At a leading institution (The Institute for Sexology) for sexual studies in Paris, France,20 a study of 262 men who were experiencing a lack of sexual desire and inability to attain or maintain an erection found that muira puama (Ptychopetalum guyanna) enhanced both erectile-tissue response and libido. After two weeks of taking this South American herb, 51 of patients with erectile dysfunction improved and 62 reported increased libido. This herb appears to increase cognitive receptiveness in addition to heightening sexual responsiveness. This effect
In Norse mythology ash was Ygdrasil, the tree that supported the universe. In America both natives and early pioneers were convinced that white ash leaves, when stuffed in boots or leggings, were highly offensive to rattlesnakes and prevented bites. When swallowed, a decoction of ash buds or bark was said to be a sure remedy for snakebite. No medical evidence supports these claims. Aphrodisiac effects have been claimed for the seeds.
A healthy sexual response is achieved when proper neurologic, cardiovascular, hormonal, and mental health is maintained. Common hormonal denominators for both men and women relative to sexual desire and response are total- and free-testosterone levels. It has been reported that total testosterone is positively associated with coffee consumption in men 71 and that drinking at least one cup of coffee per day increases sexual activity in elderly women and higher potency has also been reported in elderly men.
Caraway is strongly toxic towards mites. Afifi and Hafez (1988) reported that petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of caraway fruits showed acaricidal properties towards Tyrophagusputrescentiae, which is a well known pest of stored products. The acetone extract was the most toxic one. In comparison with fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecuni) and lupin (Lupinus albus) caraway showed higher toxicity towards Tyrophagus putrescentiae.
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It seems quite clear from the information discussed above on the mannan group as a whole, that there is a structure-function relationship which has a central point in the degree and or positioning of the galactose residues on the p-mannan backbone. As the galactose branching approaches zero (pure mannans) their biological function seems to be more related to hardness. This can be clearly seen in Palmae and other non-legume species. Conversely, with higher degrees of galactosylation (fenugreek being one of the extreme cases) the biological function of galactomannan includes water relations. In both cases, however, the storage function appears to remain. Nevertheless, it is not known which function is primary. Storage, water-relations or hardness It is certain, however, that in any case, (galacto)mannans are multifunctional molecules, playing their functions during distinct phases of the plant's life-time. How this may have happened during evolution will be discussed later.
Basic curry blend consists of coriander, cumin, red pepper, and turmeric. Special blends (e.g., for fish or meat) contain, in addition to the above, ginger, cardamom, clove, cinnamon, mustard, fenugreek, curry leaf, mint, coriander leaf, and celery seed, depending upon the particular blend. Hot and fiery curry blend consisting of ginger, galangal, black pepper, red pepper, and cassia cinnamon. Apart from these spices, meat and fish stocks and a variety of other ingredients are also used. Cardamom, ginger, cassia cinnamon, black pepper, cumin, fenugreek, lovage, mace, cubeb, long pepper, allspice, nutmeg, rose petals, lavender blossoms, orange blossoms, grains of paradise, chilies, nigella, onion, thyme, rosemary, and turmeric.
Ayurveda, the ancient healing system flourished in India in the Vedic era. The classical texts of Ayurveda, Charaka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita were written around 1000 B.C. The Ayurvedic Materia Medica includes 600 medicinal plants along with therapeutics. Herbs like turmeric, fenugreek, ginger, garlic and holy basil are integral parts of Ayurvedic formulations. The formulations incorporate a single herb or more than two herbs (polyherbal formulations).
The deposition of galactomannan during seed development was also studied ultrastructurally in fenugreek 113 . These authors observed that newly synthesised galactomannan was associated with the intracisternal space of the rough endoplasmic reticulum and then secreted to the cell walls. Although Sioufi et al. 114 detected the presence of UDP-galactose and GDP-mannose in seeds of T. foenum-graecum, it was only in 1982 that Campbell and Reid 115 showed that particulate fractions obtained from endosperms of fenugreek, which behaved as endoplasmatic reticulum under ultracentrifugation, were capable to transfer l4C -mannose from GDP- U-14C -mannose to a water soluble polysaccharide that could not be distinguished from galactomannan. Edwards et al. 116 reported that particulate enzyme preparations isolated from developing endosperm of fenugreek and guar were highly effective in the formation of polysaccharide from either GDP-mannose (supplemented with divalent ions such as Mg2+, Mn2+or Ca2+)...
Functions and celebrations are not complete without serving Gahwa or Arab coffee (cardamom-flavoured coffee). It is believed, that this drink cools down body heat in a country where extreme heat is a regular feature of daily life. It is also believed to aid in digestion and is said to be an aphrodisiac. Cardamom is also used in cooking by the indigenous population in Arab countries. The Arab population also have adopted a large number of Indian recipes and hence, cardamom is now used in biryani (a popular rice dish) and other similar dishes and curries popular in the Middle East countries. In Iran, cardamom is used in confectionery, bakery items and meat products for its flavour and aroma. Cardamom invariably finds a place in the spice chest of Indian kitchens. The Indian housewife uses this in a variety of meat and vegetable dishes as well as in sweets like rice porridge.
In Ayurveda, the drug is classified as an expectorant. It isan integral part of Ayurvedic laxative formulation, Triphala. T. belerica is used in the treatment of the common cold, pharyngitis and constipation. Unripe fruit is a mild laxative and ripe fruit is an astringent. T. belerica seeds are used as an aphrodisiac. Oil expressed from the seed pulp is used in leucoderma and alopecia. Modern investigations have proved the laxative activity of the oil.
Uses There is a long tradition of using ginseng roots for therapeutic and aphrodisiac purposes in China. Native Americans' use of ginseng for medicinal purposes and the plant's wide collection for export in colonial times are less well-known aspects of ginseng's history. Today, the dried roots continue to be in great demand both for export to Asia and for domestic consumption. Although ginseng can be cultivated, wild roots are considered more potent and therefore more valuable. Studies indicate the rate at which wild populations are harvested isn't sustainable.
Grown exclusively in the central Andes at an elevation of 4,000-4,500 m, maca (Lepidium meyenii) has traditional uses in the Andean region because of this herb's aphrodisiac and fertility-enhancing properties. Maca has several interesting applications for promoting male sexual health. Used for increasing energy, stamina, and athletic performance, maca has effects on impotence as well. Maca has been administered at doses of 1,500 mg and 3,000 mg in order to determine its effects on male sexual function in relation to serum testosterone levels.45 After eight weeks in a study, maca-treated subjects reported improvements in sexual desire while it was determined that serum testosterone and E2 levels were unaffected (compared to a placebo group). In addition, the researchers determined that the effects of maca were not the result of any effect on depression levels, which can influence sexual desire negatively. Another study was conducted to determine the effects of maca on seminal...
As noted, seeds are categorized as endospermic or nonendospermic in relation to the presence or absence of a well-formed endosperm within the mature seed. The relatively massive endosperm is the major source of stored seed reserves in species such as the cereals, castor bean, date palm, and en-dospermic legumes (carob, fenugreek). In the cereal grains and seeds of some endospermic legumes (for example, fenugreek) the storage cells of the endo sperm are nonliving at maturity, and the cytoplasmic contents have been replaced entirely by the stored reserves (starch and protein in cereals hemi-cellulose cell walls in fenugreek). But on the outside of the endosperm there remains a living tissue of one to a few cell layers in thickness, the aleurone layer, whose role is to synthesize and secrete enzymes to mobilize those reserves following germination.
Galactomannans are related to mannans but they contain more (1,6)- -d-galactosyl side chains (Fig. 4a). In contrast to mannans, galactomannans with a high degree of side chain substitutions are soft and highly hydrophilic. Galactomannans are found in the endosperm of endospermic leguminous seeds, such as fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum), guar
Fenugreek In a study of patients with type 1 diabetes given 50 g of defatted fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-gracum) seed powder with both lunch and dinner for 10 days, there was a 54 decrease in 24hour urine glucose excretion. Other benefits from this high source of fiber in this study included (Momordica charantia) Fenugreek decreases in total serum cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and very low-density cholesterol and triglycerides, while levels of HDL remained unchanged.34 Another study was performed with patients with type 2 diabetes. After two months, fenugreek seed extract supplementation of 1 gm per day was shown to improve glycemic control, decreases insulin resistance, decrease serum triglycerides, and increase HDL cholesterol.35 Animal models have elucidated some of the mechanisms that Fenugreek provides these positive effects. A study with both type 1 and type 2 diabetic rats has shown that supplementation with Fenugreek soluble dietary fiber fraction decreases sugar...
The term orchid was coined by Theophrastus as the anatomy of the plants resembled testicles. The Greek word 'orchid' literally means testicles. This may account for the use of orchids as aphrodisiacs in ancient civilizations. Among the history of ancient alternative systems of medicine Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) are on the forefront. Traditional Chinese medicine widely utilizes orchids in medicines. A few of them have been subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological studies. In India work has been carried out on the chemical analysis of some medicinally useful orchids. Eulophia campestris, Orchis latifolia, Vanda roxburgii are among some of the important plants. Dendrobium macraei is another orchid of value from the Ayurvedic point of view as it is reported to be source of Jivanti. Cypripedium parviflora is widely used as an aphrodisiac and nervine tonic in Western Herbalism.
The same uses are mentioned for the very closely related I. digitata L. syn. (I. paniculata R.Br.) in India, which is also claimed to be an aphrodisiac (Chopra et al., 1956, p. 142). L In South Africa the fruits are used as a dressing for ulcers or to increase the flow of milk in lactating women (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). In Ghana the fruit and roots are boiled together with the 'tassels' of plantain flowers as a 'women's remedy' (Dalziel, 1937). In Northern Nigeria the fruit is used in some districts as a purgative, whereas in other regions it is used to treat dysentery (Dalziel, 1937, p. 443). In Cape Verde the fruit is rubbed on the breast of young girls to enhance their development. The fruit also has many superstitious uses. In Kenya a decoction of bark and leaves is drunk as an abortifacient. The fruit is commonly added to beer and claimed to be an aphrodisiac (Kokwaro, 1981). The unripe fruit is said to be very toxic. Exogenous oestrogen produces an...
In clinical practice, all too often, one finds that both men and women resign themselves to being less sexually active as they age. This is unfortunate, because, within reason, there is no true age limit to the enjoyment of a rewarding sex life. From a natural-medicine perspective, the ability to have good sex is merely the barometer of overall health. One of the first things that needs to occur in the evaluation of lowered libido or performance is a full evaluation of mental well-being, neurological health, cardiac health with a focus on circulatory health, and the ever important hormonal well-being. It is estimated that as many as one in four men over the age of 20 are measurably low in testosterone. Clinically low levels of testosterone are notable in women upwards of at least a decade from expected menopause. Traditional healers and physicians around the world have long known that there are many natural medicines that can enhance sexual desire and function in both men and women....
A detailed history, physical examination, and laboratory testing are necessary to rule out confounding factors and diagnose andropause correctly. Pertinent history questions should focus on the difference between loss of libido and impotence that results from erectile dysfunction. Excessive alcohol intake can suppress androgen production. Several factors act as diagnostic confounders. Chronic illness and stress (physical and mental) can lead to a decline in testosterone levels. Pharmaceuticals, such as spironolactone, digoxin, and cimetidine, also may produce this effect. Conditions, such as insulin resistance, obesity, and diabetes, are associated with hypogonadism10,14,15 while anemia and hypothyroidism can produce fatigue and decreased libido. Other, rarer conditions, such as Kallman's syndrome, Klinefelter's syndrome, and Prader-Willi syndrome, that result in hypogonadism should also be ruled out.
Responsible for structural regulation of body proteins (and the development and maintenance of male genitalia), testosterone, at suboptimal levels, will initially lead to modest physical changes, including weakening muscles, bone loss, weight gain (primarily adipose tissue), and progressive facial aging. If testosterone is continually low, changes in memory, impotence, general fatigue, and irritability result. Decreased libido may be one of the first noted changes of age-associated testosterone decline in men. Declining testosterone and resultant loss of libido is not typically manifested by frustrated sexual urges, or complaints of frustration most often this condition manifests as passivity. This can often lead to lack of interest in sex, visual sexual stimulation, business, competitive sports, and physical activity. Typically, during a man's 40s or 50s, and sometimes even the 30s, testosterone production begins to
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