Natural Asthma Treatment System

Asthma Free Forever By Jerry Ericson

With Asthma Free Forever, asthma sufferers all over the world will discover the best way to cure asthma easily, naturally, and permanently. This guide was written by Jerry Ericson, an alternative medical specialist as well as former asthma sufferer. Inside this guidebook, users will discover the techniques that helped the author cure his asthma without useless and harmful medications. Inside this guide, users will discover the methods that helped the author cure his asthma without useless and harmful medications. The e-book contains a guided program that walks asthma sufferers through the process step by step, without the need for doctors. The program does not involve medication, drug therapies, or over the counter solutions. Asthma Free Forever is based on finding a natural solution to the problem, therefore it does not have any side effects. The natural treatments that are suggested are suitable for all asthma sufferers regardless of their gender or age. Asthma Free Forever has helped hundreds of people with asthma reduce their symptoms quickly and get rid of this disease easily and forever. The main e-book is itself a good value, but the additional bonuses that teach people to adopt a healthy lifestyle are just another weapon against asthma. With this productArticle Search, asthma sufferers can take their first steps toward a healthy life. Read more here...

Asthma Free Forever Overview


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I've really worked on the chapters in this book and can only say that if you put in the time you will never revert back to your old methods.

All the modules inside this book are very detailed and explanatory, there is nothing as comprehensive as this guide.


Atopy is a major predisposing factor for asthma, and environmental allergens are a causal factor for producing asthma. Food allergy is frequently underestimated in association with asthma, despite having been shown to trigger or exacerbate broncho-obstruction in 2 -8.5 of children with asthma.25 Sensitization of food can occur early in life, involving a T-cell response of the Th2 phenotype in addition to the commonly cited IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of asthma-associated food allergy is important for children with respiratory symptoms, especially when asthma symptoms begin early on in life and when they are associated with other manifestations of food allergies. Elimination of food allergens early in infancy have resulted in improved clinical asthma manifestations as well as exerting a protective effect on the progression of allergic tendencies later in life, as evidenced by decreased production of both total and specific IgE.26

Treating the Cause and Supporting the Airway Chemistry

Statistics indicate increasing prevalence of asthma in industrialized nations, particularly in the United States in the last 20 years. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported increasing asthma prevalence since 1980, including increased mortality and racial and regional disparities in asthma-related emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and deaths.1 In 2005, an estimated 7.7 of people (22.2 million) had asthma.2 Various reasons for this increase in asthma cases have been identified, ranging from air pollution to faulty genetics. The mainstream focus on asthma has also changed in the last 20 years, with a shift in understanding namely, that asthma is a chronic inflammatory condition. With this new understanding, treatment focus has changed from reactive to preventive, with chronic long-term use of inhaled corticosteroids as the mainstay of therapy. Despite this shift in treatment focus, increasingly negative statistics about asthma continue to be reported....

Etiology And Pathophysiology

Studies have found a greater frequency of certain traits and characteristics among parents of autistic than of healthy children. Greater maternal and paternal age are independently associated with an increased risk for ASD in offspring.7 Additionally, mothers who have allergies and asthma during the second trimester of pregnancy have a twofold greater than average risk of having a child with ASD. Although this same study found maternal psoriasis to be the only autoimmune disease associated with an increased risk for ASD,8 another study found a link between both maternal ulcerative colitis and paternal type 1 diabetes and increased risk for infantile autism.9

Characterization of Protein Fractions

Proteomics offers an effective approach for identifying wheat allergens. 2-DGE was coupled with Edman microsequencing 50, 51 or MS 52 to identify wheat proteins involved in baker's asthma, an IgE-mediated allergy. Proteins that cross-reacted with sera from asthmatic patients include a-amylase inhibitor 50, 51 GAPDH, TPI, and serpin 52 and acyl-CoA oxidase and FBA 51 . Wheat food allergies are also IgE-mediated proteins that cross-react with sera from allergic patients include lipid transfer protein (LTP) as well as a-, P-, y-, and -gliadins 53 . Proteomic procedures are also being developed for the screening of allergens with S-S bonds 54 . Allergen research appears to be an especially promising area for applying proteomics to identify and characterize allergens in foods and food products.

An Example of Application Pollen Allergen Analysis

Inhalative allergies are elicited predominantly by pollen of various plant species. A large number of grass, weed, and tree species shed their pollen in high concentrations during the pollen season, leading to allergic symptoms such as hay fever, rhinitis, and even bronchial asthma 27 . The last two decades were marked by large advances in the characterization of pollen-derived allergenic proteins.

Delayed Food Sensitivities And Allergies

In 1906, Clemens Von Pirquet, M.D., the noted Austrian pediatrician, coined the term allergy from the Greek alios (meaning changed or altered state) and ergon (meaning reaction or reactivity) to describe patients with excessive physiologic responses to substances in their environment. Currently, 50 million Americans suffer from allergies on a yearly basis, with allergy ranking as the fifth leading cause of chronic disease, and more than half of U.S. citizens test positive for one or more allergens.1 In fact, 16.7 million office visits to health care providers are attributed to allergic rhinitis alone.2 At all ages, allergic rhinitis without asthma is reported by nearly 90 people of every 1,000.3 In 1996, estimated U.S. health care expenditures attributable to sinusitis were more than 5.8 billion.4 Two recent estimates of allergy prevalence in the United States were 9 and 16 ,5 while the prevalence for specific allergic conditions, such as allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, have...

Philip Herries Gregory 19071986

In one of the surveys of a 16 th century house, he found the average spore concentration during 24 hours at 360,000 m3. In addition, he also surveyed air spora above a potato field (at 2 m height) by using a Hirst's sampler. He also emphasized the role of basidiospores in seasonal asthma. Philip Gregory conducted outstanding research on fungal aeroallergens

Lavender oil and its supposed functions

'Lavandula angustifolia has a yang quality and its ruling planet is Mercury (Tisserand, 1985).' That author lists its properties as 'analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispas-modic, antitoxic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmanogogue, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, splenic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary'. Its uses are for 'abcess, acne, alopecia areata, asthma, blenorrhoea, blepharitis, boils, bronchitis, carbuncles, catarrh, chlorosis, colic, conjunctivitis, convulsions, cystitis, depression, dermatitis, diarrhoea, diphtheria, dyspepsia, earache, eczema, epilepsy, fainting, fistula, flatulence, gonorrhoea, halitosis, headache, hypertension, hysteria, influenza, insomnia, laryngitis, leucorrhoea, migraine, nausea, nervous tension, neurasthenia, oliguria, palpitations, paralysis, pediculosis, psoriasis, rheumatism, scabies, scrofula, gall stones, sunstroke, throat infections,...

Physiological And Biochemical Targets For Alkaloids

Some alkaloids interfere with the assembly of microtubules (taxol, colchicine, maytansine), inhibit key enzymes such as adenylate cyclase (papaverine, theophylline, theobromine), activate neuromuscular systems involving ACH (physostigmine, coniine, nicotine), inhibit digestive processes (emetine, lobeline, morphine), modulate liver and kidney function (pyrrolizidine alkaloids, amanitine), and destabilize the blood and circulatory system (vinblastine, colchicine).

Structural determination of polysaccharides and their effect on phagocytosis and nitroblue tetrazolium NBT reduction

Neutral polysaccharides and a glycoprotein were isolated by gel filtration from the nondialysable fraction. These were shown to contain the following a linear polymer of a (1 6)-O-linked a-D-glucopyranose (molecular weight, 15Kda) a branched polymer of an arabinogalactan (MW, 30Kda) a molar ratio of galactose to arabinose 1 1.5 with two principle linear chains of (1 2)-O-L-arabinopyranose and (1 2)-O-D-galacto-pyranose at O-2 and O-6 of the D-galactopyranose residue a linear polymer of a (1 4)-O-linked P-D-mannopyranose (MW 40Kda) with 10 acetyl group a glycoprotein (MW, 40Kda protein, 57 hexosamine, 4 and carbohydrate, 34 ) consisting of Glc, Man, Gal, GlcN, GalN, GlcNAc (2 2 1 1 4 1) and amino acids. The linear chain of (1 4)-O-linked P-D-mannopyranose with 10 acetyl group and the glycoprotein enhanced phagocytosis in adult bronchial asthma patients (Yagi etal, 1986).

Physicochemical Properties

The oil is used internally for the treatment of coughs and colds, against stomach cramps, colic and asthma the dose is one to five drops. It is used externally for the relief of neuralgia and rheumatism, often in the form of ointments and liniments. External application of a few drops on cotton wool for the relief of toothache and earache.

Plants Having Stimulating Effects

Coffee (Coffea arabica, family Rubi-aceae), tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae), chocolate (Theobroma cacao, Stercu-liaceae), and holly (Hex paraguariensis, Aquifoliaceae) are stimulating beverages common throughout the world. All possess one or more of the xanthine alkaloids caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. Of the three, caffeine is the most stimulating.

Traditional Medicinal Uses

India In Ayurveda, the plant is known as Sahachara. In India the drug is considered to be astringent and makes a good nervine tonic, expectorant, and stimulant. He says that the root is expectorant, and is used in coughs and asthma. The root, boiled in milk, is largely used in leucorrhoea and general debility. The Siamese and Indo-Chinese consider the roots to be cordial and attenuant, and useful in paralysis and asthma. The tender shoots and leaves are used in India for bites. In Goa, the leaves, which abound in mucilage, are used as an emollient fomentation in rheumatism and neuralgia.

Viola canescens Wall ex Roxb


(250 mL) of water for 8-10 min 2 tsp (10-15 g) of sugar is also added. Then it is filtered with a cloth or filtration pot and given to patients suffering from fever, cold, cough, asthma, jaundice, headache, sore throat, or toothache. For children, 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given once daily, at bedtime, for 3-4 days. For adults, 2 cups (500 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given once daily, at bedtime, for 8-10 days. Diseases Cured Fever, cold, cough, asthma, jaundice, headache, toothache, and sore throat.

History Of Aerobiology

History Aerobiology

On account of the tremendous applications of aeropalynology in public health and medicines, a new term has been added recently known as 'medical palynology'. This branch is concerned with the study of airborne pollen and fungal spores, which are responsible for causing allergic manifestations including the triggering effect leading to asthmatic attacks. (Mackay et al., 1992) In addition, various aspects of immunotherapy are investigated involving hyposensitization of allergy patients by using pollen and fungal aeroallergen extracts.

Achyranthes aspera Linn

Ajuga Bracteosa

200 g of dried prickly fruit and 100 g of fresh roots are collected by men and women 20-40 years old, in winter (mostly October-February). Roots are cleaned and washed once or twice with water. (a) 200 g of dried fruit is placed on a hot iron plate, covered with another silver or iron lid, and burned for 5-10 min. This black-colored ash is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and is given to patients suffering from cough and asthma. For children, 3-4 g of ash powder (at one time) is mixed with 1 tsp (5-6 g) of honey and given 2-3 times per day for 8-10 days. For adults, 2-10 g of ash powder (at one time) is given 2-3 times per day for 8-10 days. Diseases Cured Cough, asthma, and kidney stone.

Quercus leucotrichophora A Camus

Shah Baloot Leaf Pic

Roots of Rumex hastatus (Kathimal) are boiled together in 5 L of water for 2-3 h. When 1 L of water is left, it is strained with a piece of cloth. This decoction is mixed with 1 2 Kg wheat flour (sooji), 200 g of sugar, and 250 g of ghee (desi) and cooked for 20-25 min. This sweet meal (halwa) is given to patients suffering from asthma, cough, fever, and rheumatism. For children, 1-2 tsp (15-20 g) of halwa (at one time) is given once or twice daily for 4-5 days. For adults, 2-3 tsp (40-50 g) of halwa (at one time) is given twice daily for 10-15 days. This drug is also given to cattle suffering from body weakness 200 g of drug (at one time) is given to cattle 2-3 times per day for 6-7 days. (b) 150 g of fresh bark is boiled daily in 2 cups (500 mL) of water for 25-30 min. When 1 cup (250 mL) of water is left, it is strained with a piece of cloth. This decoction is given to patients suffering from backache. For children, not used. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction (at one time) is...

Pistacia chinensis

Coping With Asthma

(a) 150 g of dried leaf galls is placed on a hot iron plate, covered with another iron or silver pot, and burned for 5-10 min. This ash is then mixed with 500 g of honey. Or 150 g of dried galls is ground for 3-4 min. This powder is then mixed with xh kg of honey. This drug is given to patients suffering from cough, asthma, diarrhea, and phlegm. For children, 1-2 tsp (10-12 g) of drug is given daily at bedtime for 10-12 days. For adults, 2-4 tsp (20-25 g) of drug is given daily at bedtime for 20-25 days. Cough, asthma, diarrhea, phlegm (balghum), and gleets (jiryan).

Arisaema utile Hookfex Schott

The pot's mouth is covered tightly by a lid and then these tubers are roasted on a fire for 25-30 min. Next, the black roasted tubers are ground for 4-5 min. This black-colored powdered (kakh) is stored in a glass bottle and is given to patients suffering from asthma. For children, not used. For adults, 2-3 g of this powdered drug (at one time) is put into one dried grape and is given at night (bedtime) daily for 15-20 days. Diseases Cured Gas trouble, stomach disorder, asthma, and skin

Pharmacological Properties

In Ayurveda and Sidha systems of medicine cardamom finds application as a component of several therapeutic formulations. Charakasamhita, the ancient Indian medical text, describes the use of cardamom as an antidote for food poisoning. This forms a constituent of Bhrahmi rasayana, which is used as a treatment for inflammations. Also used as a component of many balms, ointments and therapeutic oils used against cramps, rheumatic pain, inflammations etc. In Ayurvedic texts the properties of cardamom seeds are described as aromatic, acrid, sweet, cooling, stimulant, carminative, diuretic, cardiotonic and expectorant. Cardamom is used as an ingredient in preparations used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hemorrhoids, renal and vesicle calculi, cardiac disorders, anorexia, dyspepsia, gastropathy, debility and vitiated conditions of vata. But no pharmacological investigations were carried out to validate the above properties. An aqueous extract of seeds is given to nursing mother to...

Carissa opaca Stapfex Haines

Carissa Opaca

1 kg of fresh roots of Segeratia brandrethina are boiled in 3-4 jugs (4 L) of water for 1 h. When 1-2 jugs (1 L) of water is left, then it is filtered with a cloth or filtration pot. This decoction is stored in a glass bottle and given to patients suffering from asthma, jaundice, and kidney pain. For children, cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 2 cups (500 mL) of water and 10-15 g of sugar then it is shaken well and given to the patient 2-3 times per day for 6-7 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 2 cups (500 mL) of water and 10-15 g of sugar then it is shaken well and given twice daily (morning-evening) for 5-6 days. Diseases Cured Asthma, jaundice, kidney stones, liver disorders,

Calotropis procera Wild R Br

(c) 200 g of semi-dried leaves is placed on a mud plate and 100 g of common salt is sprinkled over them this is burned for 10-15 min. Then these leaves are ground for 4-5 min the resulting powder is stored in a glass bottle and given to patients suffering from asthma and cough. The smoke is used to kill insects. For children, not used. For adults, 4-5 g of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 15-20 days. Diseases Cured Skin infections (chambal), cough, asthma, dog and

Sageretia brandrethiana Aitch JLS

Patharchatta Plant For Kidney Stone

When 2 L of water is left, it is filtered with a cloth and stored in a glass bottle. The decoction is given to patients suffering from cough, asthma, jaundice, kidney stones, and body weakness. For children, xh cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 1 cup (250 mL) of water and given twice daily (morning-evening) for 7-8 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction (at one time) is mixed with 1 cup (250 mL) of water and given twice daily (morning-evening) for 8-10 days. (b) 120 g of dried leaves and roots is ground together for 8-10 min. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from diarrhea, dysentery, and skin diseases. For children, xh tsp (3-4 g) of the drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days. For adults, 1 tsp (6-8 g) of the drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water for 5-6 days. Diseases Cured Cough, asthma, jaundice, dysentery, diarrhea, skin

Justicia adhatoda Linn Nees

Trachyspermum ammi (Ajwain), 100 g of Foeniculum vulgare (Sounf), 80-90 g of Terminalia belerica (Harir), 50 g of Zingiber officinales (Adrak), and 70 g of Black piper are mixed and ground for 15-20 min. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from cough, asthma, tuberculosis, stomach problems, and phlegm. For children, 3-6 g of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water, 2-3 times per day, for 8-10 days. For adults, 10-15 g of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water, 2-3 times per day, for 10-15 days. (b) xh kg of fresh roots is cleaned and washed 2-3 times with water and cut into small 1-2-in. pieces then they are boiled in 5-6 cups (1,500 mL) of water for 20-25 min. When 2 cups (500 mL) of water is left, it is filtered with a piece of cloth. Next, 5-6 g of alum (patkhri) is added and again boiled for 4-5 min to remove dirty froth. Then it is chilled and stored in a glass bottle given to...

Echinacea as an immunomodulator

That Echinacea works best as a preventative is consistent with the clinical experience of many phytotherapists, although this activity has not been borne out by recent studies (Melchart and Linde, 1999). In fact, it may be more accurate to describe Echinacea as an immunomodulator. While it stimulates phagocytic activity, this may have the end result of modulating immune function overall. For example, the chronic presence of a microorganism may cause a state of immune dysregulation that results in autoimmune disease or a chronic inflammatory condition such as asthma. Such theories have been proposed in the mainstream scientific literature (Bone, 1999). A substance that enhances immune surveillance may help the body to eliminate the organism or neutralize its imbalancing effect on the immune system, thereby toning down an inappropriate immune response. Similarly, the body's response to an allergen may be reduced if a more appropriate response results from enhanced phagocytic activity...

Professor T Sreeramulu 19251974

He had a profound knowledge of aerobiology, allergy and immunology. He guided several research students for their Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Botany (aerobiology), prominent among them are Dr. M. K. Agarwal and Dr. A. B. Singh, who became outstanding research workers in aerobiology and immunology. The former worked at V. P. Chest Institute and later worked at the CSIR centre for biochemicals (Now Institute of Genomics) at Delhi. He also guided several doctors for their M. D. in chest diseases including allergy and immunology. He successfully brought together basic scientists and clinicians for fruitful interaction at scientific meetings by establishing the Indian College of Allergy and Applied Immunology (now the Indian College of Allergy, Asthma and Applied Immunology) in 1967, with its head quarters at the V. P. Chest Institute, Delhi. The college conducts

Datura innoxia Miller

Innoxia, and 120 g of dried leaves of Nicotiana tabacum are ground for 10-15 min. This powder is stored in a plastic bottle and is used by patients suffering from cough and asthma. For children, not used. For adults, 2 tsp (10-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is put in a pipe and is smoked by patients for 2-3 min once or Diseases Cured Cough and asthma.

Significance of Fungi as Aeroallergens

The possibility of fungal allergy was first mentioned by Cadham (1924) and Van Leeuwen (1924). However, the first systematic studies of fungal allergy were those of Feinberg (1935). The first systematic aerobiological work including airborne fungi in India was carried out by Cunningham (1873) in Calcutta. Agnihotri (1980) studied the fungi in the bedroom of bronchial asthma patients and found Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus fumigatus and Helminthosporium sp. as dominant fungi. The percentage of fungal spores in the air is approximately 10 times higher than that of pollen grains, however by volume the pollen dominate. 4. The spore should contain an excitant of hay fever or asthma.

The Hygiene Hypothesis

Recent analyses of risk-factor patterns for allergic disease in Europe has led to a causal theory for the increasing asthma epidemic this theory is known as the hygiene hypothesis. It stipulates that advances in hygiene have removed a protective influence against atopy and asthma that was once provided by infectious exposures in early childhood. This hypothesis has been questioned in the United States, where the largest sector of increasing asthma incidence since the 1970s occurs in the inner cities among minorities who are living in poverty with suboptimal hygienic conditions. When viewed from a historical perspective, the recent increasing trend in respiratory allergies among the less-advantaged in the United States may be explained as the consequence of several epiphenomena linked to Westernization (including declining exposure to foodborne and orofecal infections) that has moved downward from the richest socioeconomic strata to the poorest in the last 150 years.6 In regard to this...

Allerginicity of Parthenium hysterophorus

In another research investigation from Bangalore Rao et al, (1985) and Uthyashankar et al. (1985) performed extensive studies on the allerginicity of Parthenium hysterophorus in patients. Both skin tests and radio allegro solvent test (RAST) were performed on patients with classic symptoms of allergic rhinitis during July and December. These classical studies demonstrated that 34 of patients with classic allergic rhinits and 12 of patients with asthma were sensitive to extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus pollen. Similar studies were carried out by collecting sera from 18 patients selected on the basis of symptoms of allergic rhinitis or asthma related to the fall season and were shown to be reactive to Ambrosia species on the basis either skin testing or RAST.

Use of Plants as Food

Among vegetables, Alysum desertorum, Amaranthus viridis, Bauhinia varie-gata, Brassica campestris, B. rapa, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Ficus spp., Lamimum amplexicaula, Lathyrus aphaca, Medicago polymorpha, Nasturtium officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Raphanus sativus, Rumex chalpensis, R. hastatus, Solanum spp., Taraxacum officinale, and Torilis leptophyla are commonly utilized species. Allium cepa, A. sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Capsicum annuum, Mentha spp., Oxalis corniculata, and Pimpinella diversifolia are used as condiments and spices. The season for collection varies. Allium cepa, A. sativum, Brassica campestris, B. rapa, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Ficus variegate, Nasturtium officinale, Raphanus sativus, and Taraxacum officinale, are collected in early spring, while Amaranthus viridis, Capsicum annuum, Medicago polymorpha, Mentha spp., Oxalis corniculta, Pimpinella diversifolia, Plantago lanceolata., and Rumex spp. are collected in early winter. Allium...

Nutraceuticallaboratory Test Interactions

Concentrations Acetaminophen false-negative urine results AST false increase in results of serum tests Bilirubin false increase in serum test Theophylline false decrease in serum assay Carbamazepine (Tegretol) falsely increased serum assay results LDH false decrease in test results Creatinine false increase in serum creatinine or

Use Of Carnivorous Plants

Macerated Drosera leaves or extracts of leaves were used externally to treat warts, corns, and sunburn. Extracts or teas made from the leaves were used to treat internal disorders including tuberculosis, asthma, whooping cough, catarrh of the lower respiratory tract, arteriosclerosis, eye and ear inflammations, liver pain, morning sickness, dropsy, various stomach maladies, syphilis, toothaches, intestinal problems, as a tranquilizer, diuretic, and it was believed to have some aphrodisiacal power. When homeopathy was in vogue, the extract was also used to cause irritation of the skin because it was believed that if the skin was inflamed, an agent which caused inflammation would cure it. This is the theory behind producing and using vaccines for disease control. Scientists have discovered an anti-spasmodic agent in some Drosera species.

Resin Glycosides 2017

Semisynthetic Derivatives of Tropane Alkaloids. Generally semisynthetic remedies are developed with the aim to improve the pharmacodynamic and or pharma-cokinetic properties of a natural agent. Homatropine (3a-mandeloyloxytropane) (Fig. 3.25) is a shorter acting mydriatic in contrast to atropine which is of advantage in diagnostic ophthalmology. It can be synthesized by acylation of 3a-hydroxytro-pane and represents one of the oldest semisynthetic drugs at all. A century ago, Jowett and Pyman (1909) continued with structure activity relationship studies of tropanes by checking a series of semisynthetic 3a-acyloxytropanes (tropeines). They found out that certain derivatives possessed more or less marked mydriatic properties in contrast to others most of them were less active than homatropine. Today, semisyn-thetic quaternary ammonium substitutes of atropine such as ipratropium bromide and of scopolamine such as oxitropium bromide and N-butylscopolaminium bromide (Fig. 3.26) play an...

Authentification of lavender essential oil

L. latifolia is used in Paraquay for treating bronchitis, asthma, rheumatism and has also been applied topically for swellings. The aerial parts of L. latifolia (650g) were extracted with hot 70 per cent ethanol and then concentrated to give a 70 per cent extract (164 g). The extract was then partitioned between water and chloroform to give a chloroform-soluble and water-soluble fraction and a precipitate (Shimizu et al, 1990). The chloroform fraction was then further partitioned to yield coumarin, 7-methoxy-coumarin, trans-phytol and caryophyllene oxide. Coumarin in the chloroform fraction as well as the fraction itself was shown to have a weak effect on carageenin-induced paw edema in rats on topical application. The authors also reported that caryophyllene oxide showed an inhibitory effect on histamine-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum, but did no further tests with acetylcholine or atropine therefore these are not very meaningful results.

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Various associations between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been elucidated in recent clinical investigations The prevalence of GERD in people with asthma is generally higher than in people without asthma. Patients who have asthma with GERD have a higher risk of hospitalization for asthma symptoms. Asthma medications such as albuterol decrease lower esophageal sphincter pressure and esophageal contraction amplitude, while oral prednisone results in increased esophageal acid contact times, and respiratory symptoms correlate with esophageal acid introduction events.8 These findings suggest the possibility of asthma medications acting as promoting factors in the development of GERD in patients with asthma. It is estimated that incidence of GERD in children with asthma reaches nearly 50 -60 and is higher than in the general population.9 This is not a newly discovered association however, many studies are underway to determine the relationships between asthma and...

Ethnic Differences

Blacks are three times as likely as whites to be hospitalized for asthma and three times as likely to die from the disease. Racial differences in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality are closely related to poverty, urban air quality, indoor allergens, and inadequate patient education and medical care. Source Adapted from the Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), 1233 20th Street, NW, Suite 402, Washington, D.C., 20036. It is a well-established fact that airway inflammation is the mainstay of asthma pathophysiology. That being said, however, inflammation is a nebulous descriptor in terms of the multiple workings of the immune system in asthma. Newer theories of pathologic inflammatory processes portray abnormally regulated CD4 T-cell responses to normally benign antigens as the instigators of asthma-related inflammatory processes. More specifically, the Th2 subset cell grouping of CD4 T cells is implicated, producing interleukins (ILs)-4, -5, -6, -9, -10, and -13....

Food Allergy

Asthma can be one of the major symptoms of chronic food allergy, which contributes to the total overall antigenic load of a patient. Food-mediated allergic reactions may become clinically apparent immediately or even hours to days later in a patient with asthma, manifested by specific production by B lymphocytes of IgE and IgG antibodies to food proteins. From 20 to 60 of patients with bronchoconstrictive symptoms are reported to develop these symptoms as a result of food ingestion.13 One study demonstrated that the elimination of previously determined food allergens early in life resulted in decreased asthma symptomatology as well as inhibiting the progression of allergic tendencies (represented by decreased production of total and specific IgE) compared to a control group that did not undergo such eliminations.14 Increased gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and GI symptomatology has been found in a larger percentage of patients with asthma compared to controls without asthma...


Magnesium and calcium play various roles in pulmonary structure and function. A magnesium deficiency leads to an enhanced action of calcium being that magnesium acts as a calcium antagonist. This is notable in patients with asthma as a result of an intracellular influx of calcium causing bronchial smooth-muscle contraction with magnesium deficiency.26 Myo-genically induced action potentials and autonomic neurotransmitters can alter cytosolic calcium concentration. Increased action potentials will lead to higher cytosolic calcium concentrations, causing greater cross-bridge activity. Likewise, intracellular magnesium can modulate smooth-muscle contractions and inhibit calcium uptake directly, allowing for smooth-muscle relaxation. Magnesium works as a smooth-muscle relaxant, of which the micromusculature surrounding the bronchioles is comprised. Theoretically, inadequate magnesium levels may contribute to asthma exacerbations.27 It is of interest to note that, while overall calcium...


The enzyme sulfite oxidase helps to metabolize toxic substances, such as transforming sulfites to sulfate. This detoxification pathway is essential for the elimination of sulfite-containing drug and food substances. Sources of sulfites include certain processed foods, such as commercial potato salad, dried fruits, salad commonly found at salad bars, and certain drugs, such as some medicines for asthma. This pathway can be supported by molybdenum because sulfite oxidase is dependent upon this trace mineral.15 Legumes and whole grains are typically high in molybdenum as long as they are grown in soil that is replete with trace minerals.

Risk Factors

Anticholinergics, antidepressants, and inhaled bronchodilators are also related to the disease. This study also associated lack of education and manual work with the presence of GERD.4 Additional studies have suggested that increased intake of table salt, sweets, or white bread is also a risk factor. Exercise and diets high in fruit and dietary fiber appear to be protective against the condition.5,6 However, high-intensity exercise has been shown to decrease LES pressure and induce GERD symptoms in otherwise asymptomatic individuals.7 Caffeine ingestion also decreases LES pressure and decreases distal esophageal mean amplitude of contractions and peristaltic velocity, which can increase reflux.8 Ingestion of carbonated beverages has also been observed in a study to decrease the resting pressure, overall length, and abdominal length of the LES in healthy individuals temporarily. This study showed that 62 of individuals who drank carbonated beverages had significant decreases in these...


Diagnosis of GERD is often based on symptoms. It is characterized by chronic intermittent heartburn as a burning sensation in the chest and throat as well as acid regurgitation presenting as a sensation of acid in the throat or mouth. GERD may also present with atypical symptoms of esophageal and extra-esophageal origin such as chronic cough, sleep disturbance, chest pain, asthma, and hoarseness.12 In fact, one study showed that 50 of individuals with noncardiac chest pain had abnormal pH tests or positive endoscopy confirming the presence of GERD.13 A positive response to PPI therapy is frequently used to confirm the diagnosis of GERD. Additional diagnostic tests are performed for an individual with an atypical presentation, a high risk for complications, or a poor response to initial therapy. Initially, a barium swallow and upper GI series are commonly performed. Esophageal pH monitoring is an important diagnostic tool for GERD. Ambulatory pH monitoring detects abnormal levels of...

Kerry Bone

Traditional Use Does Not Support Limitations Modern Research Does Not Support Limitations Echinacea in Autoimmunity and Asthma Echinacea as an Immunomodulator Conclusions References only be used as a short-term treatment. Stimulation of the immune system will be detrimental in autoimmune disorders (such as multiple sclerosis) or in disorders where a heightened immune response may be counterproductive (such as AIDS, asthma, leukemia, and tuberculosis) hence Echinacea is con-traindicated in their treatment (Blumenthal et al., 1998).


The cleaned seeds and leaves are reported to have beneficial health effects on the brain, hearing, eyes, lungs, kidneys, liver, and general circulation. The seeds are eaten and the leaves used to prepare tea. It is used for its antibacterial effects and benefits for nerves, asthma, vision, improving blood flow, and slowing aging. Several secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, terpenoids (e.g., ginkgolides A, B, and C, bilobalide, ginkgetin, and isoginkgetin), and organic acids are some of the chemicals isolated from


Reishi (Ganoderma lucidum) mushrooms are sometimes referred to as Ling Chih or Ling Zhi. The medicinal use of this mushroom is detailed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia of the first century BC.30 Reishi was highly valued even at this time and had the most medical applications of all medicines in the pharmacopoeia. The very slow growth of reishi, along with its scarcity in the wild, made the mushroom highly prized. Recently, however, it has been cultivated successfully and is now widely available. Reishi's native habitats include decaying logs and plant matter near coastal areas. The mushroom comes in several different colors, with the red one most frequently used in Asia and North America. Traditional Chinese medicine uses of reishi included treating fatigue, weakness, insomnia, asthma, and coughs.31 Despite a long history of medical use, research on reishi's many health benefits was not able to be conducted


Pycnogenol (Horphag Research, Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland) is an extract from French maritime pine bark (Pinus maritima). This product is commonly used to treat venous insufficiency, asthma, and hypertension. Pycnogenol hasanti-inflammatoryand antioxidant properties it also decreases platelet aggregation and prevents oxidation of low-density lipoproteins.48,49 Pycnogenol has been shown to increase NOS activity in endothelial cells in vitro, resulting in an increase in NO.50

Pollen Calendar

A sizeable number of residents in Bangalore, India suffer from allergic manifestations. Reports claim that 1.31 of the population suffers from asthma (Asthma Research Society 1979). From a retrospective statistical study done for three years on the number of cases of asthma admission in Victoria Hospital, Bangalore, India it was found that most of them showed

Pollen Morphology

A recent example in this context which can be cited is concerned with the identification of airborne pollen in Bangalore. Due to lack of proper background knowledge of pollen morphology, Cassia pollen were shown to be the second most abundant pollen in Bangalore's atmosphere in a publication by the Asthma Research Society (1979). However, a systematic aeropalynological survey (Agashe et al., 1994) carried out by sound pollen morphological knowledge, proved that Bangalore's atmosphere was rich in Casuarina equisetifolia pollen, which, since it looks superficially similar to Cassia pollen, was earlier identified incorrectly.


In foodstuff the alkaloids caffeine, theobromine, theophylline, capsaicine, nicotine, piperine, chavicine and solanidine are of practical relevance (Franzke 1998). Piperine is the main alkaloid of pepper (Franzke 1998). Capsaicine is a phenylalkylamine, which occurs in paprika and pepper and causes the hot taste (Franzke 1998). For food safety solanum alkaloids in potatoes, aubergines and paprika are relevant (Franzke 1998). A concentration of more than 100 mg kg-1 fresh weight solanidin alkaloids in potatoes should not be exceeded due to the bitter taste and potential risk for human health a dose of 25 mg is toxic and 400500 mg are lethal for humans (Franzke 1998). theophylline

Rhus chinensi L

2 kg of fresh fruit and 1 kg of roots are collected by men 20-35 years old, in summer (July-September). Roots are used fresh, whereas fruit is dried in shade for 8-10 days. Roots are cleaned and washed in water 2-3 times and cut into small 1-2-in. pieces. (a) 1 kg of dried fruit is boiled in 6-7 cups (1,5002,000 mL) of water for 25-30 min when 3-4 cups (750-1000 mL) of water is left, it is filtered with a cloth. Next, 300 g of sugar is mixed into this filtrate and boiled again for 10-15 min. Then it is put in a glass bottle and given to patients suffering from jaundice, asthma, and cough. For children, 1-2 tsp (10-15 mL) of decoction is mixed in 1 cup (250 mL) of water (at one time) and given 2-3 times per day for 14-15 days. For adults, 3-4 tsp (25-35 mL) of decoction is mixed in 2 cups (500 mL) of water (at one time) and given 3-4 times per day for 25-30 days. (b) 250 g of dried fruit of Rhus chinensis, 250 g of dried seed of Punica granatum, 250 g of dry rind of Punica granatum,...

Rumex hastatus D

Rumex Hastatus

Bark of Quercus incana are boiled together in 4 L of water for 1-2 h. When 1 L (4 cups) of water remains, it is filtered with a cloth 250 g of sugar, 1 kg of coarsely ground flour (sooji), and 250 g of fat (desigee) are added to it, and the mixture is cooked for 10-15 min. This sweet meal (halwa) is given to patients suffering from cough, asthma, and fever. For children, 2-4 tsp (3040 g) of drug (at one time) is given 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days. For adults, 8-10 tsp (80-100 g) of drug (at one time) is given 2-3 times per day for 10-15 days. Diseases Cured Asthma, cough, and fever and for general body weakness in cattle.


Air contains a bewildering range and variety of spores discharged from algae, mosses, liverworts, ferns and fungi in addition to pollen from dehiscing pollen sacs of gymnosperms and angiosperms. Many cryptogamic spores have been shown to be allergenic - spores of many fungi including Penicillium, Aspergillus and Alternaria. Spores of the fern Pteridium aquilinum (Bracken) are carcinogenic when inhaled in high concentration at the point of release from fertile fronds (Lacey and McCartney 1994 Caulton et al., 1995). The penetrability of allergenic particles in the pulmonary system depends on particle size. The non-living micro particles designated as 2.10 or 2.50 ppm (parts per million), together with the very small spores of moulds such as Penicillium and Aspergillus can penetrate the alveoli of the lungs thereby triggering asthmatic attacks in susceptible people. Larger allergenic spores such as the fungus Alternaria, like smaller pollen grains, may reach the bronchii and upper...

Solanum nigrum L

Kateli Solanum Nigrum

200 g of plant material is boiled in 1 L of water daily for 20-25 min. Five to six small amount black peppers and 2-3 tsp (20-25 g) of common salt is also added. When X L of water remains, it is filtered with a cloth or filtration pot. This decoction is given to cattle and patients suffering from indigestion, fever, cough, stomach disorders, and asthma and to improve hunger. For children, X cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given with bread 2-3 times per day for 6-7 days. For adults, 1-2 cups (250-500 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given with bread 2-3 times per day for 8-10 days. For cattle 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction if given (at one time) twice daily (morning-evening) for 4-5 days. Fever, cough, stomach disorders, asthma, and indigestion in cattle.

Plantago major Linn

This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from cough, asthma, dysentery, and phlegm. For children, 1 tsp (5-6 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is boiled in 1 cup (250 mL) of water for 5-6 min and then given twice daily for Asthma, cough, dysentery, fever, and phlegm.

Deleterious Effects

A 7-year-old boy had no personal or family history of contact dermatitis, eczema, asthma or hay fever. When he used the leaf gel of Kidachi aloe, because of a scaly eruption, he had an itchy, erythematous, buroring, papular and edematous eruption around the mouth. A patch test with the fresh leaf gel was positive after 48 hours. Six control subjects were all negative. He made a rapid recovery following the use of topical cortico-steroid. A mechanical irritation caused by crystals (calcium oxalate) was speculated to be the cause (Nakamura and Kotajima, 1984).


GERD is associated with numerous respiratory conditions. Approximately 10 of patients presenting to ENT specialists have conditions that may be attributed to GERD.23 One study revealed that GERD is present in 75 of individuals with refractory ENT symptoms, and PPI therapy provided symptom relief or reduction in the majority of these individuals.24 Asthma is associated with the presence of GERD symptoms, and although the relationship has not been well-studied. It is estimated that prevalence of GERD in people with asthma is between 60 -80 in adults and 50 -60 in children. Although the direct correlation is unknown, researchers have suggested that reflux aggravates asthma, which in turn induces further reflux.25 GERD is associated with a chronic nonproductive cough in some individuals the cough occurs primarily during the day and while these patients are in an upright position. One study demonstrated that chronic cough was caused by reflux in 21 of cases. In addition, the researchers...

Maria Lis Balchin

Pelargonium EOs from leaves of the many different species and cultivars (other than those grown to produce commercial Geranium oil) have very different odours and chemical compositions, but most of the floral-smelling ones act through cyclic AMP (cAMP) as the secondary messenger others with odours which are more pine or menthol-like have a different mode of action. There is therefore some correlation between their mode of action and their odour and chemical composition. The numerous aromatherapeutic uses for Geranium oil are yet to be scientifically validated, although there is every reason to accept the scientific evidence that inhalation of the aroma and its action through the limbic system has a relaxing effect theoretically, this could lead to the acceptance that many stress-related conditions like dermatitis, asthma, intestinal problems and headaches could be alleviated.

Medicinal uses

All soy formulas are lactose-free and are fortified with L-methionine, taurine, carnitine and iron. They are used commonly in the empirical management of acute gastroenteritis and intolerance to cow's milk protein. Furthermore, the use of soy formulas has been found to significantly reduce the prevalence of atopic diseases in the first 6 months of life, as well as in children with infantile atopic dermatitis, recurrent bronchiolitis and bronchial asthma (Quak and Tan, 1998).

Omega3 Fatty Acids

The end-product metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA), a component of cellular membranes, produces pro-inflammatory 2-series prostaglandins and 4-series leukotrienes, which are highly active mediators of inflammation. AA is derived from the phospholipids layer of immune-cell membranes via phospholipase A-2 in response to immunologic stimuli. The cysteinyl leukotrienes C4, D4, and E4 are important mediators in asthma and are modulators of cytokine function, and they have been implicated in the pathophysiology of asthma via multiple mechanisms such as bronchial smooth muscle, vessels, and mucus secretory cells, while leukotriene B4 promotes leukocyte chemotaxis and less-potent bronchoconstriction.31 Immune cells that drive the inflammatory process contain high proportions of the n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) AA in relation to low amounts of n-3 PUFA the two fatty acids are structurally and functionally distinct. The n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and doc-osahexaenoic acid...

Coping with Asthma

Coping with Asthma

If you suffer with asthma, you will no doubt be familiar with the uncomfortable sensations as your bronchial tubes begin to narrow and your muscles around them start to tighten. A sticky mucus known as phlegm begins to produce and increase within your bronchial tubes and you begin to wheeze, cough and struggle to breathe.

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