that they are aposematic. Hinton (1973), who was a zoologist, gave the first detailed hypothesis for a possible defense from herbivory of yellow, red and other types of vivid flower coloration. Hinton proposed that colorful poisonous flowers should be considered to be aposematic and that they probably have mimics. His review of deception in nature was published in a book about illusion which was not a biology book, but rather dealt with art. This hypothesis, which was also briefly referred to by the very influential Miriam Rothschild (1980) when she discussed the roles of carotenoids, did not cause botanists or zoology-oriented ecologists to pursue this issue. It seems that the relevant community was willing to consider plant coloration only for physiological issues, or when plant-animal relations were considered, mostly to...
Heaths are low-growing shrubs with simple leaves. In many species the leaves are stiff, leathery, and evergreen. The flowers are composed of four or five fused sepals and four or five petals which are also partly united or fused together. The family includes the familiar two species of blueberries (Vaccinium ovalifolium, V. uliginosum), the lingonberry (Vaccinium vitis-idea), alpine bearberry (Arctostaphylos alpina), and kinnikinnick (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), and the Aleutian heathers (Phyllodoce aleutica) and moss heather (Cassiope lycopodioides), all of which are recognized by their small urn-shaped blossoms. The tiny alpine azalea (Loiseleuria procumbent), and the showy Kamchatka rhododendron (Rhododendron camtschaticum) have more open flowers their petals are fused only at the
The ripening grape berry is a strong sink for dry matter transported from current photosynthesis and wood reserves (Coombe 1989). Sucrose derived from leaf photosynthesis is exported via the phloem to the berries. From verai-son and throughout ripening the berries accumulate roughly equal amounts of glucose and fructose, reaching over 1M of each hexose (Coombe 1987). This implies that phloem transported sucrose is hydrolyzed at some step during its transport from the sieve tube to the vacuole of the mesocarp cell (Fig. 1). The remarkable sink strength of the berry is well illustrated by the fact that its dry mass increases four-fold during a 6 week-period, with little change observed in the dry mass of other plant parts (Conradie 1980). In situ measurements carried out at different times on the same berry showed that glucose and fructose accumulation begins suddenly on the same day as berry softening begins. It seems that, once begun, sugar accumulation in grapes is undeviating and...
The only other thorny or prickly upright woody plants with alternate leaves are the hawthorns (Plate 39), the gooseberries and Bundle scars 1 to more than 3, Bark orange-brown, furrowed, tight, fibrous. Spur branches of clustered leaves often present. Leaves l -8 . Height 50-60' diameter 18 -36 . Flowers May-June, Fruits green, wrinkled, grapefruit-sized, Oct, Similar species This species and the bumelias are the only thorny plants with milky sap. Small specimens differ from bumelias in having false end buds and in leaf shape. Barberries have yellow wood but thorns are mostly branched shrubby, with sap not milky, and fruits are red berries. Remarks Once native in northern Texas, se. Oklahoma, and nearby Arkansas, home of Osage Indians, this species was widely planted for living fences before invention of barbed wire. Because of its use in making bows, French name hois dare (colloquially Bodarc, Bodock) is still heard. Bark yields tannin
Ant nest-gardens are remarkable for floristic uniformity throughout much of Amazonia, suggesting either prolonged stasis of the phytobionts or considerable mobility on their part. Fruit type and the longevity of plants and attending insect colonies may provide the answer As noted above, nestgarden flora usually ripen seeds enclosed in edible tissues, many of which go unharvested by ants. Birds, on the other hand, consume some of these berries, and even occasional visits may promote enough dispersal (gene
The most potent sweetening agent known today seems to be the protein isolated from the berries of Dioscoreophyllum. This is a high forest climber found from Guinea to the Cameroons. The red berries of this tree have been called 'serendipity berries' as their intensely sweet taste was discovered fortuitously. The active principle, first reported by Inglett and May (1968, 1969) was isolated by van der Wei (1972) but is as yet difficult to obtain in any great quantity. It is a basic protein with a net positive charge at neutral pH it has been called monellin and has a sweetness relative to sucrose on a weight basis of 3000 and on a molecular weight basis of about 9000.
The active constituent of Euopean Vaccinium myrtillus berries has proved to be a glycoside of 7-methyl-delphinidin and the traditional use of the berries in the treatment of diabetes in Europe has been justified by pharmacological and clinical trials which have shown that the effect of a single dose can last up to two weeks and more. The active principle allowed a gradual decrease in the use of insulin in a number of patients (Allen, 1927).
BLACKBERRIES, ROSES, etc. 23 The raspberries, dewberries, and blackberries (all in the genus Afi&us), and the roses are the only compound-leaved, rambling or arching, mostly nonclimbing, usually prickly or bristly shrubs in our area. The woody species of Ruhus are ail normally prickly except the flowering raspberries, which have simple leaves (Plate 42). A few roses are without prickles or may climb by means of twining stems. The twigs of brambles usually are green or red and both the stems and leafstalks are prickly. Except for the nearly flat-on-the-ground dewberries, they mostly grow in vaselike clumps with the stems arching back toward the ground. The only other plants at all likely to be confused with the brambles are the prickly greenbriers (Plate 33), which are simple-leaved green-stemmed vines climbing or scrambling over neighboring plants by means of tendrils. The leaves of all groups are toothed and divided into 3 or more leaflets. Where there are more than 3 leaflets, their...
Most aloes produce capsules, dry dehiscent fruits that split open at maturity to release the seeds. As the inflorescences sway in the wind the seeds, which are winged, are thrown out and blown away. Species that were formerly included in the small genus Lomatophyllum have berries, indehiscent fruits with fleshy walls. The seeds of these species are without wings. The berries have been observed to fall to the ground from the parent plant and decay on the ground, thereby releasing the seeds.
The lower portion, toward the leafstalk. Berry (fruit)* Strictly speaking, a fleshy fruit that contains small seeds (such as a grape). Berry or berrylike fruits are mentioned, indicating fleshy fruits that are not true berries. Blade (leaf). The broad expanded portion-Bloom (twig, leaf, fruit, etc.), A whitish powdery coating, Bract. A somewhat leaflike, pet a 1-1 ike, or woody structure occurring
In grapevine organic farming, incorporation into the soil of fine-granule sulfur and Thiobacillus microorganisms, restricted powdery mildew infected berries and leaves by more than 80 , in comparison with 90 after treatment with a conventional fungicide used as control (Bourbos et al. 2000). In fact, after the introduction of powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator, previously Uncinula necator) in Europe, in the XIX century, it was noticed that sulfur applied to vine leaves and berries significantly protected from powdery mildew infection. Tra
Due to its commercial importance, caffeine biosynthesis has been the most widely studied of the alkaloid biosynthetic pathways in the coffee plant. This purine alkaloid is produced in a variety of plants, including tea, kola nuts, guarana berries, Yerba mate and cacao beans (Ashihara and Crozier, 1999). In coffee plants, caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is synthesized in three methylation steps involving S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent N-methyltransferases plus a step involving elimination of the ribose residue from xanthosine (Ashihara and Crozier, 1999). Structural studies of xanthosine (X), methyltransferase (XMT) and 1,7-dimethylxanthine methyltransferase (DXMT) revealed several elements that appear to be critical for substrate selectivity. Serine-316 in XMT appears to play a major role in the recognition of xanthosine (XR). Likewise, a change from glutamine-161 in XMT to histidine-160 in DXMT may have catalytic consequences. A change from phenylalanine-266 to isoleucine-266...
The first study of grapevine aquaporins, reported the identification of 8 aquaporins, 5 homologous to the PIP subgroup and 3 to the TIP subgroup (Baiges et al. 2001). The cDNAs encoding aquaporins from Vitis rootstock Richter-110 were obtained by screening a leaf cDNA library with homologous probes and by using reverse Northerns. Tissue specific differential expression patterns were analysed for each of the putative aquaporins (Baiges et al. 2001). Several aquaporins have been identified from grape berries and expression patterns during development vary for the individual isoforms (Picaud et al. 2003, Fouquet et al. 2008).
Palynology has played an important role in the soft fruit industry raspberries strawberries, gooseberries, blueberries, red and black currants, grapes, brambles (blackberries) to name only a few from the temperate zones, in addition to the enormous range of fruits (and vegetables) produced by plant breeders in the tropical and subtropical parts of the world such as grape fruit, bananas, mangoes, etc.
Erect trees and shrubs, usually neither creeping nor forming mats seeds borne in woody cones (yews have red and junipers have bluish berries) 2. Leaves long, needlelike 1. Plants creeping or forming low mats over the ground (in much exposed locations or mountains and in the Far North, see also White Pine (Plate 1), Red Pine (Plate 2), Balsam Fir, Eastern Hemlock, and Yew (Plate 3), Black and White Spruces (Plate 4) 7. Nonflowering plants, seeds borne in woody cones or hard bluish berries at least some needles either small and scalelike, hugging twigs tightly, or strongly whitened WHITE CEDARS,
Thick leathery leaves, whereas sand myrtle is a relatively short shrub with clusters of small, white flowers and narrow leaves. Deciduous heath shrubs include pinkshell azalea (Rhododendron vaseyi), a rare species whose showy pink flowers cover leafless stems in spring, and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum), a medium to large multistemmed shrub whose small white to pinkish pendulous flowers develop into sweet, edible berries in summer.
Eight disulfide-linked cysteines (Thomma et al. 2002). Several defensin gene sequences from different plant species are now available y-thionin represents an example of a plant defensin structurally related to defensins in general, including human defensins. Most plant defensins exhibit activity against a broad range of fungi, including various plant pathogens, and also against insect pests. Although defensins accumulate in response to pathogens and their elicitors (Thomma et al. 2002), they can also be developmentally regulated. For the first time in grapes, genes encoding defensins were differentially expressed among cultivars, when using ESTs derived from flower-berry libraries one sequence which encodes a putative y-thionin is expressed exclusively in Cabernet Sauvi-gnon ripening berries, while it is expressed at pre-veraison, veraison, and ripening berries of Chardonnay, suggesting distinct patterns of gene expression between genotypes (Goes da Silva et al. 2005).
Quideau, S. and Feldman, K., Ellagitannin chemistry, Chem. Rev., 96, 475, 1996. Seeram, N.P. et al., Identification of phenolics in strawberries by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, Food Chem., 2005 (in press). Mullen, W. et al., Analysis of ellagitannins and conjugates of ellagic acid and quer-cetin in raspberry fruits by LC-MSn, Phytochemistry, 64, 617, 2003. Schubert, S.Y., Lansky, E.P., and Neeman, I., Antioxidant and eicosanoid enzyme inhibition properties of pomegranate seed oil and fermented juice flavonoids, J. Ethnopharmacol., 66, 11, 1999.
Finding a patch of wild strawberries while out hiking is a noteworthy delight, since they are not nearly as common as our other berries. Known locations tend to become well-kept secrets. The trailing plants favor areas of low vegetation, such as dry tundra and occasional roadside spots.
A small perennial herb found in temperate areas. Distribution Pakistan Swat, Kurram Agency, Chitral, Dir, Kashmir, Gilgit, and Baltistan. World Southeast Tibet, W. Asia, Europe, Russia, and Afghanistan. Rhizomes tuber-like. Stem erect, angled, glabrous. Leaves in whorls of 3-6-8, occasionally alternate near base of stem, sometimes opposite near apex, subsessile, linear. Inflorescence flowered, perianth pale yellow. Fruit berries red, becoming purple (Fig. 3.15).
Coralberry and Snowherry (Plate 17), which have only 1, rather than 3, bundle scars per leaf scar. In winter, hydrangeas usually bear umbrellalike clusters of dried fruit capsules in contrast to the berries of honeysuckles their twigs too are usually more shiny and stout. The ridged twigs of the Bush-honeysuckle are distinctive, rhe prominent fruits of the Coralberry and Snowherry frequently are present in winter. Occasionally honeysuckles bear several buds, one above the other, where 1 normally grows. When present, this definitely separates thein from the oilier plants mentioned . i ioneysuckle leaves are not toothed, and the bark of twigs and branchlets, at least, is papery. Opposing leaf scars are connected by lines. The bundle scars are 3. In contrast to the climbing honeysuckles, these bushy plants, which rarely exceed 10 feet, may be identified by both leaf and twig characteristics. When present, the white, pink, or yellowish flowers are aids, I he blossoms mostly are of 2...
The understory has low to moderate coverage with small trees or shrubs such as bigfruit hawthorn (Crataegus macrosperma), smooth serviceberry (Amelanchier laevis), mountain holly (Ilex montana), and witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana). Shrubs in the heath family (Ericaceae) are common, including evergreen species such as mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia), rosebay (Rhododendron maximum), and Catawba rhododendron (R. catawbiense), as well as deciduous species such as flame azalea (R. calendulaceum) and blueberries (Vaccinium spp.). The herbaceous layer is often dense and fairly diverse in oak orchards as an open canopy increases the amount of light reaching the forest floor. Common herbs include speckled wood lily (Clintonia umbellulata), white snakeroot (Ageratina altissima), bigleaf aster (Eurybia macrophylla), whorled loosestrife (Lysimachia quadrifolia), and lousewort (Pedicularis canadensis). A diverse mixture of herbaceous plants grows under deciduous shrubs, with fewer herbs...
Nightshades (Solanum spp.) (Figure 4.2)are annual to short-lived perennials in the Solanaceae family. Black nightshade (S. nigrum L.) is the best known noxious weed among nightshade species (Ogg et al. 1981 Defelice 2003) and is reported as a weed in more than thirty-seven crops and sixty-one countries around the world (Holm et al. 1991). Nightshades, in general, reproduce by seeds. Berries can contain fifteen to ninety- six seeds and a single plant can produce up to 30,000 seeds in a single season. Seeds remain viable after years in the soil seed bank and can germinate intermittently under favorable conditions (Defelice 2003). Nightshades also are toxic, compete with crops, impede harvest, and reduce crop quality by seed discoloration (Cooper and Johnson 1984 Lampe and McCann 1985). In addition, some nightshades have evolved resistance to photosystem II and ALS inhibitors, and bipyridiliums (Heap 2008).
It is the horticultural practice that enhances the pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in California almonds, where nearly, half (about one million hives) of the U.S. honeybees are transported by trucks to the almond orchards each spring. It has been reported that New York's apple crop requires about 30,000 beehives Maine's blueberry crop uses about 50,000 beehives each year. Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Thus, the management techniques of a beekeeper providing pollination service are different and somewhat incompatible, compared to a beekeeper who is trying to produce honey. The farmers only option in the current economy is to bring beehives to the field during blossom time.
Trap-lining Phaethoris superciliosis alone visited the few owers produced to set the multiseeded, large, eshy berries that probably account for the multiple genotypes within colonies. Aechmea magdalenae also exhibited a more structured gene pool than the co-occurring trees, probably owing to its patchy distribution, large numbers of densely packed ramets, and shorter-range seeds. In the nal analysis, A. magdalenae was a poor choice for a wild type if its periodic cultivation for ber by indigenous people has altered the reproductive performances and related genetic structures of the populations Murawski and Hamrick assayed in Panama.
The berries of both (he sugarberry and the dwarf hackberry are especially important to wildlife. The fruits of both are small, fleshy, brightly colored, and ripen in the fall. A wide variety of birds as well as raccoons and squirrels use them to store up energy for the winter The mulberries are probably the best known of the North American Moraceae, The red mulberry (Morus rubra), in particular, enjoys a wide distribution. Extending from New England and the Great Lakes southward, it is found in all parts of Florida with the exception of the southernmost tip of the peninsula and the Keys, It is probably best known throughout its range for the purplish black berries that appear among its branches in early summer. In the North these fruits are a favored treat of children and animals alike and provide an important food source for a variety of songbirds and mammals. In Florida, however, the red mulberry is typically a small, often unnoticed, understorv tree of rich woodlands and bottomland...
Ecology This once-seen, never-forgotten plant looks more like a fungus than a flowering plant yet is loosely related to rhododendrons, mountain laurel, and blueberries. The albino shoots pop up suddenly, often after a heavy summer rain. A solitary nodding flower quickly forms following fertilization, the developing fruit, a capsule, turns upright and numerous dust-like seeds are dispersed by wind, after which the stems turn black and wither away. Early botanists thought Indian pipe was a parasite, taking up nutrients directly from the roots of other plants later, it was considered to be a saprophyte, living off decaying plants in the soil. Now, botanists consider it to be an epiparasite a parasite that obtains nutrients from another parasite. As an epiparasite, Indian pipe obtains nutrients through its roots from mycorrhizal fungi that are connected to the roots of a nearby green (photosynthetic) plant. Indian pipe indirectly obtains nutrients from other plants via a mycorrhizal...
In spring, tiny clusters of yellowish flowers appear even before the leaves, and by summer, develop into bunches of dark red, sticky, slightly hairy berries. It is these berries that give the name lemonadeberry or limonada to the bush, as they are used with sugar to make a refreshing lemonadelike drink. They may be rolled around in the mouth as they come off the bush however, they are quite tart, but a treat on any hot summer day as they allay thirst by stimulating the flow of saliva. They were dried by the Indians for future use and also used as one of the ingredients of pemmican. Birds and small animals eat the berries, rabbits the bark and pronghorn, deer, moose and bighorn sheep, the twigs and foliage. The slightly acid berries are used to make lemonade when mixed with water and sugar. The pulverized fruits freshen water when added to it. It forms a good cover for rabbits, chipmunks and other small animals, and provides berries for food. Thirty-two species of birds feed on the...
Fruit type and seed morphology differentiate Bromeliaceae into three subfamilies (sensu Smith and Downs 1974, 1977, 1979 Fig. 3.6), but not as de nitively as some taxonomic descriptions imply. Dry capsules and naked or double-coated seeds with or without appendages characterize Pitcairnioideae. Seeds equipped with an elaborate ight apparatus born in capsules indicate Tillandsioideae (Figs. 3.3H, 3.6J Chapter 12), while the berries produced by most Bromelioideae contain naked seeds equipped with or lacking soft, unbranched appendages (Figs. 3.5G,H, 3.6L). Exceptions include the fruits of Fascicularia, Ochagavia and Orthophytum (Bromelioideae), which tend toward dryness, and those of some Pepinia (Pitcairnioideae) that are just as unexpectedly eshy. Dehiscence varies among the capsular types, and at least one Ronnbergia species forcibly ejects its ripe seeds. Epigeny sometimes prevails where reports indicate hypogeny (e.g., many Tillandsioideae) and vice versa (e.g., some...
Wildlife White-tailed deer browse the foliage and twigs of gooseberries and various insect species feed on the leaves, stems, and fruits. Birds and small mammals consume the fleshy fruits and disperse the seeds. By passing through the digestive tracts of frugivores, the seeds are more likely to germinate.
Description Small to medium, erect or spreading shrub 2-5 ft. tall, short spines present or absent at nodes with finely peeling bark. Leaves alternate, simple, deciduous, roundish in general outline, 1-2 in. across, palmately veined and lobed. The small flowers occur singly or in clusters of 2-3 with green to reddish sepals and white to pinkish petals with protruding stamens. Smooth, round, edible berries contain numerous seeds. Flowers Apr.-May fruits June-Sept.
Acquisition of the red blue color of grape berries in red varieties along ripening is a visual indicator of the biochemical processes occurring in grape. This reflects more precisely the accumulation of anthocyanins pigments in the vacuoles of skin cells, which does not occur in the white grape varieties. Interestingly, anthocyanins precursors and intermediates are ubiquitously synthesized within the fruit while the final pigments accumulate only in the epidermal tissue of the berries. Recently, the role of a putative anthocyanin carrier has been evidenced that would explain such phenomenon (Braidot et al. 2008). Sucrose-induced production of anthocyanins has been demonstrated in various species, such as petunia (Tsukaya et al. 1991, Weiss 2000), grape (Larronde et al. 1998, Vitrac et al. 2000), and radish (Hara et al. 2004). Expression of CHS is upregulated by sucrose treatment, both in petunia and Arabidopsis (Tsukaya et al. 1991, Ohto et al. 2001).
This is a lovely, low-growing, white-flowered plant. Emerging from rhizomes, the flowering stems are upright, 4 to 12 tall. The oval, pointed leaves, with distinct parallel veins, are held in whorls around the stem. What appears to be four broad white petals are actually petaloid bracts. They often have what looks like a rosy stain. The bracts surround a dense cluster of tiny flowers which later develop into shiny red berries. The berries are pulpy and rather inedible, but not poisonous.
Though not a major wildlife food, the translucent red berries are eaten by ruffed grouse, Eastern chipmunks, and white-footed mice. Lore The bittersweet berries, although not poisonous, are not very palatable. Close relatives Apple (Pyrus malus) hawthorns (Crataegus) cherries (Prunus) shadbushes (Amelanchier) roses (Rosa) blackberry and raspberries (Rubus) unrelated to white ash or Northern prickly-ash. Nightshade family. Low, vinelike shrub in moist thickets, edges. Five violet (sometimes white) reflexed petals with a yellow, beaklike center, leaves with (usually) two small lobes at the base, and drooping clusters of bright red berries identify this plant. The black or common nightshade (S. nigrum) has a similar flower that is white, and it produces black berries. Many of the foliage-feeding insects that feed upon potato are common on nightshade. The three-lined potato beetle (Lema trilineata) is reddish yellow with black stripes. The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa...
Recognition Either bushy and somewhat upright or a climbing vine with twice- or even thrice-compound leaves. Climbs by means of slender branched tendrils that are mostly present opposite upper leaves. Leaflets large-toothed* Twigs hairless or nearly so buds small. Pith white and continuous. Leaves 2 -8 . Flowers small, greenish, clustered, June-July. Fruits black berries, bitter, inedible, Aug,-Nov. Similar species Grapes (Plates 34 and 35) have simple leaves and brown, mostly partitioned pith. (1) American and (2) Asiatic Ampelopsis (Plate 35) have simple leaves and unbranched tendrils.
Blueberry bushes tend to grow in patches. They are usually waist to shoulder high, with sturdy branches, and thin angled branchlets. Older bushes become dense and woody and their branches look bleached. The leaves are ovate and glabrous, bright green and thin in the spring, turning flaming orange and yellow in the fall. The pale pink urn-shaped flowers bloom very early in spring, appearing when the shrub just begins to leaf out. From late August to early November the bushes bear an abundance of juicy, round blue berries. Blueberry shrubs are wonderfully abundant in Unalaska's hills and ravines. In good locations like sunny creek beds and damp, well-drained slopes, the branches will bend with the weight of the fruit, and the bushes look blue, even from a distance. Locally picked by the gallon for jams, jellies, pies, and freezing, the berries are tart and juicy, sweetening some after fall frosts begin. They are easier to pick in the fall when most of the leaves have fallen. Good ways...
Kinnikinnick is an abundant plant forming a ground cover with trailing stems. The long, woody, flexible branches are covered with leathery, teardrop-shaped green leaves. Blooming early, it bears clusters of small, pale pink, urn-shaped flowers, later forming bright red berries. The berries have applelike, pithy white centers. They are edible but not especially tasty. Kinnikinnick favors hillsides and slopes, often trailing over cutbanks and bluff tops. It is an evergreen plant, and both leaves and berries appear unscathed during intermittent snows and thaws. Even under feet of snow, digging reveals the supple green foliage and plump red berries. The long branches can be twined into a winter wreath. The berries are said to taste best late in the year, after it has snowed and melted again (N. Galaktianoff, Sr., pers. com.). A delicate evergreen plant with thin, reddish-brown stems, lingonberry seldom grows more than a few inches tall. The leaves are very small, usually about W long....
(E) taangadgusin (from taangax water) the berries of the plant also the term for water container or water bag, originally a seal or sea lion stomach. Taangadgusim ulingin leaves of the plant Arising from a stout rhizome, the branching stems are long, bending and twisting, 12 to 40 tall. The lower part of the stem is covered with firm, stiff hairs. The leaves are large and glabrous, ovate to broadly lanceolate. They are held alternately along the stems, clasping and nearly encircling them. Beneath most leaves is one tiny bell-like, white to pinkish-yellow flower hanging on a short thread-like stem. In late summer, they ripen into elongated, smooth-skinned, bright red fruits, which hang in a row on the stems. Watermelon berry is found widely scattered among ferns and other tall growth, usually in damp meadows and beneath slopes it seems particular about its habitat. The young tender shoots have a cucumber-like taste. The berries are also edible and sweet but very watery, as the Unangan...
Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco ( L. canariensis Webb & Berth.) is an endemic species on the Azores, the Canary Islands, and Madeira, where it occurs as a component of the laurel-juniper cloud forest community. The other member of the genus is the so-called true bay, L. nobilis L. A recent study by Pedro et al. (2001) described the essential-oil chemistry of L. azorica collected from ten populations representing five Azorean islands, Faial (3 populations), Pico (1), Sao Jorge (2), S. Miguel (2), and Terceira (2). Monoterpenes dominated the foliar-oil fraction with a-pinene (15-37 ), P-pinene (9-18 ), and 1,8-cineol (12-31 ) as the major components. Major monoterpenes of oil from unripe berries were a-pinene (12-22 ), P-pinene (7-13 ), trans-P-ocimene (27-45 ), and cis-P-ocimene (9-16 ). Cluster analysis revealed that two clear-cut groups exist based upon the enantiomeric composition of the pinenes. The two populations from Sao Jorge were strongly differentiated from all other...
Recognition A distinctive plant whose branches with red berries are often gathered for decorative purposes. Evergreen leaves small and wavy-edged nutlets grooved, A strong medicinal black drink once brewed by Indians is believed to have been of Yaupon leaves. The caffeine-containing dried leaves reportedly make a desirable tea. Leaves W-2 . Height 5'-15' (30') diameter 2'-4 (12 ). Flowers May-June, Fruits red, Sept.-Oct, Sandy Coastal Plain se. Virginia to centr. Florida, west to s. Texas, and north in Mississippi Valley to n. Arkansas and se. Oklahoma.
Desert elderberry blooms from March to June and bears its succulent blue-black berries in summer. Birds quickly denude the plants of fruits humans who want to turn the berries into jellies, pies or wines must act quickly. Soapberry can be a riparian tree forty or fifty feet tall. More often, you see it as copses of saplings along dry, sandy streambeds. The plants spread by underground rhizomes, and each copse is essentially a clone. Soapberry leaves are divided into a dozen or more lance-shaped leaflets. They look much like walnut leaves but have entire rather than toothed margins. The inconspicuous flowers produce berries about the size and color of garbanzo beans.
HUCKLEBERRIES, BILBERRIES, ETC- 281 Palmer & Steyerm. and neglectum (Small) Deam, have hairless foliage. Twigs hairy. Buds of type long-pointed* 2-3 scales. Leaves l -4' Height to 10 Flowers May-June- Fruits greenish to purple, sometimes white-powdered, July-Sept. Similar species (1) all, (2) Dwarf, and (3) Black Huckleberries have resin-dotted foliage. Bilberries have either toothed or leathery leaves except for (4) Tundra and (5) Oval leaf Bilberries, which are more northern Tundra Bilberry is lower and Oval leaf has angled twigs. (6) See Low Deerberry, Remarks Stewed and sweetened fruits are said to be good when served cold. Buffed grouse, bobwhite, and gray fox eat wild fruits, 282 V HUCKLEBERRIES, BILBERRIES, ETC,
Because many vegetatively propagating storage structures are also important food crops, the factors leading to their development have received considerable attention. In several species, the formation of storage organs depends on, or is accelerated by, exposure of the leaves to particular photoperiods. In other cases, endogenous or other environmental factors such as temperature are more important. With the exception of the formation of bulbs in the genus Allium, which is favoured by LD, most photo-periodically induced storage organs are favoured by exposure to SD (Table 12.1). Runner formation in strawberries is however favoured by LD and inhibited by SD (Guttridge, 1969).
The beneficial health effects attributed to the consumption of fruits and vegetables are related, at least in part, to their antioxidant activity.12 Edible plants contain several hundred different antioxidants.3 Natural antioxidants include vitamins C and E, carotenoids (such as P-carotene and tomato's lycopene), and polyphenolic fla-vonoids (such as those present in grapes, berries, licorice, ginger, nuts, and olive oil).
Analytical Tools and Metabolomic Methods for Identifying Stilbenes and Other Defence Induced Compounds
Many extraction methods have been tested in conjunction with the direct use of HPLC for stilbene profiling 103 . Most of the qualitative or quantitative analytical studies were performed with HPLC and ultraviolet (UV), fluorescence (FD) or electrochemical (ECD) detection 104 . We have demonstrated that fluorimetric detection is much more sensitive than UV detection and that its specificity allows simple pre-purification of grape berries juice and or direct injection of wines 42 . The fluorescent properties of stilbenes have also been used for their in vivo detection and local assessment in grapevine leaves 105 . As discussed below, HPLC coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS) provides an even more sensitive and selective method for the detection of these polyphenols 106 .
Almost 100 species of songbirds have been recorded eating grapes. Animals utilizing these fruits include ruffed and sharptail grouse, prairie chicken, bobwhite, Hungarian partridge, pheasant, wild turkey, mourning dove, striped skunk, gray fox, red fox, coyote, raccoon, cottontail rabbit, red squirrel, and opossum. Ampelopsis is a related vine with bluish inedible berries.
Fungi play a major role in the diet of humans. Yeasts (Saccaromyces cere-visiae) are used in the process of fermentation, in which they break down carbohydrates to liberate carbon dioxide and to produce alcohol. Gin is made when juniper berries are fermented, wine from grapes, beer from grains, bourbon from corn, and scotch from barley. Yeasts are also used in making Limburger cheese, yogurt, and Kombucha tea. Baker's yeast produces a high proportion of CO2, which causes the dough to rise. Molds, generally species of Penicillium, are used to produce cheese such as blue, Roquefort, and Camembert.
In addition to its use for heating, lighting, and cooking, fire was the first tool that primitive peoples had to manipulate the environment on a broad scale to better meet their purposes. Fire has been used by hunter-gatherer societies to promote the production of certain wild crops (such as seeds wild rice, sunflower, balsamroot, and mesquite beans tubers camas and bracken berries blueberry and blackberry and nuts acorns and chestnuts), increase the nutritional quality of forage for wild animals, create desirable habitat for game species, decrease the natural migration rates of game species allowing for increased hunting possibilities, control problem tick and insect populations, open travel corridors, and reduce fire hazard and enemy hiding cover in the vicinity of campsites.
Nutrients that have low phloem mobility may also be transported by the xylem. Based on the hypothesis that K+ is transported by xylem and phloem (Mengel 1976) and that Ca++ is transported only by the xylem (Hanger 1979), changes in the K Ca ratio in berries have been used as an indicator of changes in the relative berry K+ influx via xylem and phloem (Hrazdina et al. 1984, Ollat and Gaudillere, 1996, Rogiers et al. 2000, 2001).
In grape berries, the signal that triggers fruit ripening and their transduction pathway still remain largely unknown. Fruits which display a respiration peak and an ethylene increase at the beginning of ripening are classified as climacteric but grape, which does not accumulate ethylene and lacks a respiration peak, classifies as non-climacteric fruit (Coombe and Hale 1973). However, fruit ripening and especially berry development is considered to involve both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent processes (Lelievre et al. 1997, Chervin et al. 2004). an inhibitor of the ethylene receptors, and of 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (CEPA), a chemical that releases ethylene when applied to plants, was evaluated on the ADH enzyme activity and VvADH transcript levels in a series of berry development and in suspension cells of Vitis vinifera (Fig. 4). For berries, a single treatment with 1-MCP had only an effect on enzyme activity treated 10 WPF (data not shown), whereas repeated...
Its leaves are thin, smooth and oval, light gray green above and paler below. The berries are a snowy, porcelainlike color and highly loticeable but not very tasty. Showy, red, trumpetlike flowers with orange throats, growing in clusters help identify this clambering, woody vine. Spherical red berries are produced and are eaten by several species of birds and small animals. They are edible, and some people do eat the berries however, it is reported by some that they act as a purgative.
This elder, or elderberry, shrub has showy, pyramidal clusters of small, fragrant creamy white blossoms followed by strikingly beautiful, shiny, scarlet berries. The flowers appear in late spring the fruit iri late summer. Various sources report this species as poisonous however, Indians ate the berries raw or boiled or made a tea from its roots without apparent ill effects. Jellies, pies and wine are sometimes made from the seedy berries. Numerous birds and small animals use the berries as a source of food, while moose and deer browse the twigs and foliage, i
Other barberries are usually small shrubs with slender stems not exceeding 3 feet in height, but Fremont's usually grows from 5 to 10 feet tall, sometimes reaching almost treelike proportions to 15 feet Its small yellow flowers are in bunches of 3 to 9 and develop into small (less than Vz inch) dark blue, miniature, grapelike berries. They make excellent jellies and jams.
Arguably, this spccics and a few selected cultivars may be the most acceptable choices for the conditions of the Midwest and Plains states. Lonkeru xytostetm is a rounded-mounded shrub with spreading, arching branches. The grayish green, 1- to 2l 5-in.-long leaves are the most pubescent of the species presented here. The white to yellowish white, Si-in.-king flowers produce minimal effect when they bloom in May. The dark red berries offer some color in uiy and August. A tough, durable honeysuckle for difficult environments. Grows 8 to 10 ft- high. 10 to 12 ft. wide. Zones 4 to 6. F.urope tu the Altai Mountains oi Asia.
And that is more carefully implemented, resulting in less seedling and root damage. Weeds can also affect the processes carried out prior to crop planting. For example, fat hen stems and leaves block the mesh of de-stoners, which are used prior to potato and other root crop planting. Species with rough, wiry stems that spread close to the ground (e.g. knotgrass, Polygonum aviculare) or are more erect in growth habit (e.g. fat hen, Chenopodium album) present major problems to the mechanical harvesting of many crops and can result in damage to machinery (e.g. pea viners) and subsequent harvesting delays. Other species can be troublesome when the crops are harvested by hand, such as the small nettle (Urtica urens) in strawberries and field bindweed (Convolvulus arven-sis) in blackcurrants. The result of this is that fruit is not harvested and spoils on the plant.
Farmers can increase their share of the consumer food expenditures by adding value to what they sell. Some examples of added value are direct sales to consumers at farmers' markets, roadside markets, and farmer-owned marketing and processing cooperatives. Paul Eck in The American Cranberry described Ocean Spray cranberry juice as a most successful story of farmers adding value to cranberries. Cranberry growers formed a cooperative to process and market Ocean Spray cranberry juice more profitably, a product that has great brand identification with consumers. see also Agriculture, History of Agriculture, Modern Alcoholic Beverage Industry Alcoholic Beverages Alliaceae Cacao Coffee Corn Cotton Fiber and Fiber Products Forestry Fruits Grains Oils, Plant-Derived Paper Potato Potato Blight Rice Sugar Tea Tobacco Vegetables Wheat.
Authors, the high rate of accumulation of this element post-veraison is thus consistent with flow through the phloem into the grape berry after veraison (Lang and Thorpe 1989, Greenspan et al. 1994). In Grenache noir berries we have observed that Mg++ entered in the berry mostly before veraison, and thereafter the accumulation of this cation remained more or less constant after veraison in NI treatments. It however appeared to increase in the I treatments (Fig. 3c).
A suffrutescent or herbaceous, short-lived perennial (cultivated as annual) up to 1 m in height, cultivated throughout India from sea level up to an altitude of 2,100m. Leaves oblong, glabrous flowers solitary, rarely in pairs, pure white to bluish white, very rarely violet berries green, maturing into yellow, orange to red shading into brown or purple, pendent, rarely erect, extremely variable in size (up to 20 cm long and 10 cm in diameter), shape and pungency, sometimes lobed, seeds white or cream to yellow, thin, almost circular, having long placental connections (The Wealth of India, 1992).
Epiphytic, deep shade to full sun, mesic to extremely xeric and sea level to alpine, and from the hot and humid tropics to the cold and dry subtropics. They thus cover a wide area, from the centre of the USA to the northern regions of Argentina and Chile (Smith, 1934). The Bromeliaceae are set apart from other monocots by the unique, stellate or scale-like multicellular hairs and the unusual conduplicate, spiral stigmas (Gilmartin and Brown, 1987). They are also characterized by a short stem, a rosette of narrow stiff leaves, terminal inflorescences in the form of racemes or panicles, hermaphroditic and actinomorphic trimerous flowers with well-differentiated calyx and corolla, six stamens and superior to inferior trilocular ovary, with axile placentation and numerous ovules. Fruits are capsules or berries and contain small naked, winged or plumose seeds, with a reduced endosperm and a small embryo. Most species are epiphytic or saxicolous, but some are terrestrial. They are...
Although sexual reproduction is more frequent, asexual reproduction also commonly occurs in the plant kingdom. The technical term for asexual reproduction in plants is apomixis, derived from apo meaning without, and mixis meaning mingling. Apomixis thus refers to the fact that asexual reproduction lacks the mixing of genes that occurs in sexual reproduction. In apomixis, a new individual is produced by a single parent without pollination or mixing genetic material. A familiar example of apomixis is the production of new plants by the growth of horizontal stems (runners) in strawberries (genus Fragaria). Other familiar plants with asexual reproduction include blackberries (genus Rubus) and dandelions (genus Taraxacum), both of which produce asexually formed seeds. Apomixis is of great interest to plant breeders, because it allows the production of exact genetic duplicates of plants with favorable characteristics.
Just over two dozen food plants account for 75 percent of all plant calories and 90 percent of arable land cultivated. This list includes six grasses rice, wheat, corn, barley, oats, and sorghum four legumes soybeans, peanuts, common beans, and peas two sugar crops sugarcane and sugar beets two tropical tree crops bananas and coconuts four starchy roots potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, and yams five fruits tomatoes, grapes, apples, oranges, and mangoes and two vegetables cabbages and onions. These twenty-five crops literally stand between subsistence and starvation for the human population. This is an agricultural calorie list and does not recognize the extremely rich vitamin and mineral sources found in low-calorie vegetables and fruits. Also this list does not recognize the important regional foods of the world. For instance, the native American crop cranberries is extremely important to Americans at Thanksgiving but is insignificant on the world calorie chart (less than...
One of the most conspicuous characteristics of Rosaceae is the variety of fruits produced by its species. Many Rosaceae have achenes and follicles, both of which are nonfleshy. Achenes contain one seed and have a hard fruit wall that does not split open at maturity, whereas follicles contain more than one seed and split open at maturity. Most fleshy fruits of Rosaceae are either drupes or pomes. A drupe (or stone fruit) contains one seed the inner part of the fruit wall (the pit) is hard, and the outer fruit wall is usually fleshy. Peaches, plums, and cherries are examples of fleshy drupes, while almonds are nonfleshy. The fruits of raspberries and blackberries are clusters of many very small drupes. Pomes such as apples and pears are unusual fruits because the fleshy part does not develop from the pistil but from the hy-panthium. The mature pistil containing the seeds is enclosed by the fleshy hypanthium. The fleshy part of the strawberry fruit is also not made from the pistil but...
Grapes are removed from the vines, usually by manual labor, and are brought to the winery for production. The grapes are passed through a mechanical destemmer that removes the nonfruit portions of the bunches, and the fruits are then crushed to express the juice from the fleshy berries. The liquid obtained from the crushed grapes is termed must. The must is placed in either open or closed fermentation vessels (typically closed vessels in modern wineries) and readied for fermentation. If red wines are being made, the skins from the pressed grapes are also added to the fermentation vessel (the grape skins contribute reddish pigments to the finished wine) for white wine production, the skins are not used and only clear must is fermented.