Figure 1.18 T. mastkhina (Spanish marjoram) very common in the Iberian Peninsula, from Central Spain.

'tazé', 'tenni', 'teschin', 'ressni', 'tesné', 'thasne', and 'tessni', 'tosign', 'tosigne', 'tossign' or 'tossine' for the latter.

In Asia, in the Arabic Peninsula, the mountainous areas of Yemen are the southernmost localities in this continent, where T. laevigatus lives. It is named 'za'tar' or 'sa'tar'. In the far east in China the popular name of several species of thymes are 'bai li xiang' and the most used species, T. quinquecostatus, is called 'di jiao' or 'bian zhong'.

In the North of Europe T. serpyllum and orher species of this group are widespread. The vernacular names in the nordic languages are 'timian' or 'timjan', 'stortimian' or 'backtimian'. And in Central Europe they are called 'Thymian', 'Feldthymian', 'Quendel', 'Kudelkraut', 'Kuttelkraut' in Germany; 'serpolet', 'piolet', 'piliolet', 'pignolet', 'pélevoué', 'pénévouet' in France; 'pepolino', 'sermollino selvático' in Italy; 'erba pevarina', 'süsémbar' in Slavic (Puschlav); 'timian', 'masaron salvatg', 'pavradel', 'pavradella' in Ratorom. In English, the following names are known: 'thyme', 'wild thyme', 'penny mountain', 'hillwort', 'brotherwort', 'shepherds rhyme', and in dutch 'tijm'.

In the different languages of the Iberian Peninsula, a lot of names are in use for the multitude of species of Thymus or 'tomillo' (Morales etal., 1996):

T. baeticus: tomillo, tomillo basto, tomillo fino, tomillo gris, tomillo limonero. T. granatensis: hierba luna, serpillo, serpol, tomillo, tomillo colorao, tomillo serpol. T. hyemalis'. tomillo, tomillo de invierno, tomillo fino, tomillo macho, tomillo morado, tomillo rojo.

T. lacaitae\ tomillo lagartijero, tomillo de Aranjuez. T. longiflorus: tomillo, tomillo real.

Figure 1.19 T. piperella from Valencia, Spam.

T. loscosii: ajedrea, tomillo sanjuanero. T. lotocephalus: tomilho-cabegudo.

T. mastichina: ajedrea de monte, almoradux, almoraú, amáraco, bela-luz, cantueso, escombrilla, marahú, marduix silvestre, mejorana, mejorana de monte, mejorana silvestre, mendaro, mendaroa, moraduix bord, salpurro, sarilla, tomilho-alvadio, tomillo, tomillo blanco, tomillo de las aceitunas, tomillo macho, tomillo salsero.

T. membranaceus'. cantueso, escombrilla, mejorana, tomillo blanco, tomillo macho, tomillo terrero. T. moroderr. cantahueso, cantueso, mejorana.

Figure 1.20 T. membranaceus from Murcia, Spain (Morales, 1986).

T. orospedanus\ tomillo.

T. piperella L.: peberela, peberella, pebrella, pebrinella, piperesa, timó. T. praecox'. erva-ursa, farigola, farigoleta, folcó, herba de pastor, hierba luna, salia de pastor, samarilla, sarpoil, serpao, serpil, serpildo, serpilho, serpol, sérpol, serpolio, timó negre, tomillo de puerto, tomillo rastrero.

T. pulegioides: apiua, charpota, serpao glabro, serpol, te fino, te morado, té morau, tomelo, tomentelo, tomillo.

T. richardii: farigola de muntanya, farigola másele, farigoleta, hierba luna, salsa de pastor, serfull, serpol, sérpol, serpoll, timó negre, tomillo rojo.

T. serpylloides: samarilla, tomillo, tomillo de la sierra, tomillo de Sierra Nevada. T. serpylloides subsp. gadorensis: samarilla, tomillo rojo, verbena.

T. villosus'. azeitoneira, erva-azeitoneira, erva-das-azeitonas, tomilho-peludo, tomillo ansero. T. vulgaris L.: arga, arganha, axedrea, boja, bojas, elar, elharr, ellbor, entremunsell, erle-bedarr, estremoncello, estremoncillo, estremonzillo, estremunsell, estremunzillo, ezkai, ezkaia, farigola, farigoleta, fariguala, forigola, frigola, frígola, friula, ispillu, lo timó, morquera, sajolida, senyorida, tem, timó, timó femella, timó másele, timó normal, timón, timoncilio, timonet, timons, tomaní, tomelo, tomello, tomello vulgar, tomentelo, tomilho, tomilho-ordinário, tomilho-vulgar, tomilo, tomillo, tomillo ansero, tomillo blanco, tomillo borde, tomillo común, tomillo limonero, tomillo negrillo, tomillo royo, tomillo salsero, tomillo vulgar, tomillua, tomizo, tremoncillo, tremonsillo, tremontillo, tremonzillo, tumillo. T. zygis: farigola salsera, morquera, paticas de mona, salsero salseta de pastó, serpao-do-monte, tomilhinha, tomillo, tomillo aceitunero, tomillo aceytunero, tomillo albar, tomillo ansero, tomillo blanco, tomillo del campo, tomillo español, tomillo fino, tomillo negrillo, tomillo risquero, tomillo rojo, tomillo salsero, tomillo sansero, tomillo sansero fino.

Figure 1.21 T. vulgaris (Hallier, 1884: 188, Tafel 1796).

T. zygis subsp. gracilis: tomillo, tomillo aceitunero, tomillo blanco, tomillo fino, tomillo rojo, tomillo salsero.

Sections of the genus Thymus

According to Jalas (1971), Thymus is divided into eight sections: Micantes, Mastichina, Piperella, Teucrioides, Pseudothymbra, Thymus, Hyphodromi, and Serpyllum. The sequence used here is that established by Jalas, but other ordinations would perhaps be more

Figure 1.22 T. lacaitae from Centrai Spain.

logical considering phylogenetic or evolutionary criteria. For distribution patterns of the sections and subsections see Morales (1997).

I. Sect. Micantes

II. Sect. Mastichina

III. Sect. Piperella

IV. Sect. Teucrioides

V. Sect. Pseudothymbra

1. Subsect. Pseudothymbra

2. Subsect. Anomalae

VI. Sect. Thymus

1. Subsect. Thymastra

2. Subsect. Thymus

VII. Sect. Hyphodromi

1. Subsect. Subbracteati

2. Subsect. Serpyllastrum

3. Subsect. Thymbropsis

VIII. Sect. Serpyllum

1. Subsect. Insulares

2. Subsect. Kotschyani

3. Subsect. Pseudopiperellae

4. Subsect. Isolepides

5. Subsect. Alternantes

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