Urban Beekeeping Ebook

Build Your Own Warre Garden Backyard Top Bar Beehive

The book contains: Detailed pictures and diagrams showing every hive part and component so you can easily visualize your completed beehive as you build it. 8 chapters detailing every part of the beehive to make sure you get all the info you need to build your hive. The types of materials I use to build beehives. These materials are easy to find and also very inexpensive. You can build a complete beehive for less than a night on the town! 56 pages! I don't alloon my books. You get content and a lot of it in a concise, easy to read format. Step by step Point of View pictures look over my shoulder as I build, finish and install a complete beehive. Never worry about getting lost in the instructions again! You'll know exactly what to do and when to do it! Read more here...

Build Your Own Warre Garden Backyard Top Bar Beehive Summary

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Contents: Ebook
Author: Nick Winters
Official Website: diybeehive.com
Price: $27.00

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Discover Beekeeping A Beginner Beekeepers Guide

Beekeeping Is The Big Buzz Word Right Now, Learn How To Become A Beekeeper With This Easy To Follow Guide. Author Provides Full Email Support And Owns One Of The Largest Beekeeping Forums On The Internet. This ebook contains: Beekeeping 101 is a detailed, illustrated training manual that covers the most important aspects of beekeeping such as the most popular type of bee and the ideal size and location for your colony. A list of the equipment needed to launch your beekeeping operation and the approximate cost is extensively covered in Beekeeping 101. As a beekeeper myself, I have numerous books on the subject and I have found that there are many beekeeping books out there that are difficult to understand and may give only a portion of the information needed to start a successful beekeeping operation. For the aspiring new beekeeper it is essential to have a comprehensive manual that takes you by the hand and walks you through every phase of beekeeping. Beekeeping 101 discusses the best time to set your hives, when to harvest the honey, various methods used to harvest honey, and how to prepare your bees for the cold winter months.and that is just a short list of what this eBook contains! Are you worried the information covered may not apply to your area? Don't be! There are separate downloads for the Usa as well as a European / Uk version to make sure you are getting the most current information for your area. Pictures throughout the entire eBook illustrate ideas that make it even easier to understand! The anatomy of a bee and hive construction will no longer be a mystery with the included diagrams. It also includes the most common bee diseases and how to recognize and treat them. As a bonus you will also receive a truly fascinating crash course in hive behavior! Read more here...

Discover Beekeeping A Beginner Beekeepers Guide Summary

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Official Website: www.discoverbeekeeping.com
Price: $27.00

Start Practical Beekeeping & Discover Honey Bee Secrets

Bee keeping is one of the cheapest farming activities to start up. You only Need bee hives, a quality bee suit, hive tool, a smoker and gloves. It is also a sustainable agricultural activity. The honey bee is a natural resource! Recent decline in bee populations is a major scare for governments arund the world. If pollination of main food sources were to suffer farming production would suffer. By developing your skill in the beekeeping niche you can provide bee hives for healthy bees and help restore the natural balance of nature. You also get to make a serious profit from it! Revealing Beekeeper Secrets Of Creating New Queen Bees, Catching Wild Swarms & Harvesting Honey. Learn About Bee Diseases And Pests, Maintaining Your Apiary And Top Quality Beekeeper Equipment! Find Out About The Bee Family And Splitting Colonies. Whats more, inside Practical Beekeeping, you also get to benefit from the following too:To Make a Profit Farming Bees. Learn about nature. Make and Eat your own bee honey! Learn how to become a beekeeper. Make Pure Beeswax Candles that smell fantastic. Make Money Selling Honey! How to treat a bee sting. Beekeeping suits that protect against bee stings. Start a part-time business selling your bee honey. Start hiring out your honeybees to pollinate crops. BEarn passive income with bee pollen, royal jelly. Increase Crop production by up to 4 Times. Making money with bee honey, comb honey & bee pollen. Increase seed production for agricultural & floral use Read more here...

Start Practical Beekeeping & Discover Honey Bee Secrets Summary

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Official Website: practicalbeekeeping.com
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Beekeeping Ebook Swarm Traps And Bait Hives

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Beekeeping Ebook Swarm Traps And Bait Hives Summary

Contents: EBook
Author: McCartney
Official Website: learningbeekeeping.com
Price: $9.75

Beekeeping

Beekeeping is currently becoming a most beneficial industry (Fig. 2.6). The flora of the Lesser Himalayas has great potential for honey beekeeping. A number of wild species are normally visited by the bees, including Acacia modesta, Bauhinia variegata, Brassica campestris, Carissa opaca, Dalbergia sissoo, Justicia adh-atoda, Punica granatum, Pyrus spp., Prunus spp., Zea mays, Beekeeping has been identified as a small-scale, nonland-based, off-farm activity that can facilitate the use of land resources without degrading them. Encouraging this industry in the area will stress to the local community the importance of keeping the flora alive as well as being cautious about starting fires in the local forest, as fumigation badly disturbs beekeeping. Older people and women of the area can undertake this activity as a domestic industry. The association of wild animals with the is a natural phenomenon for example, according to the older generation, there was a thriving population of barking...

Sources of Natural Sugar

Sucrose, fructose, dextrose, and glucose are the natural sugars most frequently used. Although many fruit-bearing plants like the date palm and the carob produce sugar as a product of photosynthesis, the world's major supply of sugar is obtained from the cultivated or managed crops of sugarcane, sugar beet, corn, sugar maple, and sweet sorghum. Sugarcane, corn, and sweet sorghum are cultivated grass plants that store sugar in their stalks or seed. Sugar beet is a broadleaf plant that stores sugar in its root. Sugar maple is a hardwood tree with sugar in its sap, and honey is produced by honey bees from the nectar of plant flowers that contains sugars.

Responses of Pollinators

Sexual reproduction of many plants species depends on pollination by honey bees, bumble bees, solitary bees, syrphid flies or moths (Klein et al. 2006). Herbivory in early stages of plant growth reduces the photosynthetic area of the plant, and may result in smaller plants and a shorter flowering period. This is possibly due to allocation of resources to defenses, rather than growth and reproduction (Poveda et al. 2003). Herbivory may affect the production of pollen and nectar, the quality of nectar, morphology of flowers and may reduce seed production (Lehtila and Strauss 1997 Hamback 2001 Poveda et al. 2003). Both nectar quality and quantity are parameters that determine the number and type of pollinators that are attracted to the plants (Potts et al. 2003). While extrafloral nectar is known to increase after her-bivory, it remains unknown whether herbivory also affects floral nectar production (Adler et al. 2006). Just a handful of studies have addressed the effect of herbivory on...

Glutathione is part of the trigger mechanism for the recycling of sulphur from glucosinolates

A far extended example for a signal in this context may be the phenomenon of white flowering in Brassica species (Schnug and Haneklaus 1995), which is induced by sulphur starvation causing the species specific involvement of GSH (see above). As a result of a lowered synthesis of proteins, sugars are enriched which again promote the formation of anthocyanins. In the flower petals anthocyanins occur as colourless leuco-anthocyanins which makes the petal turn from yellow to white and loosing its attractiveness for foraging honey bees (Schnug 1993).

Melissopalynological Work in Brazil South America

Bruguiera Pollen

The most abundant mangrove species in this area was Laguncularia racemosa. The flowers of this species have a sweet perfume and were very frequently visited by honeybees . The field observations revealed that bees stayed about five seconds on each flower for nectar collection. On account of its long flowering period its pollen were found in a number of honey samples and pollen loads, thus emphasizing its great importance for apiculture in Brazil. In contrast, the pollen grains of Avicennia tomentosa were not found in the honey samples. On the basis of their experimental work Agashe and Rangaswamy have suggested the need for extensive mangrove cultivation and its sustainable management for apiculture development. They are of the opinion that by including pollen and nectar-yielding plants into social forestry programmes, it is possible to increase the total bee colony carrying-capacity of an area, which will enhance the total honey production. The same view has been supported recently...

Trends Of Melissopalynological Work In India

Honeybees are lauded as the most important pollinators of crops. In spite of the rich diversity of angiosperm flora in India, very little work has so far been done on plant-pollinator relationship (Atluri et al., 2003). It is an established fact that social or solitary, domesticated or wild bees totally depend on flowers for the survival on account of the food they provide in the form of pollen grains and nectar. Bees require an enormous quantity of pollen and nectar for nutrition for themselves and for their brood. A web page Beekeeping in India was started by Suryanarayana in 2001 to disseminate information on various aspects of beekeeping and bee research in India. The All India Bee Keepers Association has been engaged in beekeeping development activities right from its inception in 1937. The 'Indian Bee Journal' started 62 years ago is the only English journal in Asia devoted to tropical beekeeping. In addition, the association also publishes 'Bharatiya Madhvipalan' in Hindi and...

Pollination And Dispersal

Pollination And Dispersal

Although they are not typical melittophilous flowers, aloes are also visited by bees. In some areas, especially in South Africa, the flowering of aloes is important in apiculture, though it is reported that the nectar and pollen of some species can affect the behaviour of bees, making them vicious (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). The abundance of nectar produced by the flowers of some species is such that even baboons have been seen collecting flowers in order to suck the nectar (Reynolds, 1950). In West Africa some wasps were captured on flowers of A. buettneri, and dissection of the gut

Pollination Management

It is the horticultural practice that enhances the pollination of a crop, to improve yield or quality. The largest managed pollination event in the world is in California almonds, where nearly, half (about one million hives) of the U.S. honeybees are transported by trucks to the almond orchards each spring. It has been reported that New York's apple crop requires about 30,000 beehives Maine's blueberry crop uses about 50,000 beehives each year. Bees are also brought to commercial plantings of cucumbers, squash, melons, strawberries, and many other crops. Thus, the management techniques of a beekeeper providing pollination service are different and somewhat incompatible, compared to a beekeeper who is trying to produce honey. The farmers only option in the current economy is to bring beehives to the field during blossom time. In many tropical countries in the forest honeydew may not be available for honeybees on account of high density of ants. The ants feed on the honey dew and...

Pinkdisease fruitcollapse and marblingdisease bacteria

Pink-disease bacteria are vectored to the pineapple flowers by insects and mites, probably attracted to the nectar. Honey-bees may play a role as important vectors of Gluconobacter and a lesser role for Acetobacter (Gossele and Swings, 1986). The nectar is thought to provide a nutrient source for the survival of the bacteria until they become latent in the nectary gland or stylar canal or locule. Gossele and Swings (1986) suggest that the bacteria may actually overwinter in honey-bee hives. Once the bacteria are inside the flower, they remain latent until the fruit matures, sugar concentrations increase and translucence occurs.

Goods and services of plantation forests

The functions and services of plantation forests are diverse. FAO for instance, makes a distinction between 'productive' and 'protective' plantations (FAO, 2006). Productive plantations are focused primarily on the production of industrial wood, fuelwood and non-wood forest goods (e.g. animal fodder, apiculture, essential oils, tan bark, cork, latex, food), whereas protective plantations are established to provide conservation, recreation, carbon sequestration, water quality control, erosion control and rehabilitation of degraded lands, which also includes landscape and amenity enhancement (e.g. Fuhrer, 2000 Shelton et al, 2001 Lamb et al, 2005).

Ethnobotanical Aspects

Abstract The term ethnobotany was first coined in 1896 by the American botanist John Harshberger as the study of plants used by primitive and aboriginal people. Since then it has been defined as the traditional knowledge of indigenous communities about the surrounding plant diversity and the study of how the people of a particular culture and region make use of indigenous plants. Indigenous communities of the Lesser Himalayas are heavily dependent on plant resources as medicines, food, fuel, fodder, and tools in beekeeping. But at the same time, due to the overuse of these plant resources, certain species are threatened. Some common threats to the floral diversity of the region include forest fire, grazing and browsing, tree cutting, climatic fluctuation, earthquake, and flooding. In order to avoid further loss of endangered, endemic, and rare species, conservation methods should be practiced as part of a long-term conservation program. Reforestation trends have been lacking among the...

Pollen Graivn Preface

The book will be also a good source of basic and applied information on pollen, which can be further exploited by researchers in various fields. It is up to user agencies to make use of the data in this book for exploiting respective fields. Pollen is aptly referred by some as GOLDEN DUST, extremely valuable on account of the golden yellow colour and their tremendous applications in science, industry and public health. No other plant part, even though extremely tiny in size is packed with so much information and power. It appears that honey bees, had realized the importance and utility of pollen earlier than man.

Melissopalynology And Pollen Flora

As per a recent report, the annual world production of honey is around 9,92,000 tonnes of which over 50 is produced by larger beekeeping countries like China (1,60,000), United States of America (75,000), Mexico (67,000), Canada (43,000), India (37,000), Argentina and Australia (35,000 each). In India, Tamil Nadu is the largest honey-producing state (2,373 tonnes) whereas Karnataka produces 750 tonnes of honey annually.

Pollination Bee Foraging Plants In Europe And North America

The other trend is the decline of pollinator populations, due to pesticide misuse and overuse, new diseases and parasites of bees, clearcut logging, decline of beekeeping, suburban development, with introduction of exotic flora to gardens, removal of hedges and other habitats from farms. It is estimated that one hive per acre will sufficiently pollinate watermelons. Patterns of climate e.g., excessive rainfall, prolonged drought-changes witnessed in recent years have influenced the decline of the industry as well as mite and viral diseases increase among colonies where bee keeping is a 'cottage industry' only.

Sundrops

Other species, including sundrops, bloom during the day and are pollinated mainly by bees. Sundrops are self-incompatible, so fruit set depends on pollinators moving pollen from plant to plant. About three-quarters of all flowering plant species, including most food crops, depend on pollinators to bear fruit. Studies of many pollinators, including wild bees, as well as some butterflies, hummingbirds, and bats, show signs of declining populations. The causes of pollinator decline vary and are often difficult to identify but are often associated with habitat degradation or loss.

Epilogue

This winter I've made friends with a local beekeeper and with other weed-friendly gardeners, some of whom also have young children. I have started to feel less alone in my affection toward our weedy lawn now that the township has declared one soccer field pesticide free, now that I know of a landscaper who also plants clover. I have, for the first time, started my own tomatoes indoors, grown from fruit of heirloom plants I bought last year. I hope their provenance can overcome my methods of seed collection they are growing from seeds that dried onto our kitchen windowsill from a tomato we didn't eat in time. I am not going to tell you how long I left the seeds on the windowsill before I scraped them off with a knife and put them in pots.

Floral Biology

Prance (1976) has previously described and illustrated the flowers of C. subsessilis. He also reported flower visits to this species by five species of wasp (Polybia flavitincta Fox, P. rejecta (F.), P. sericea (Oliver), Synoeca virginea (F.), and Chartergus sp.) and by honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) of the African variety. However, because wasps are not generally known to collect pollen and because C. subsessilis does not produce nectar, we are uncertain of the role wasps play in pollination. They may have been frequenting the flowers to prey upon other flower visitors.

Historical Account

In their excellent review of work on melissopalynology, Jones and Bryant (1996) had indicated that the sweet taste of honey had attracted the early primate ancestors of humans and later humans too. Honey being a nature's gift derived from the hard work of honeybees and plant pollen attracted the attention of users and scientists right from prehistoric times. Cave paintings dating back to 15,000 years ago in Altamira region, northern Spain depict the honey combs and the ladders needed to reach bee hives on tall trees and rock crevices. The probable ancestors of the order Hymenoptera to which honeybees belong, evolved some 200 million years ago. Rock paintings in Central India, regarding human activities showed honey collections, which date back to the Mesolithic age. The use of honey as a sweetener in wine making was known to the Greeks and Romans. Perhaps the earliest evidence of honey gathering comes from the ancient paintings in Egyptian temples, which depicted slaves collecting...

Pollen in Honey

On the basis of quality and quantity of pollen present in honey, bee-foraging plants are classified into major and minor floral sources. Honey of a dominant floral type has great consumer preference and commercial value. Thus, by knowing which plants are preferred by honey bees, bee keepers can locate their apiaries for maximum honey production. This information can be also used by the forestry departments to concentrate on growing more of such bee-favoured plants which ultimately leads to higher honey production. A thorough knowledge of major floral resources is essential for a beekeeper to maintain healthy and productive bees and increase honey production.

Honeybees

Pollen Plants India

Honeybees form highly organized permanent colonies of 50,000 or more disciplined individuals that live in a hive. Honeybees are social insects with a marked division of labour between the various types of bees in the colony. A bee colony includes a queen, drones and workers (Fig.12.2). The queen is the only sexually developed female in the hive. She can be easily identified in a colony on account of her size. The queen bee, one per hive, is double the length and 2.8 times heavier than worker bee. She is the largest bee in the colony and is always surrounded by worker bees. A two-day-old larva is selected by workers to be reared as the queen. She will emerge from the queen chamber of the hive 11 days later to mate in the air with approximately 18 drones or male bees. During this mating she will receive several million sperm cells, which last her entire life span of nearly two years. Fig. 12.7 Visits by Apis dorsata (wild or giant honey bees) for foraging on different tropical plants...

Beekeeping for Beginners

Beekeeping for Beginners

The information in this book is useful to anyone wanting to start beekeeping as a hobby or a business. It was written for beginners. Those who have never looked into beekeeping, may not understand the meaning of the terminology used by people in the industry. We have tried to overcome the problem by giving explanations. We want you to be able to use this book as a guide in to beekeeping.

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