Aloe Vera - The Secret Miracle Plant

Aloe and Your Health

Aloe and Your Health

This іѕ а health guide, whісh саn hеlр people knоw hоw tо mаkе uѕе оf Aloe vera tо improve оvеrаll health аnd deal wіth mаnу kinds оf diseases.

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Aloe Your Miracle Doctor

Fight 80 Disorders From Your Own Kitchen! A Step-by-step Manual For 150 Home And Beauty Remedies Using The Aloe Plant. Learn About The Biogenic Stimulation Method When Making Aloe Juice. You will learn: The history of Aloe's healing abilities and some proven impressive scientific facts How to take good care of your Aloe plant and what the signs of poor care are The amazing chemical composition of Aloe organized in a very-easy-to-read table Aloe Vera uses from A Z An explanation and step-by-step instructions on the biogenic stimulation method 130+ home remedies for 80+ disorders 25+ easy to make homemade beauty remedies, including a recipe for an anti wrinkle facial moisturizer 'Cleopatra' The best Free aloe resources. Aloe vera gel used externally helps with acne, sunburns, thermal and radiation burns, boils, dandruff, gum sores, dermatitis, edemas, hemorrhoids, inflammation in the eyes, insect bites and stings, psoriasis, skin rashes and irritations, ulcers, varicose veins, warts, wounds and wrinkles. When you apply freshly squeezed aloe vera gel on the affected area of the skin, it creates a protective coating which speeds up the healing process, decreases swelling and redness, reduces inflammation, relieves pain, promotes synthesis of collagen in tissue and prevents blisters in case of burns. Taken internally, it reduces inflammation which is involved in such diseases as ulcerative colitis, arthritis, and gastritis, helps with the reduction of blood sugar with both type I and II diabetes and has a powerful healing effect on Aids, cancer, tumors and many different immune system disorders. Mucopolysaccharides found in aloe vera are very effective intracellular antioxidants which is very important in preventing and treating arteriosclerosis, heart disorders and Parkinson's disease.

Aloe Your Miracle Doctor Overview

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Arthropods On Aloes In A Botanical Collection Under Glass

A summary of the susceptibility of 58 species of Aloe to insects is presented in Table 17.1. The susceptibility of the different species of Aloe to insect pests varied greatly and sometimes within a species there was a variation among the different accessions (Table 17.1). The dominant pest attacking the aloes was the mealybug, Planococcus citri. Leaves of a few species of Aloe had scales insects and the flowers of some species supported aphids and thrips. Mites were not observed on any of the aloes monitored during the survey. The initial survey was undertaken over a year. However, the distribution of pests on some of the aloes has been monitored for over seven years. The results show that, overall, the diversity of pests has not changed but the occurrence of thrips has increased. The control strategies being used in the glasshouses are working as the level of pest infestation on many species of Aloe has decreased. In fact, during these studies the pests on aloes have never reached...

Analysis Of Bitter Aloes

The dried exudate of a number of Aloe species has been described in ancient documents and has been an article of commerce in Europe for centuries (Haller, 1990). Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f. seems to have been known to the ancient Egyptians and described in detail by Dioscorides (c. 78 A.D.) (Reynolds, 1966). Aloeperryi Baker was valued by Alexander the Great (fourth century B.C.) (Hodge, 1953 Crosswhite and Crosswhite, 1984). Aloe ferox Miller was known somewhat later (Reynolds, 1950) following exploration of the Cape (early eighteenth century A.D.). Aloe arborescens Miller, prized as an ornamental, is better known medically in Asia, especially Japan, where it is known as Kidachi-aroe (Yagi, this volume, Chapter 14). In addition, many local species unknown to western medicine are used locally in Africa as part of indigenous folk medicine (Morton, 1961 Watt and Breyer-Brandwigk, 1962 Bruce, 1975). From all this it was necessary to establish some sort of quality control long before the...

Use Of Aloe Vera To Control Maize Weevil With Reference

Aloe Hildebrandtii

In their natural environment aloes suffer very little damage from insect pests. Their main herbivore predators are mammals and include baboons (Figure 17.1), elephants and cattle. Very little has been reported on any specific aloe-insect interactions. It is known that insects, such as solitary bees, can be involved in their pollination but it is not know whether there is any specificity in these interactions. Nectar of some aloes are rich in phenolic compounds and these could deter insects. For example, a phenolic-rich extract from the nectar of A. littoralis Baker deterred the honeybee, Apis mellifera L., from feeding (Hagler and Buchmann, 1993). In fact, many horticulturists looking after botanical collections that can harbour a range of pests say that they rarely have to use insecticides to control pests on the aloes. This suggests that the plants must be resistant to many forms of pests. Whether this resistance is associated with the diversity of compounds in their leaves or to...

Madicinal Plants Of Aloe Vera Introduction

The chemistry of the aloe plant has been studied for many years from a number of viewpoints. The leaf, the most frequently studied organ, can be divided into the outer green mesophyll, including the vascular bundles and the inner colourless parenchyma containing, to various degrees, the well known aloe gel. When a typical aloe leaf is cut there appears on the cut surface an exudate arising from cells adjacent to the vascular bundles (Beaumont etal, 1985), which is usually yellow-brown, which in a few species, eg. A. confusa Engl. can change to a deep blood red. This exudate from certain species, when dried, is the bitter aloes of commerce, used as a bittering agent or as a somewhat violent purgative. Early work identified the bitter, purgative factor as an anthrone-C-glucoside, barbaloin (Birch and Donovan, 1965 Hay and Haynes, 1956). Then, other compounds in the product were recognized and eventually characterized (reviewed Reynolds, 1985a). Subsequently, when a wider range of...

Figure Of Aloe Species

Dimer A was found to be identical to (+) asphodelin (4,7'-bichrysophanol) (Gonzalez etal, 1973) and was identified in the roots of 32 Aloe species (Dagne etal, 1994). Another type of dimeric molecule has been found in two distantly related genera, Kniphofia and Bulbine. Here 2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxyacetophenone is attached to either chrysophanol (knipholone) (Dagne and Steglich, 1984) or chrysophanol anthrone (knipholone anthrone) (Dagne and Yenesew, 1993). Other phenolic compounds have been isolated from Aloe species and it is likely that many more will follow. Flavonoids are very widely distributed in plants but have not featured in aloe exudates until recently, when the flavones isovitexin and apigenin, the dihydroflavonol dihydroisorhamnetin and the flavanone narigenin (Figure 3.13) were reported from 31 Aloe species accompanied by a number of unidentified compounds (Viljoen etal, 1998). Both aglycones and glycosides were present. Isovitexin was the major phenolic in Sections...

Reference On Aloe Vera Biochemistry

Akev, N. and Can, A. (1999) Separation and some properties of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp lectins. Phytotherapy Research, 13, 489-493. Diehl, B. and Teichmuller, E.E. (1998) Aloe vera, quality inspection and identification Femenia, A., Sanchez, E.S., Simal, S. and Rossello, C. (1999) Compositional features of poly-saccharides from Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) plant tissues. Carbohydrate Polymers, 39, 109-117. Gowda, D.C., Neelisidaiah, B. and Anjaneyalu, Y.V. (1979) Structural studies of polysaccharides from Aloe vera. Carbohydrate research, 72, 201-205. Grindlay, D. and Reynolds, T. (1986) The aloe vera phenomenon a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 16, 117-151. Haq, Q.N. and Hannan, A. (1981) Studies on glucogalactomannan from the leaves of Aloe vera, TOURN. (EX LINN.). Bangladesh Journal of Science and Industry Research, XVI, 68-72. Paez, A., Gebre, G.M., Gonzalez, M.E. and Tschaplinski, T.J. (2000) Growth, soluble...

The Effects Of Aloe Vera Gel On Wound Healing

In order to understand how Aloe vera gel effects wound healing, it is necessary to first examine its chemical composition. Working with a single compound makes it simple to develop scientific research to prove or disprove its proposed benefits. This is not the case with Aloe vera. Whereas most botanicals have a single ingredient isolated from the parent that is responsible for its observed benefits, the gel is known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients (Rowe and Parks, 1941). In all aloe extracts, quite common substances make up a very large portion of the total solids including organic acids, free sugars (glucose and fructose), potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium. Also present are fatty acids, sterols, and plant hormones called eicosanoids, terpenes, gibberellins and auxins. Together, these molecules make up 75 of the total solids in the gel. In short, Aloe vera gel is a modulator. It acts as both an inhibitor and a stimulator. While it can block mediators of...

Conclusion Of Aloe Vera Plant

Despite the uniformity of the gross karyotype, interspecific variation in its size, as expressed by total nuclear DNA amount, has been demonstrated. Nuclear 4C DNA values increase from lower levels in primitive species to up to twice those levels in advanced species. It has been suggested by Brandham and Doherty (1998) that to maintain the uniformity of relative chromosome size within the karyotype the main sequence of meiotically-pairable chromosome regions in different-sized homeologues (i.e. the same chromosome in different species) is the same in all aloes, but in between these regions many sequences of non-coding DNA are amplified to differing degrees. In advanced species with higher DNA amounts, the larger amplifications further separate the regions capable of crossing over. The enlarged sequences are distributed evenly within all of the chromosomes in proportion to the length of each chromosome. Thus they perpetuate the characteristic gross morphology of each of the seven...

Character And Structure Of Aloe Vera Bioactive

It is evident among all these studies that the most consistent feature of aloe mannans is the P1-4 linkage of the main chains and their acetylation. It is important to note that these two features are conserved among all Aloe species analyzed. However, significant variations in the composition and degree of acetylation exist as described above (Table 4.1). The reason for such variations could be many, including the differences in Aloe species, geographic locations (soil and climate), and extraction and analytical methods. As evidenced in Table 4.1, it seems clear that the Aloe species certainly plays an important role in these variations. No mannans from two different species showed the same characteristics. Furthermore, even within the same species, the mannans described by different investigators may also be very different. This clearly leads to another major factor that may contribute to these variations, i.e. the natural presence of different mannan species within the same Aloe...

Activityguided fractionation and analysis

There are many different types of aloe pulp-based products. One major type is the so-called 'Aloe gel' or 'Aloe vera gel,' a whole pulp preparation. Its production process has been described by Agarwala (1997). The pulp, after being separated from the rind, is first homogenized. The resulting preparation is then subjected to brief heating (pasteurization) to reduce viscosity and achieve sterilization (Ashleye, 1983). In some cases, this is followed by cellulase treatment. The preparation is then decolorized with activated charcoal and filtered to yield the final product. It is primarily used for cosmetic and nutritional purposes, and is also often used as starting materials for isolating active compounds (McAnalley, 1988, 1990). The presence of malic acid is the result of CAM that occurs in aloe plants. The malic acid is used as a test criterion for identification of aloe products and can be measured using HPLC or NMR. For products with whole pulp or liquid gel, a certain level of...

Counter current chromatography

The Craig counter-current separation method has been used to separate glycosides from cascara bark, relevent to aloes (Fairbairn and Mital, 1960), although the free anthrone of aloe emodin has already been separated between benzene and aqueous acetic acid (70 ) (B hme and Bertram, 1955). Three solvent systems were found suitable iso-propanol-ether-water 1 2 2, butanone-water 4 3, n-butanol-ethanol-water 5 1 4. Elsewhere a method for rhubarb used n-propanol-ethyl acetate-aqueous sodium chloride solution (0.05 ) 2 2 4 (Zwaving, 1965). Later, another counter-current procedure using chloroform-methanol-water 7 13 8 separated the diastereomers of barbaloin (Rauwald, 1982) and this solvent and similar ones were used by this author and co-workers for several years (reviewed, Rauwald, 1990).

Antitumor applications

The effect of Aloe vera administration was studied on a pleural tumor in rat. The growth of Yoshida ascites hepatoma (AH)-130 cells injected (2 X 10(5) in 0.1ml) into pleura of male inbred Fisher rats was evaluated at different times (7 th and 14th days) (Corsi etal., 1998). Winters and his colleagues (1981) have demonstrated that lectins from A. vera and A. saponaria were cytotoxic for both normal and tumor cells in vitro.

Bioactivity of Aloe arborescens preparations

Arborescens refers to the tree-like habit and A. arborescens var. natalensis (Kidachi aloe in Japanese, which is also called 'doc-buster'), is naturalized on the west coast (West Sonogi penisula in Nagasaki) and the south coast (Izu penisula and Shikoku island) of Japan. A. arborescens hybridises readily with other species of Aloe with which it co-occurs. Morphologically, it is hard to discriminate A. arborescens from A. arborescens var. natalensis, and we are studying a phylogenetic analysis of Aloe species in an internal transcribed spacer 1 in A. arborescens and A. arborescens var. natalensis. The results up indicate a high sequence similarity matrix between them (unpublished data). The preparations from Kidachi aloe gel are not as popular as those of A. vera gel on the market in the U.S.A., because the gel part of Kidachi aloe leaf (leaf length, width and thickness are 200 X 50 X 20 mm on average) is comparatively smaller than the rind part and it is difficult to separate only the...

Low Molecular Weight Materials

As low molecular weight materials, phenolic bitter components, such as barbaloin and homonataloin, have been widely examined from the chemical and pharmacological points of view. Chemically, the structures of barbaloin and homonataloin were established as anthrone-C-glycosides (Hay and Haynes, 1956 Haynes and Henderson, 1960), which was a rare component in those days. The structure of aloeresin, a C-glycosyl chromone, was also determined by Haynes etal. in 1970. Pharmacologically, as a cathartic component in aloe extract, barbaloin was established by Mapp and McCarthy (1970) and a -coumaric acid-containing compound (aloeresin A) was found as an antimicrobial component by Dopp (1953), though the structural skeleton of aloesin was not established. Since 1970, several modified compounds related to barbaloin and aloesin have been reported from the Aloe species (Figure 14.1).

Anatomy Refrences Of Aloevera

Akev, N. and Can, A. (1999) Separation and some properties of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp lectins. Phytotherapy Research, 13,489-493. Afzal, M., Ali, M., Hassan, R.A.H., Sweedan, N. and Dhami, M.S.I. (1991) Identification of some prostanoids in Aloe vera extract. Planta Medica, 57, 38-40. Ashleye, A.D. (1983) Applying heat during processing the commercial Aloe vera gel. Erde International, 1, 40-44. Bouchey, G.D. and Gjerstad, G. (1969) Chemical studies of Aloe vera juice. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research, 9, 1445-1453. Davis, R.H., DiDonato, J.J., Johnson, R.W. and Stewart, C.B. (1994) Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and antiinflammation. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 84, 614-621. Diehl, B. and Teichmuller, E.E. (1998) Aloe vera, quality inspection and identification. Agro-food-industry Hi-Tech., 9, 14-16. Femenia, A., Sanchez, E.S., Simal, S. and Rossello, C. (1999) Compositional features of polysaccharides from...

Antihistamine and antiinflammatory activities of barbaloin

Aloe Vera Anatomy Images

Figure 14.1 Structure of barbaloin, aloesin and aloenin. Figure 14.1 Structure of barbaloin, aloesin and aloenin. Structure of aloesin esters In a course of study on cathartic components, aloeresin together with barbaloin was shown to be antibiotic. Aloeresin was hydrolyzed into p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and aloesin. Aloeresin A indicated a p-coumaroyl group located at C-2 position in aloesin (Makino etal, 1974). Since then, a series of aloesin and aloesol (which is hydrogenated at a ketone group in aloesin), was isolated from A. vera leaf extract, and isoaloeresin D showed anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities (Hutter etal, 1996 Lee etal, 2000). Skin-whitening aloesin esters It is well known that Kidachi aloe extract shows skin-whitening activity and the active component is barbaloin. Recently, aloesin esters as well as barbaloin, were found as the active inhibitory components against mushroom tyrosinase, which converts tyrosine into melanin. The active components were...

Species Level Taxonomy Of The Aloaceae

As has been shown by Osborne etal. (1988) for the South African cycads, the aloes and aloe-like plants have deservedly been admired and studied by botanists, horticulturists and laymen, especially in view of their aesthetic appeal and medicinal value. Increasing attention should now be paid to their taxonomy, micro- and macromorphology, vegetative and reproductive, phytogeography, chemistry and molecular systematics. In many cases this work is in its infancy and some of the avenues of research may yet cast additional light on the alooid genus concept. The value of early taxonomic work on the Aloaceae is often difficult to assess since it might be valuable in one group but valueless in another. Some of the publications of these early workers were also not as valuable as other publications by the same author. Remarking on Salm-Dyck's Catalogue raisonne' des Especes de' Aloes that appeared in 1817, Reynolds (1950) concluded that 'The taxonomist and Aloe student would have been spared...

Tetrahydroanthracenone glycosides

Isobarbaloin

The 6-O-glucosides of aloesaponol I and II were described from A. saponaria (Yagi etal, 1977) as well as the 8-O-glucoside aloesaponol III (Yagi etal., 1977). Subsequently the 4-O-glucosides of aloesaponol III and IV were isolated from A. barbadensis callus tissue (Yagi etal, 1998). These compounds are considered typical of aloe leaf exudate constituents although they do not, in fact, occur in all species (Reynolds, 1985b). Where they do occur they are usually the main component of the exudate and are mostly represented by either barbaloin or homonataloin (reviewed Reynolds, 1985a). These two compounds appear to be mutually exclusive in the leaf exudates but have been observed together in A. mutabilis Pillans (Reynolds, 1990 Chauser-Volfson and Gutterman, 1998). Barbaloin ( aloin) is the bitter principle in drug aloes and was characterized as the C-glycoside of aloe-emodin anthrone (Figure 3.7). Barbaloin has been noted in at least 68 Aloe species at levels from 0.1 to 6.6 of leaf dry...

Pollination And Dispersal

Pollination And Dispersal

Flowers of almost all Aloe species are diurnal, tubular, brightly coloured red or yellow, unscented and produce abundant nectar. These features point to ornithophily as the pollination syndrome, and sunbirds (Nectariniidae) are frequent visitors to aloe flowers in the field and in African gardens (Figure 1.2). Although they are not typical melittophilous flowers, aloes are also visited by bees. In some areas, especially in South Africa, the flowering of aloes is important in apiculture, though it is reported that the nectar and pollen of some species can affect the behaviour of bees, making them vicious (Watt and Breyer-Brandwijk, 1962). The abundance of nectar produced by the flowers of some species is such that even baboons have been seen collecting flowers in order to suck the nectar (Reynolds, 1950). In West Africa some wasps were captured on flowers of A. buettneri, and dissection of the gut Almost all aloes are self-incompatible, though oddly enough the flowers are protan-drous...

Anthraquinones and anthrones

Free anthraquinones and anthrones have been observed in some Aloe species but are not a major component of leaf exudates as they are found in greater variety in the roots and subterranean stems (Yagi etal, 1974 Dagne, 1994 Van Wyk etal, 1995). The compounds are derivatives of either 1, 8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone (chrysophanol) (Figure 3.4) or 3, 8-dihydroxy, 1-methyl-anthraquinone (aloesaponarin II) (Figure 3.5). Although it was early noted in drug aloes (Horhammer etal., 1965), chrysophanol had rarely been reported from aloe leaves (e.g. A. vera, Chopra and Ghosh, 1938 A. saponaria, Rheede van Oudtshoorn, 1963, 1964) but was found in the underground stems of A. saponaria Haw. (Yagi etal, 1977), while a summary claimed its presence in unspecified organs of 8 Aloe species (Hammouda etal., 1977). It was then found in the leaves of A. berhana Reynolds ( A. debrana Christian) A. rivae Baker, A. megalacantha Baker and A. pulcherrima M.G.Gilbert and Sebsebe (Dagne and Alemu, 1991)...

The standard of Aloe arborescens processed foodA Applying range

The standard for claim and advertisement, etc is omitted. The standard of Aloe vera processed food This standard is applied to the powder, granule and pill type of Aloe vera food and Aloe vera processed food, and the jelly or liquid type of Aloe vera juice and Aloe vera drink. Aloe vera in this standard is the leaf part of Aloe barbadensis Miller(synonym, A. vera (L.) Burm.f. Asphodelaceae) 1 Aloe vera gel Aloe vera gel is the jelly of the pulp removed the skin (rind) of the leaf. 2 Aloe vera powder Aloe vera powder is the powder of dry Aloe vera gel. 3 Aloe vera food is the food containing not less than 80 of Aloe vera powder. 4 Aloe vera processed food Aloe vera processed food is the food containing not less than 50 of Aloe vera powder and not more than 80 of Aloe vera powder. 5 Aloe vera juice Aloe vera juice is the drink containing not less than 95 of Aloe vera gel. 6 Aloe vera drink Aloe vera drink is the drink containing not less than 50 of Aloe vera gel and not more than 95...

Biologic Effects Of Crude A Barbadensis Extracts On Epithelial Tissues

Extracts from a number of Aloe species are widely regarded as having therapeutic dermatologic properties useful in the treatment of sunburn and mild thermal injury (Heggers etal., 1993). These properties seem to be separate from aloe's laxative activity, anti-gastrointestinal ulcer activity and from efficacy in the treatment of severe thermal burns and wound-healing activity (Pelley and Heggers, unpublished observations). The popular recognition of aloe as a dermatologic has led to the widespread incorporation of aloe extracts in healthcare and cosmetic products. Scientific evidence for aloe's efficacy is limited and studies using commercial 'Aloe vera' have been extremely difficult to reproduce. Probably the best example of this is in the area of the treatment of radiation dermatitis. During the 1930s there were reports of treating radiation-induced skin lesions with crude extracts of Aloe vera (reviewed in Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986). Subsequent publications were divided in their...

1 8 Dihydroxyanthraquinone Derivatives

Aloe Vera Dihydroxyanthraquinone

Table 3-3 Derivatives of 8-C-glucosylaloediol (aloesindiol). 2' - O -Cinnamoyl-7- O -methyl-aloesindiol A 2' - O -Cinnamoyl-7 - O -methyl-aloesindiol B may be because anthraquinones are a minor component of leaf exudates and tend to be overlooked in analyses. Early observations, usually by paper chromatography, showed it in Cape aloes drug (A. ferox) (Awe etal, 1958 Horhammer etal, 1965) and it was then isolated from this product (Koyama etal., 1994). It was demonstrated in the leaves of A. africana Mill., A. marlothii Berger and A. pretoriensis Pole Evans (Rheede van Oudtshoorn, 1964) and also in A. elgonica Bullock (Conner etal, 1990b) and in A. arborescens Mill. (Constantinescu etal, 1969 Hirata and Suga, 1977 Kodym, 1991 Yamamoto etal, 1991). There are also records of it being found in A. vera leaves (Choi etal, 1996 Saleem etal, 1997b Strickland etal, 2000 Pecere etal, 2000), but not in the roots of any species. The first record of helminthosporin and isoxanthorin in aloes was in...

Microcirculation Crewe

Anderson, D.O., Weber, N.D., Wood, S.G., Hughes, B.G., Murray, B.K. and North, J.A. (1991) In vitro virucidal activity of selected anthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives. Antiviral Research, 16, 185-196. Atherton, P. (1998) Aloe vera magic or medicine Nursing standard, 12, 4952. Barnard, D.L., Huffman, J.H., Morris, J.L.B., Wood, S.G., Sidwell, R.W. and Hughes, B.G. (1992) Evaluation of the antiviral activity of anthraquinones, anthrones and anthroquinone derivatives against human cytomegalovirus. Antiviral Research, 17, 63-77. Barnes, T.C. (1947) The healing action of extracts of Aloe vera leaf on abrasions of human skin. Blitz, J., Smith, J.W. and Gerard, J.R. (1963) Aloe vera gel in peptic ulcer therapy. Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 63, 731 735. Brasher, W.J., Zimmeramn, E.R. and Collings, C.K. (1969) The effect of prednisolone, indomethacine and Aloe vera gel on tissue culture cells. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine and Oral Pathology, 27, 122-128. Coats, B.C....

Alovera Medicine Plants Introduction

Two features of the Aloe family make them somewhat unique in the field of medicinal plants. First, there is no agreement on which ailments they might cure and second, there is no agreement on the components within the aloe plant that may exert beneficial medicinal activity. Anecdotal reports describe a bewildering array of both immuno-stimulating and immunosuppressive effects. Few controlled studies have supported these claims and to this day, much uncertainty exists as to whether aloe extracts actually have significant beneficial activity. The controlled studies that have been undertaken have tended, unfortunately, to use complex mixtures or partially purified components which makes comparative analysis difficult. Nevertheless, they have tended to support a very limited range of effects on the cells of the immune system. Indeed, the recognized effects of aloe extracts appear primarily to affect innate immune mechanisms such as inflammation, rather than acquired immunity. They also...

Effects Of Aloederived Extracts And Compounds On Insects

Many plants produce compounds that inhibit some herbivores, especially insects, from feeding. A few of these compounds will deter and be toxic, whereas others deter feeding but are not toxic. Insects vary in their responses to these compounds and a compound that deters one species of insect could stimulate another. In fact, some compounds produced by plants are used as 'sign' compounds by insects to assist them identify a host plant. Although some research has been done on the chemistry of aloes, especially phenolics (Chapter 3), the role of these compounds in the ecology of aloe-insect interactions has not been studied. There is some literature on the potential role of the phenolics in herbivore-aloe interactions but this is theoretical not experimental (Gutterman and Chauser-Volfson, 2000a,b). need to be able to perceive the compounds. For example, compounds on the leaf surface could influence host selection but as yet there is no literature on which compounds occur on the surface...

Preparation Of Barbados Aloe

Cultivated throughout India while some grow wild on the coasts of Bombay, Gujarat, southern Arabia, Madagascar and areas surrounding the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea (Morton, 1961 Kapoor, 1990). At the present time the principal areas for production of aloes are South Africa, Venezuela, Haiti, Florida and the Dutch islands of Aruba and Bonaire. The plant grows very well if adequately protected from cold weather aloes are injured at 2 C and generally killed at 1 C. The genus Aloe includes trees (e.g. A. ferox Figure 9.1) of variable height (from 2 to 15 metres), shrubs and herbs (A. barbadensis). They are succulent plants with perennial, strong and fibrous roots and numerous (15 30) large, fleshly leaves, carrying spines at the margin. In some species the leaves form a rosette at ground level (A. perryi). The flowers are grouped in erect, terminal spikes, and are borne by a floral stalk, which is either unique (A. vera) or ramified (A. ferox) the corolla is tubular, divided into...

The Japanese health food and nutrition food association JHNFA

JHNFA is a public service corporation approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare and was established in 1980 with the aim of encouraging people to develop and maintain healthy dietary habits. JHNFA recognized 47 business items including 1081 commodities as health foods until March, 2000. Both Aloe arborescens and Aloe vera processed preparations were registered with the serial number of 44 as a health food by JHNFA on March, 1997. What follows is a public announcement about the standard of Aloe arborescens processed food and the standard of Aloe vera processed food translated by Prof. Dr Yagi.

Thinlayer chromatography

Also included some chemotaxonomic observations, which were later extended to recognize barbaloin in eight Aloe species out of 60 screened (McCarthy and Price, 1965). Chemotaxonomy of aloes had been discussed previously by Hegnauer (1963). McCarthy (1968) used this solvent system followed by elution of the zones and estimation by UV spectrophotometry at either 294 nm or 360 nm. The method proved accurate compared to two other established methods (McCarthy and Mapp, 1970) and has been used since (Jansz etal, 1981). An improved solvent system, ethyl acetate-methanol-water 100 16.5 13.5, was introduced for qualitative recognition of the various drug aloes (H rhammer etal, 1963a, b). The zones were revealed by UV light or by a colour reaction with Fast Blue B salt, a tetrazotized o-dianisidine, zinc chloride complex (0.5 aqueous solution). These methods were used to draw up a key for recognizing varieties of drug aloes (H rhammer etal, 1965). They also eluted the zones and measured the...

Kiruma Or Bitter Aloevera

Afzal, M., Ali, M., Hassan, R.A.H., Sweedan, N. and Dhami, M.S.I. (1991) Identification of some prostanoids in Aloe vera extracts. Planta Medica, 57, 38 40. Ando, N. and Yamaguchi, I. (1990) -Sitosterol from Aloe vera (Aloe vera(L.) Burm. f.) gel. Kenkyu Kiyo-Tokyo Kasei Daigaku, 30, 15 20. Axing, Y. (1993) The molecular structure of iso-aloesin isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera var.chinensis (Haw.) Berge. Journal of Chinese Medicine, 18, 609 611. Baudo, G. (1992) Aloe vera. Erboristeria Domani, 2, 29-33. Beaumont, J., Cutler, D.F., Reynolds, T. and Vaughan, J.G. (1985) The secretory tissue of aloes and their allies. Israel Journal of Botany, 34, 265-282. Bouchey, D.G. and Gjerstad, G. (1969) Chemical studies of Aloe vera juice II Inorganic constituents. Quarterly Journal of Crude Drug Research, 9, 1445 1453. Choi, J.-S., Lee, S.-K., Sung, C.-K. and Jung, J.-H. (1996) Phytochemical study on Aloe vera. Archives of Pharmaceutical Research, 19, 163-167. Chopra, R.N. and Ghosh, N.N....

Chemical Constituents

Aloes contain anthraquinone derivatives (10 to 40 ) like aloin, mucilage (30 ), resinous substances (16 to 63 ) like aloesin and aloesone, sugars (about 25 ), polysaccharides like acemannan and betamannan, fatty acids and cholesterol, campe-sterol, P-sistosterol, glycoproteins (aloctins A and B), lectins, a gibberellin-like substance, enzymes such as cyclo-oxygenase and bradykininase, together with other compounds such as lupeol, salicylic acid, urea, cinnamic acid, phenol, sulphur, magnesium lactate, salicylates, and amino acids. Aloin ( barbaloin) is an impure mixture of barbaloin A and barbaloin B, which inter-convert through the anthranol form. 5-hydroxyaloin A, characteristic of Cape aloe, is absent in Curacao aloe. However, studies carried out on plants grown hydroponically under carefully controlled conditions still show these variations for example, aloin content can vary as much as 80 from one plant to another in the same field. Aloes also contain other healing components...

Family Concepts In The Aloaceae

Batsch, is accredited as the first person to afford the alooid plants segregate suprageneric status at the familial rank. However, Batsch's (1802 138) Aloaceae (published as Alooideae) were not widely accepted and fell into disuse for approximately 180 years, most taxonomists referring the aloes and related genera to the Linnaean Hexandria Monogynia (e.g. Schultes and Schultes, 1829 631) or, later, to the Liliaceae (e.g. Baker, 1880 148). 'Aloeaceae' were again popularized by Cronquist (1981 1215) and the taxon is now widely accepted, although there is some controversy over the spelling of the name, Aloeaceae (e.g. Cronquist, 1981 1215 Forster and Clifford, 1986 66 Mabberley, 1987 21) versus Aloaceae (e.g. Cronquist, 1988 485,516 Brummit, 1992 Smith, 1993 Glen etal., 1997). Following Smith (1993), we here accept Aloaceae as the correct spelling of the name. However, by far the most popular and traditionally widely accepted family classification used...

Taxonomic Notes On The Genera Of The Aloaceae

Not surprisingly, Berger's (1905, 1908) classification of Aloe was based primarily on a combination of vegetative and reproductive morphological characters. For many families and genera, classifications based on such characters still hold true, even today. The reason is simple these characters are the most easily observable and readily available when a classification is attempted. Berger therefore established in Aloe such groups as sect. Maculatae (nomenclaturally more accurately the Pictae) for the spotted-leaved aloes and sect. Graminialoe for the grass-leaved aloes.

Analysis Of Pulp And Its Components

In analyzing pulp, it is important to realize that we are dealing with material from a living plant whose conditions and properties can be influenced by many factors, including geographical location, seasonal change, and plant genetics (Pierce, 1983 Wang and Strong, 1993 Yaron, 1993). For example, differences in irrigation level can result in significant differences in total soluble sugar and polysaccharide content (Yaron, 1993). Furthermore, there are many different Aloe species. Fluctuations in chemical composition should be expected. This situation demands analytical methods that are well standardized and calibrated before one can be sure if any differences or similarities are real or not. Among the components that have been identified so far in aloe pulp, the polysaccharide, Proteins may also be identified by their function. This is achieved by testing the protein or a preparation containing the protein with a biological or chemical assay such as blood cell agglutination. So far,...

Summary Objects of studies

Aloe species Material Preparation Reaction with serum Canine serum did not react aloes. S I reacted with human and baboon. S II did not react with any sera. S I of Aloe barbadensis Enhancement of attachment and growth, and augmentation of cell density in monolayer culture of human normal fetal lung cells may be relate to wound healing Aloe species Material

Modification of the immune system

As described above, aloe lectins were isolated from the leaf skin and leaf gel of various Aloe species, including commercially available materials, and have been studied from various approaches. Based on their chemical, biological and pharmacological characteristics, the respective lectins or lectin-like substances described in this chapter may be different substances or components.

Cytoprotective Oligosaccharide And Interleukin10

When the Aloe Research Foundation originated ten years ago, the initial task laid before the Scientific Advisory Board was to assess the biological activities of Aloe sp. Most of us would have been content to assess the biologic activities in the best commercial 'Aloe vera' materials. B. William Lee, President of Aloecorp, challenged the Scientific Advisory Board to do better and determine the biological activities in the 'freshest possible gel' regardless of the commercial feasibility of the material. One individual, Todd A. Waller, was able to produce material to these standards, cutting and processing leaves first from the Lyford plantation of Aloecorp in January 1991 and later from other sites. Todd's ARF Process A material (ARF'91A) laid the foundation for all the work that followed which revolutionized our understanding of the saccharides of aloe.

Preface On Topic Medicinal Plants

Aloes provide a fascinating subject for research from a chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, taxonomic, horticultural and economic point of view. Their use as medicinal plants is mentioned in many ancient texts, including the Bible, although here as elsewhere there may be doubts as to the botanical identity of the material. This multitude of medicinal uses described and discussed over the centuries is sometimes difficult to evaluate. Authors such as Crosswhite and Crosswhite (1984) have given detailed accounts of the drug in classical antiquity, concentrating on the species Aloe vera which seems to be the main one in use, with Aloe perryi from Socotra mentioned more rarely. While the acquisition of Socotra by Alexandra the Great to ensure supplies of A. perryi to treat his troops is well known and presumed true, the origins of A. vera are obscure. The plant is recorded from lands around the Mediterranean back to Mesopotamian times and was subsequently carried to the Atlantic islands...

Antimicrobial properties

Even today we employ a varied armamentarium of topical substances to control and prevent infection, without a complete understanding of their influence on the process of wound healing. In fact, it has been demonstrated that concentrations of several antimicrobial agents used to control wound infections are in fact toxic to tissue-cultured cells (McCauley etal, 1992). Extracts from Aloe vera gel have been shown to have beneficial heterogeneous properties, which include an ability to penetrate tissue, anesthetize tissue, preclude bacterial, fungal and viral growth, and dilate capillaries in order to enhance blood flow to injured tissue (Robson etal., 1982). In addition, as stated previously, the glucomannan component of Aloe vera gel possesses immunostimulant, antifungal and anti-viral activity. It has been shown to stimulate T cells and activate macrophages, causing an enhancement of the respiratory burst and phagocytosis (Lefkowitz etal, 1997). Acemannan has been shown to inhibit...

Leaf Exudate Compounds

Of the aglycones (Figure 3.1), aloesone was reported as a minor component from 11 Aloe species (Holdsworth, 1972), while the reduction product, aloesol occurs in Rheum (Kashiwada etal., 1984). Methylation of the 7-hydroxyl group has been achieved synthetically (Gramatica etal, 1986) but has not been observed among aglycones from aloe exudates. A derivative in which the 7-hydroxyl group is cyclised into a furan ring at C8 of the chromone ring has been observed in Cape Aloes (A. ferox Mill.) and named furoaloesone (Figure 3.2) (Speranza etal, 1993b). A simpler 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-chromone with a methyl group on C2 has been described from Polygonaceae, an ascomycete and then more recently from Cape Aloe (Speranza etal, 1993). Two 5,7-dihydroxy-4-chromones have been found in aloes. One from A. vera was the 8-C-glucoside of the 2-methyl derivative, 8-C-glucosylnoreugenin (Okamura etal., 1998). The other, an aglycone from A. cremnophila Reynolds and P.R.O Bally ('cremno-chromone'), had an...

Ethanolsoluble Extracts Of Aloe Barbadensis Miller

An ethanol extract of aloes was found to have strongly hemagglutinating effects (Bouthet etal, 1996). Lectins or lectin-like substances had been generally prepared as water-soluble substances. However, an ethanol extract of A. barbadensis was described to have lectin-like properties, i.e. strong hemagglutinating effects toward human erythrocytes. In this study, the recognition sites of specific sugars with ethanol extract was particularly discussed and identified.

Grindley And Reynolds 1986

Aloe polysaccharides have been well reviewed in previous publications (Grindley and Reynolds, 1986 Reynolds and Dweck, 1999). Here we will concentrate on examination and comparison of the detailed structures of the identified polysaccharides, especially the mannan, from different Aloe species. Efforts have been made to indicate the Aloe species wherever a polysaccharide or its structure feature is described. Several different types of mannans have been identified in aloes, including mannans, glucomannans, and glucogalactomannans. Here, the term mannan will be used to describe all of them unless otherwise indicated. Since aloes are members of a plant family (Liliaceae), we will first describe the general features of plant polysaccharides before addressing those from Aloe so that the latter will not be treated in an isolated manner. There exist an enormous variety of plant polysaccharides. Different polysaccharides can be found in different plants and may be associated with different...

Abstract

Aloes are xerophytes with structural and physiological adaptations for survival in arid regions. They are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, the Arabian Peninsula and a number of Indian Ocean islands. They occupy many different kinds of natural habitat, from forest to exposed rock surfaces, but they are absent from the moist lowland forests of mainland Africa. People use aloes in many ways, mostly at a non-commercial local level. As a result of over-exploitation and habitat destruction many species are endangered and in need of conservation. Aloes are protected by CITES.

Other Components

Many analyses have been carried out on aloes in search of constituents which might be responsible for beneficial properties and various organic compounds additional to those described above reported from time to time. In a detailed study the composition ofvarious fractions of an A. arborescens plant was investigated as shown in Table 3.4 (Hirata and Suga, 1977). Another very detailed analysis, of A. vera this time, revealed a lipid content of c.5 of the dry gel (Femenia etal., 1999). The common plant sterol, -sitosterol was found in whole A. vera leaves, accompanied by lesser amounts ofcholesterol, campestrol and lupeol (Waller etal., 1978). Also observed were a number of unidentified volatiles, recognized by thin-layer chromatography. A further determination of -sitosterol was made in A. arborescens leaf (Yamamoto etal, 1990 Yamamoto etal, 1991) and again in A. vera leaf (Ando and Yamaguchi, 1990). Then, sitosterol glucoside and its palmitic acid ester were found in whole leaves of...

Biological activity

Verectin antiserum was raised in white rabbits and its specificity against a non-dialysate of aloe gels was examined (Yagi etal, 1998). First, both an immunopreciptin line in an Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion test and immunoprecipitation were formed against A. barbadensis but not against those of A. arborescens and A. chinensis, and second an immunopositive band was detected in the A. barbadensis and A. chinensis non-dialysate but not in that of A. arborescens in immunoblotting. The verectin antiserum could be used to distinguish aloe materials. This discrepancy between the first and second tests was speculated to be caused by different affinities with which the antibody is bound to A. barbadensis and A. chinensis antigens. One of the reason might be that A. chinensis is taxonomically classified as Aloe vera var. chinensis and is morphologically similar in shape to A. barbadensis.

Acemannan

Acemannan is the name given to the acetylated mannan isolated from Aloe vera (Manna and McAnalley, 1993 Paquet and Pierard, 1996 Reynolds, 1985). The predominant storage carbohydrate of A. vera, it consists of long chain polydispersed P(1,4)-linked mannan polymers with random O-acetyl groups. Acemannan has been claimed to possess many, if not all of the important biological activities of the aloe pulp (Tizard etal., 1989). However it has proven exceedingly difficult to separate acemannan from contaminating protein. Likewise there are other complex carbohydrates present in most acemannan preparations. As a result, it is by no means proven that acemannan alone posseses the biological activities ascribed to it. Another cautionary note should also be made with respect to endotoxin content. It is difficult to produce aloe carbohydrate solutions free of contaminating endotoxin. Early studies on this material contained small but significant quantities of bacterial endotoxin and it is...

Summary

Davis showed in his book 'Aloe vera- a scientific approach' that the total biological activity in Aloe vera comes from a synergistic modulation of the compounds involved rather than from a single component (Davis, 1997). This is commensurate with Kampo (Oriental) medicine which contains both positive and negative activating materials and acts to normalize or produce a balance in a biological, specially immunoreaction system as an immunomodulator (Yagi etal, 1986 Sato etal, 1990). Kidachi aloe has been widely utilized for several diseases as a folklore medicine in Japan. Some ingredients in water media of the leaf antagonize or synergize with each other to produce a harmonizing efficacy between wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activity through an immuno-reaction. This balance in Kidachi aloe gives us a good understanding as to why it is known as of 'doc-buster'. Kidachi aloe extract is not a only a foodstuff but it is also registered as both a OTC-drug (aloin content about 3mg...

Internal anatomy

Transverse Section Aloe Vera

The leaf anatomy of aloes was first studied for taxonomic purposes (Cutler, 1969). Later, when it became clear that aloe exudates could be of medicinal interest, anatomy was used to try and locate the cells or tissues in which particular substances arose or were stored. (Beaumont etal, 1985, 1986). The internal anatomy of aloe leaves is fairly constant, regardless of the species. This means that apart from defining about three groups of miscellaneous species, transverse sections provide little information of wider systematic significance. Thicker leaves have more parenchymatous ground tissue, but the outer chlorenchyma layers, containing the green chloroplasts, and the flattened ring of vascular bundles just to the inner side of the chlorenchyma, are common to all. Initially, interest was focussed on the features that indicated adaptation to particular habitats. For example, thicker-leaved aloe species tend to be found in the harsher environments, where water supply is limited (e.g....

Life Forms

All Aloe species (Newton, 2001) are perennial, leaf-succulent xerophytes. Xerophytes are plants adapted to survive in areas of low or erratic precipitation, and the adaptations may include structural and physiological features. Succulence is one kind of xerophytic adaptation. It is the development of water storage tissue, or aqueous tissue, consisting of large thin-walled cells in which water is held in mucilage. The accommodation of the aqueous tissue requires enlargement of either leaves, as in aloes, or stems, as in cacti (Willert etal, 1992). As leaf-succulents, most aloes have thick and fleshy leaves, enlarged to accommodate the aqueous tissue. The leaf cuticle is thick and covered with a layer of wax. In most species examined, the surface wax has distinctive patterns of ridges and or micro-papillae, which can be of taxonomic value (e.g. Newton, 1972 Cutler, 1982). Stomata are sunken, i.e. situated at the base of a suprastomatal cavity. Most species have groups of cells...

Arthropod Pests

The most frequently encountered arthropod pests that damage aloes grown commercially include mealy bugs, scales, beetles and mites (Jeppe, 1969 Beyleveld, 1973). Other groups of insects that can damage aloes include locusts and aphids (Beyleveld, 1973). At the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, thrips have also been observed feeding on the flowers. The fact that aphids and thrips are feeding on aloes is of concern as they are vectors for a range of pathogenic viruses. If these viruses became established in aloes than the loss of plants could start to increase. The citrus mealy bug, Planococcus citri Risso, is commonly found as a pest of aloes (Jeppe, 1969). Adults and nymphs of this mealy bug are often found on leaves, stems, Leaf surfaces can be covered with bodies of white scales that make the plants unsightly (Jeppe, 1969). Different species of scales are known to be able to breed on aloes including the Brown Soft Scale, Coccus hesperidum L. The adult lives underneath a protective scale...

Conservation

Many aloes are regarded as endangered species. Various threats exist, and they can be placed into three main categories over-collection of plants for cultivation, destruction of plants in harvesting leaf exudates and destruction of natural habitats. A third threat is the destruction of habitats. One problem is overgrazing. Many people in arid areas have herds of domestic animals in numbers far greater than the carrying capacity of the land, and the land becomes increasingly denuded of vegetation. In many countries where aloes are native, the rise in human population levels results in an increased demand for land to use for agriculture, building, etc. This has led to wholesale clearing of natural vegetation. In some areas, the continued expansion of human populations is forcing people to move into arid areas, where many aloes occur. Attempts to protect aloes as endangered species have been made at two levels national and international. Many countries have signed various international...

Gel Components

Aloe Components

Cape aloes compound 2 Isoeleutherol 5-O-glucoside The picture emerges from the six Aloe species investigated so far of a number of polysaccharides with mannose as the predominant monomer and molecular weights ranging of several orders of magnitude from 103 to 106 daltons. The patented compound with the greatest number of reported therapeutic activities is acemannan which is an acetylated mannan about 8X 104daltons in size (see Chapter 4).

Polyploidy

Polyploidy is more common among the East African aloes, with Somali A. inermis Forsk. and A. cremnophila Reynolds, Kenyan A. juvenna P. Brandham & S. Carter and Ethiopian A. jacksonii Reynolds being tetraploid with 2n 28 (Brandham and Carter, 1982 Brandham etal., 1994) and can be regarded mostly as the products of sporadic doubling of the chromosome numbers of unrelated diploid species that have stabilised through natural selection to produce tetraploid species, albeit rare and local ones. A. cremnophila, for instance occurs only on a single cliff in northern Somalia and is quite probably a single clone spreading vegetatively, as suggested on chromosomal and chemical evidence by Brandham etal. (1994). Since A. cremnophila and A. jacksonii show considerable morphological similarity and grow quite close together, there is a possibility that they might be derivatives of the doubling of the chromosome number of a single diploid ancestor and therefore could be very closely related....

Aloe Preparations

Near the epidermis or outer skin the leaves of aloes contain a row of fibrovascular bundles, the cells of which are much enlarged and filled with a yellow latex. Aloe latex is obtained by cutting the leaf transversely close to the stem and inclining the leaf so that the latex flows out in about six hours (Figure 9.2). Aloes require two or three years standing before they yield their latex. In Africa the latex is collected from the wild plants in the case of aloe plantations the drug is collected in April July. Aloe latex ( aloe) contains mainly anthraquinones, cathartic compounds useful in constipation. It is totally different from the aloe gel ( aloe vera), a colourless gelatin obtained from the central portion of aloe leaf. The mucilaginous parenchyma tissue is excised from fresh leaves and immediately utilised for pharmaceutical preparations or lyophilized and kept dry until use. During extraction of the gel it is practically impossible to prevent contamination by the latex as the...

Aloe De Vahombe

Pugh, N., Ross, S.A., ElSohly, M.A. and Pasco, D.S. (2001) Characterization of Aloeride, a new high molecular weight polysaccharide from Aloe vera with potent immunostimulatory activity. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 49, 1030-1034. Reynolds, T. (1985) The compounds in Aloe vera leaf exudates A review. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 90, 157-159. Reynolds, T. and Dweck, A.C. (1999) Aloe vera leaf gel a review update. Journal of Ethnophar-macology, 68, 3-37. Sabeh, F., Wright, T. and Norton, S.J. (1993) Purification and characterization of a glutathione peroxidase from the Aloe vera plant. Enzyme Protein, 47, 92-98. Sabeh, F., Wright, T. and Norton, S.J. (1996) Isozymes of superoxide dismutase from Aloe vera Enzyme Protein, 49, 212-221. 't Hart, L.A., Nibbering, P.H., van den Barselaar, M.T., van Dijk, H., van den Berg, A.J. and Labadie, R.P. (1990) Effects of low molecular constituents from Aloe vera gel on oxidative metabolism and cytotoxic and bactericidal...

Mannan

Mannans are the most widely studied polysaccharides from aloes. This is because they are the most often isolated and have been shown to have several biological effects (Marshall etal, 1993 Tizard etal, 1989 Zhang and Tizard, 1996 Ramamoorthy and Tizard, 1998). The mannan from A. vera is a partially acetylated 1 4 linked polymannose (Yagi etal, 1977 Paulsen etal, 1978 Gowda etal, 1979). A mannan with these two primary characteristics (the 1 4 linkage and acetylation) has been detected in all Aloe species analyzed. In some preparations, the mannan also contains a significant amount of glucose and is therefore a glucomannan. The aloe mannan appears to be structurally unique among those widely known plant 1 4 mannans including galactomannan, Konjac mannan, and ivory mannan (Kennedy and White, 1983), thus making it a compound characteristic of Aloe species (and possibly other members of the Liliaceae family). These other plant mannans either have distinct side-chains or are unacetylated...

Habitats

Aloes occupy a wide range of habitats, varying from forests to exposed rock surfaces and cliff faces. The genus does not occur in moist lowland forest, but the dry coastal forests of eastern Africa include arborescent species such as A. eminens and A. volkensii Engl. subsp. volkensii. Not all arborescent species are forest trees, the huge A. dichotoma L. being a prominent feature of the arid Namaqualand landscape. Many shrubby species are found in Acacia scrub and other thickets, sometimes depending on the surrounding vegetation for support (e.g. A. morijensis S.Carter and Brandham). Grasslands offer another habitat, especially for many acaulescent species, such as A. lateritia Engl. and A. secundi-flora Engl. Several species, including A. chrysostachys Lavranos and L.E.Newton and A. classenii Reynolds, occur on expanses of rocks, rooted into soil pockets or crevices. Most of the species formerly included in the genus Lomatophyllum occur in moist coastal forests of Madagascar and...

Scales

Figure 17.4 Severe infestation of aloe plant with scale showing bluish-white overall appearance. Close-up shows more scale insects than leaf surface. (Photo P. Brandham) (see Colour Plate 11). Figure 17.4 Severe infestation of aloe plant with scale showing bluish-white overall appearance. Close-up shows more scale insects than leaf surface. (Photo P. Brandham) (see Colour Plate 11).

Aphids

In the glasshouses at RBG Kew, aphids can be found on aloe flowers in the autumn and through the winter until spring (Table 17.1). It was rare to find populations of aphids establishing themselves on the leaves of aloes and they were not observed breeding on Table 17.1 Insect pests found on some of the aloes growing at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Table 17.1 Insect pests found on some of the aloes growing at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Pectins

Aloe vera cell walls contain a unique pectin (Ni etal, Chapter 4, this volume). This low-methoxy pectin contains up to 90 glucuronic acid. As a result it has unusual biological properties, such as the ability to bind and stabilize certain mammalian growth factors. Its presence in crude acemannan preparations may explain, in part, why these preparations can accelerate wound healing under certain circumstances (Tizard etal, 1994). Other complex carbohydrates may be present in aloe gel extracts in small amounts and some of these may exert significant biological activity. For example Pugh and his colleagues (Pugh etal., 2000) have identified a high molecular weight polysaccharide from A. vera (aloeride) that is a very potent macrophage activating agent. Its molecular weight may be as large as 7 million. It contains glucose, galactose, mannose and arab-inose and it is as potent as bacterial endotoxin at activating nuclear factor (NF)-kB in human macrophages. Aloeride also induces the...

Conclusion

Two features of the mannan, the P1 4 linkage and acetylation, are highly conserved among all Aloe species. Significant variations exist regarding the presence of other sugars, primarily glucose and the degree of acetylation. The research so far strongly suggests that there are two types of mannans in the pulp, a pure mannan that is essentially free of glucose and another mannan (glucomannan) that contains various amounts of glucose, maybe along with other sugars. Much effort is still needed to determine proportions of these two types of mannans in any given Aloe species and the differences in chemical and biological properties between them. Evidence has suggested that the mannan or glucomannan with a low glucose content is more heavily acetylated than the glucomannan with a high glucose content.

History

The topical and internal effects of aloes have been known since ancient times. Nefertite and Cleopatra, two Egyptian queens, used aloes as a beauty aid. The drug was used by Dioscorides to heal skin ailments and haemorrhoids. Aloes were used by Pliny the Elder, Celsus, Galen and other famous physicians to treat wounds and gastrointestinal disturbances, but no mention of aloes was made by either Hippocrates or Theophrastus (Shelton, 1991 Hennessee, 1998). Aloe was largely prescribed by Arabian physicians and was one of the drugs-the others were balsam, scammony, tragacanth and galbanum-recommended to Alfred the Great by Helias, the Patriarch of Jerusalem (Wheelwright, 1974). Aloe's use was first discovered on a Mesopotamian clay tablet dating from 2100 B.C. Later, in 1862, a German egyptologist, George Ebers, discovered that a papyrus found in a sarcophagus near Thebes mentioned at least twelve preparations for preparing aloe to treat external and internal ailments (Atherton, 1997...

The Plant

Aloes have been well described elsewhere in this book. It is important to reinforce the fact that aloes are xerophytic succulents, adapted to living in areas of low water availability, and characterized by possessing a large volume of water storage tissue. Although not widely discussed in the literature, the pulp of aloes is likely to be the water storage tissue of this plant (Kluge etal., 1979). Another feature of succulents such as the aloes is the possession of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), an additional photosynthetic pathway involving malic acid (Kluge and Ting, 1978 Winter and Smith, 1996). In contrast to other plants, CAM plants take up carbon dioxide during the night, which is then fixed by malic acid synthesis. Thus, in the early morning hours, the malic acid content is much higher in the CAM plant tissues. During daytime, the malic acid is decarboxylated and the released carbon dioxide is then converted into carbohydrates. CAM occurs in aloes (Denius and Homan, 1972...

Colchicum luteum Baker

100 g of fresh corms is boiled in 1 cup (250 mL) of water for 10-15 min. Then the water is filtered in a filtration pot and the corms are dried in sunlight for 4-5 h. Then they are mixed in 60-70 g of Aloe vera (Musabbar, Alons) and 50 g of Terminalia chebula (Harir) and ground for 10-15 min. Thirty or forty small tablets, 5-6 g each, are made from this powder they are stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from rheumatism. For children, not used. For adults, 1 tablet (5-6 g) of drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of milk or water twice daily (morning-evening) for 15-20 days.

Genetic Aspects Of Salt Tolerance And Advances In Biotechnology

A survey of cell responses to salt stress identified a large number of genes induced by salt. For example, 218 cDNA salt-inducible clones have been detected in barley roots, of which 133 cDNA clones have homology to known proteins and 24 are identified as genes for signal transduction (Ueda et al., 2002). A recent salt-treated cDNA library of the halophyte Suaeda salsa can serve as a useful model for research in salt-tolerant plants (Zhang et al., 2001). Differential display in mangrove Bruguiera gymnorrhiza revealed nine transcripts up-regulated or induced by salt stress (Banzai et al., 2002). The gene for NADP-malic enzyme in Aloe vera (AvME) was identified as a gene induced by salt stress, whose expression was related to the degree of salt tolerance (Sun et al., 2003). Five cDNAs isolated from wheat by modified differential display were named WESR (wheat early salt-stress responding) and described as novel saltstress responding genes (Nemoto et al., 1999). Mutational analysis of...

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The best home remedy, I find, is to bathe affected areas in tap water as hot as one can stand, then apply rubbing alcohol to the rash. Several Native American remedies, however, may also be used. Crushed leaves of jewelweed or touch-me-not (Impatiens), Aloe vera, plantain, and sweetfern, as well as various tannic washes brewed from tree barks, have proven helpful to some. My usual summer case of it is kept restrained by such methods when in poison ivy's vicinity, I conciliate it, like the Cherokee, by addressing it as my friend. A severely unfriendly case should, of course, be treated by a physician.

Aloe Asphodelaceae

Chromatographic analyses in this genus have taken advantage of the presence of a class of leaf exudate compounds known as aloins. Barbaloin 10 (See Fig. 2.3 for structures 10-17), nataloin 11 , and homonataloin 12 are typical members of this group of anthrone derivatives. Accompanying the anthrones in these plants are compounds such as aloesin 13 and aloenin 14 . Comparative chromatographic studies of the diploid and tetraploid shrubby aloes described by Reynolds (1986, 1990) support the origin of the tetraploids as suggested by Cutler et al. (1980).