Role Of Flotillins And Flavonoids

For a successful establishment of compatible rhizobial-legume symbioses, plant roots should support bacterial infection via facilitation of progression of infection threads (ITs). Formation of IT further leads to formation of functional N2-fixing nodules, as a result of a series of molecular and physio-chemical events (Freiberg et al., 1997). Haney and Long (2010) have reported requirement of plant flotillin-like genes (FLOTs) expressed during S. meliloti infection by its host legume M....

Oxidative Stressrelated Proteins In Nodules

There are certain edaphic, climatic and biological factors that limit the biological nitrogen fixation. Edaphic factors include excessive soil moisture, drought, soil acidity, P deficiency, excess mineral N and deficiency of Ca, MO, CO and B. Among climatic factors, biuret, light and temperature are of great significance, whereas biotic factors include excessive defoliation of host plant, crop competition and insects and nematodes. Under stress conditions, plants have an outburst of oxidative...

Food Versus Fuel And The Case For Highyielding Crops

It is reasonable to propose that crops that produce high biomass yields per unit land area be used to meet bioenergy demand, since they will require less land than low-yielding crops, and this is a key principle of biomass crop development (Heaton et al., 2008b). For example, the high-yielding perennial Miscanthus x giganteus could require 87 less land to produce the same amount of biomass as a low-input, high-diversity mixture of prairie species, because the yield of the M. x giganteus...

Miscanthus Species Genetic Improvement

All Miscanthus species are presently genetically unimproved so one would expect that improvement in a number of key traits could be made using breeding and genetic engineering tools. The use of transformation technology is especially important in the case of M. x giganteus, which is sterile, thus seed is not produced and crosses cannot be made to generate variability. There also appear to be very few independently derived lines, again indicating little variation. Initial reports indicated that...

Nodule Cultivation And Harvesting

A primary need for starting a N2-fixing organ proteomics is the availability of the nodule sample, the starting material, in sufficient amounts. Methodologies adopted may differ depending on the type of legume and experimentation. Sometimes, legumes are grown in the soil (field plots or pots) where nodulation starts due to the bacteria present in the soil. Pre-inoculation of seeds that help in immediate infection of roots as they emerge is also practised. The species of symbiotic N2-fixing...

Applications Of Nodule Proteomics

Legumes are unique in their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiotic relationships with rhizobia, resulting in accumulation of high protein content in the host plants and the portioning of nitrogen in the soil (Lei et al., 2007). In the current global environmental scenario, these are only legumes that can supply dietary protein needed by millions of mouth. Unfortunately, commercial legumes, such as soybean and alfalfa, have large complex genomes that make the direct molecular and...

Environmental Adaptability Of Aromatic Rice

Most types of aromatic rice, such as Jasmine, Basmati, and Azucena, are landrace varieties. Breeding high-yielding aromatic rice has been attempted in many countries, but with little success. So far, the high-yielding aromatic rice cultivars developed have shown less intensity of the aromatic compound 2AP than the traditional ones. Is aromatic rice less productive than non-aromatic rice In light of the biosynthesis of 2AP Fig. 2 , 2AP is the end product of the polyamine pathway in aromatic...

Ancestors Of The Aromatic Gene

Annual wild rice species such as O. rufipogon, Oryza nivara, and Oryza spontaneous are believed to be the ancestors of cultivated rice. It may be that aromatic gene can be transmitted to cultivated rice. If it is true that these are the ancestors and that the aromatic gene came from this source In that case, aromatic wild species must be found in natural habitats. Eleven wild rice species sampled from a germplasm bank were analyzed for the 8-bp deletion in Os2AP. The aromatic wild species were...

References

Mass spectrometry-based proteomics. Nature 13, 198-207. Aghaei, K., Ehsanpour, A. A., Shah, A. H. and Komatsu, S. 2009 . Proteome analysis of soybean hypocotyl and root under salt stress. Amino Acids 36, 91-98. Ahsan, N., Renaut, J. and Komatsu, S. 2009 . Recent developments in the application of proteomics to the analysis of plant response to heavy metals. Proteomics 9, 2602-2621. Ahsan, N., Lee, D.-G., Kim, K.-H., Alam, I., Lee, S.-H., Lee, K.-W., Lee, H. and...

Abiotic Stresses And Identified Proteins In Nodule

The stresses discussed above are of great concern as these pose serious threats to the productivity of legumes. Since the productivity of legumes directly depends on the health of nodules, proteomic profile of nodules may provide a broad view of proteins present in nodule-based symbiome. This will significantly help in designing and developing strategies to combat stress and improve legume productivity with their least affected N2-fixing efficiency. The literature is not that rich in protein...