Albersheim, P., Darvill, A., Augur, C., Cheong, J-J., Eberhard, S. and Hahn, M.G. etal. (1992) Oligosaccharins: Oligosaccharide regulatory molecules. Accounts of Chemical Research, 25, 77-83.

Aleshkina, J.A. and Rostotskii, B.K. (1957) An aloe emulsion — a new medicinal preparation. Meditsinkaya Promyshlennost USSR, II, 54—55.

Ananthaswamy, H.N., Fourtanier, A., Evans, R.L., Sylvie, T., Medaisko, C., Ullrich, S.E. and Kripke, M.L. (1998) p53 mutations in hairless mouse skin tumors induced by a solar simulator. Photochemistry Photobiology, 67, 227—232.

Ananthaswamy, H.N., Laughlin, S.M., Cox, P., Evans, R.L., Ullrich, S.E. and Kripke, M.L. (1997) Sunlight and skin cancer: inhibition of p53 mutations in UV-irradiated mouse skin by sunscreens. Nature Medicine, 3, 510—514.

Anderson et al. (1992) Ultraviolet B dose-dependent inflammation in humans: a reflectance spectroscopic and laser doppler flowmetric study using topical pharmacologic antagonists on irradiated skin. Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 9, 17—23.

Araneo, B., Dowell, T., Moon, H. and Daynes, R. (1989) Regulation of murine lymphokine production in vivo: ultraviolet radiation exposure depresses IL-2 and enhances IL-4 production by T cells through an IL-1-dependent mechanism. Journal of Immunology, 143, 1737.

Ashley, F.L. Oloughlin, B.J., Peterson, R., Fernandez, L., Stein, H. and Schwartz, A.N. (1957). The use of Aloe vera in the treatment of thermal and irradiation burns in laboratory animals and humans. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 20, 383—396.

Balch, C.M., Houghton, A.N., Milton, G.W., Sober, A.J. and Soong, S-J. (eds.) (1992) Cutaneous Melanoma, 2nd edn. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Co.

Bardeesy, N., Wong, K-K., DePinho, R.A. and Chin, L. (2000) Animal models of melanoma: Recent advances and future prospects. Advances Cancer Research, 79, 123—156.

Bauer, W.D., Talmadge, K.W., Keegstra, K. and Albersheim, P. (1973) The structure of plant cell walls. II. The hemicellulose of the walls of suspension-cultured sycamore cells. Plant Physiology, 51, 174—187.

Bergey, D.R., Howe, G.A. and Ryan, C.A. (1996) Polypeptide signaling for plant defensive genes exhibit analogies to defense signaling in animals. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93, 12056—12058.

Bestak, R., Barneston, St C.R., Nearn, M.R. and Halliday, G.M. (1995) Sunscreen protection of contact hypersensitivity responses from chronic solar simulated ultraviolet irradiation correlates with the absorption spectrum of the sunscreen. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 105, 345—340.

Birkeland, S.A., Storm, H.H., Lamm, L.U., Barlow, L., Blohme, L., Forsberg, B., Eklund, B., Fjelborg, O., Friedburg, M. and Frodin, L. etal. (1995) Cancer risk after renal transplantation in the Nordic countries, 1964—1986. International Journal Cancer, 60, 183—189.

Boring, C.C., Squires, T.S. and Tong, T. (1992) Cancer Statistics. CA, a Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 42, 19.

Brockmeyer, N. and Barthel, B. (1998) Clinical manifestations and therapies of AIDS associated tumors. European Journal of Medical Research, 3, 127—147.

Bucana, C.D., Tang, J.M., Dunner, K., Strickland, F.M. and Kripke, M.L. (1994) Phenotypic and ultrastructural properties of antigen presenting cells involved in contact sensitization of normal and UV-irradiated mice. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 102, 928—933.

Byeon, S.W., Pelley, R.P., Ullrich, S.E., Waller, T.A., Bucana, C.D. and Strickland, F.M. (1998) Mechanism of action of Aloe barbadensis extracts in preventing ultraviolet radiation-induced immune suppression I. The role of keratinocyte-derived IL-10. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 110, 811-817.

Camplejohn, R.S. (1996) DNA damage and repair in melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. Cancer Survey, 26, 193-206.

Chin, L., Pomerantz, J., Polsky, D., Jacobson, M.C., Cohen, C., Cordon-Cardo, C., Horner II, J.W. and DePinho, R.A. (1997) Cooperative effects of INK4a and ras in melanoma susceptibility in vivo. Genes & Development, 11, 2822-2834.

Chung, H.T., Burnhan, D.K., Robertson, B., Roberts, L.K. and Daynes, R.A. (1986) Involvement of prostaglandins in the immune alterations caused by the exposure of mice to ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Immunology, 137, 2478-2484.

Clark, E.A., Golub, T.R., Lander, E.S. and Hynes, R.O. (2000) Genomic analysis of metastasis reveals an essential role for RhoC. Nature, 406, 536-540.

Coats, B.C. (Oct. 18th 1994) Method of processing stabilized Aloe vera gel obtained from the whole Aloe vera leaf. U.S. Patent No. 5, 356, 811.

Cole, C.A., Forbes, P.D. and Ludwigsen, K. (1989) Sunscreen testing using the mouse ear model. Photodermatology, 6, 131-136.

Cotton, J. and Spandau, D.F. (1997) Ultraviolet B-radiation dose influences the induction of apoptosis, and p53 in human keratinocytes. Radiation Research, 147, 148-155.

Cruz, P.D. Jr., Nixon-Fulton, J., Tigelaar, R.E. and Bergstresser, P.R. (1989) Disparate effects of in vitro low-dose UVB irradiation on intravenous immunization with purified epidermal cell subpopulations for the induction of contact hypersensitivity. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 92, 160-165.

Darvill, A., Augur, C., Bergmann, C., Carlson, R.W., Cheong, J., Eberhard, S., Hahn, M.G., Lo, F.M., Marfa, V. and Meyer, B. (1992) Oligosaccharins - oligosaccharides that regulate growth, development and defence responses in plants. Glycobiology, 2, 181-198.

Davis, R.H., Rosenthal, K.J., Cesario, L.R. and Rouw, G.A. (1989) Processed Aloe vera administered topically inhibits inflammation. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 79, 395-397.

Davis, R.H., Kabbani, J.M. and Maro, N.P. (1986) Aloe vera and inflammation. Proceedings of the Pennsylvania Academy of Science, 60, 67-70.

Denkins, Y., Fidler, I.J. and Kripke, M.L. (1989) Exposure of mice to UVB radiation suppresses delayed hyper-sensitivity to Candida albicans. Photochemistry Photobiology, 49, 615-619.

DePinho, R.A. (2000) The age of cancer. Nature, 408, 248-254.

Dubois, M., Gilles, K.A., Hamilton, J.K., Rebers, P.A. and Smith, F. (1956) Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Analytical Chemistry, 28, 350-356.

Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group. (1992) Systemic treatment of early breast cancer by hormonal, cytotoxic or immune therapy. The Lancet, 339, 71-85.

Elmets, C.A., Bergstresser, P.R., Tigelaar, R.E., Wood, P.J. and Streilein, J.W. (1983) Analysis of the mechanism of unresponsiveness produced by haptens painted on skin exposed to low dose ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 158, 781-794.

Enk, A.H., Angeloni, V.L., Udey, M.C. and Katz, S.I. (1993) Inhibition of Langerhans cell antigen-presenting function by IL-10: A role for IL-10 in induction of tolerance. Journal of Immunology, 151, 2390-2398.

Fears, T.R. and Scotto, J. (1983) Estimating increases in skin cancer morbidity due to increases in ultraviolet radiation exposure. Cancer Investigation, 1, 119-126.

Fisher, M.S. and Kripke, M.L. (1982) Suppressor T lymphocytes control the development of primary skin cancers in ultraviolet-irradiated mice. Science, 216, 1133—1134.

Gidley, M.J., Lillford, P.J., Rowlands, D.W., Lang, P., Dentini, M., Crescenzi, V., Edwards, M., Fanutti, C. and Reid, J.S.G. (1991) Structure and solution properties of tamarind-seed polysaccharide. Carbohydrate Research, 214, 299—314.

Glass, M.J., Bergstresser, P.R., Tigelaar, R.E. and Streilein, J.W. (1990) UVB radiation and DNFB skin painting induce suppressor cells universally in mice. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 94, 273-278.

Gowda, D.C., Neelisiddaiah, B. and Anjaneyalu, Y.V. (1979) Structural studies of polysaccharides from Aloe vera. Carbohydrate Research, 72, 201-205.

Gowda, D.C. (1980) Structural studies of polysaccharides from Aloe saponaria and Aloe vanbalenii. Carbohydrate Research, 83, 402-405.

Green, A., Siskind, V., Bain, C. and Alexander, J. (1985) Sunburn and malignant melanoma. British Journal of Cancer, 51, 393-397.

Grin-Jorgensen, C.M., Rigel, D.S. and Friedman, R.J. (1992) The worldwide incidence of malignant melanoma. Cutaneous Melanoma, 2nd edn, edited by Balch, C.M., A.N. Houghton, G.W. Milton, A.J. Sober and S-J Soong. Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott Co.

Grindlay, D. and Reynolds, T. (1986) The Aloe vera phenomenon: A review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. Journal of Ethanopharmacology, 16, 117-151.

Hadden, J.W. (1999) Review article: The Immunology and immunotherapy of breast cancer: An update. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 21, 79-101.

Heggers, J.P., Pelley, R.P. and Robson, M.C. (1993) Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing. Phytotherapy Research, 7, S48-S52.

Hisamatsu, M., York, W.S., Darvill, A.G. and Albersheim, P. (1992) Characterization of seven xyloglucan oligosaccharides containing from seventeen to twenty glycosyl residues. Carbohydrate Research, 227, 45-71.

Jeevan, A., Evans, R., Brown, E.L. and Kripke, M.L. (1992) Effects of local ultraviolet irradiation on infections of mice with Candida albicans, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Schistosoma mansomi. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 99, 59-64.

Kang, K., Hammerberg, C., Meunier, L. and Cooper, K.D. (1994) CD11b+ macrophages that infiltrate human epidermis after in vivo ultraviolet exposure potently produce IL-10 and represent the major secretory source of epidermal IL-10 protein. Journal of Immunology, 153, 5256-5264.

Kiefer, L.L., York, W.S., Darvill, A.G. and Albersheim, P. (1990) Structural characterization of an arabinose-containing heptadecasaccharide enzymically isolated from sycamore extracellular xyloglucan. Carbohydrate Research, 197, 139-158.

Kim, T.Y., Kripke, M.L. and Ullrich, S.E. (1990) Immunosuppression by factors released from UV-irradiated epidermal cells: selective effects on the generation of contact and delayed hypersensitivity after exposure to UVA or UVB radiation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 94, 26-32.

Klein, G. and Boon, T. (1993) Tumor immunology: Present perspectives. Current Opinions in Immunology, 5, 697-692.

Kondo, S. (1999) The roles of keratinocyte-derived cytokines in the epidermis and their possible responses to UVA radiation. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, Symposium Proceedings, 4, 177-183.

Kooiman, P. (1961) The constitution of Tamarindus-amyloid. Recueil Travaux Chimiques des Pays-Bas, 80, 849-865.

Kripke, M.L. (1974) Antigenicity of murine skin tumors induced by ultraviolet light. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 53, 1333-1336.

Kripke, M.L. (1979) Speculations on the role of ultraviolet radiation in the development of malignant melanoma. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 63, 541-548.

Kripke, M.L. (1984) Immunological unresponsiveness induced by ultraviolet radiation. Immunological Reviews, 80, 87-102.

Kripke, M.L., Cox, P.A., Alas, L.G. and Yarosh, D.B. (1992) Pyrimidine dimers in DNA initiate systemic immunosuppression in UV-irradiated mice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 89, 7516-7520.

Kuerbitz, S.J., Plunkett, B.S., Walsh, W.V. and Kastan, M.B. (1992) Wild-type p53 is a cell cycle checkpoint determinant following irradiation. Proceedings ofthe National Academy ofSciences, USA, 89, 7491-7495.

Kusewitt, D.F. and R.D. Ley (1996) Animal models of melanoma. Cancer Survey, 26, 35-70.

Langley, R.G.B. and Sober, A.J. (1997) A clinical review of the evidence for the role of ultraviolet radiation in the etiology of cutaneous melanoma. Cancer Investigations, 15, 561-567.

Lee, C.K., Han, S.S., Shin, Y.K., Chung, M.H., Park, Y.I., Lee, S.K. and Kim, Y.S. (1999) Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity by Aloe vera gel components. International Journal of Immunopharmacology, 21, 303-310.

Leigh, I.M., Newton-Bishop, J.A. and Kripke, M.L. (eds) (1996) Cancer Surveys, vol. 26.: Skin Cancer. Cold Springs Harbor, NY. Cold Springs Harbor Laboratory Press.

Lynch, D.H., Gurish, M.F. and Daynes, R.A. (1981) Relationship between epidermal Langerhans cell density, ATPase activity and the induction of contact hypersensitivity. Journal of Immunology, 126, 1892-1897.

Mandal, G. and Das, A. (1980a) Structure of the glucomannan isolated from the leaves of Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydrate Research, 87, 249-256.

Mandal, G. and Das, A. (1980b) Structure of the D-galactan isolated from Aloe barbadensis Miller. Carbohydrate Research, 86, 247-257.

Mandal, G., Ghosh, R. and Das, A. (1983) Characterization of polysaccharides of Aloe barbadensis Miller: Part III - Structure of an acidic oligosaccharide. Indian Journal of Chemistry, 22B, 890-893.

Manna, S., McAnalley, B.H. and Ammon, H.L. (1993) 2, 3, 4-Tri-O-mannopyranose, an artifact produced during carbohydrate analysis. A total synthesis of 2,3,5-tri-0-acetyl-1, 6-anhydro-0-D-mannofuranose. Carbohydrate Research, 243, 11-27.

Markiewicz, M.A. and Gajewski, T.F. (1999) The immune system as anti-tumor sentinel: Molecular requirements for an anti-tumor immune response. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis, 10, 247-260.

McAnalley, B.H. (Apr. 5th 1988) Process for preparation of Aloe products, products produced thereby and compositions thereof. U.S. Patent No. 4,735,935.

Other related patents are U.S. Patent Nos. 4,851,224 of Jul. 1989, 4,959,214 of Sept. 1990, and 4,966,892 of Oct. 1990.

The patents subsequent to the '935 patent (the '224, '214, and '892 patents) are Divisionals and Continuations In Part of the '935 patent. As such, the scientific content (The Specification) is virtually identical to that of the '935 patent but The Claims of these patents differ very significantly from the '935 patent (legally that is what is important).

McAnalley, B.H., Carpenter, R.H. and McDaniel, H.R. (Aug. 15th 1995) Uses of Aloe products. U.S. Patent No. 5,441,943.

Other related patents are U.S. Patent Nos. 5,118,673, Jun. 1992 and 5,106,616, Apr. 1992.

These patents, although legally linked to the series of patents above as Divisionals and Coninua-tions In Part, have Specification sections (the part that contains the data), completely different from the '935 series of patents above. As such, any one of this series of patents could be equally read by scientists seeking information different from the '935 series above.

McDougall, G.J. and Fry, S.C. (1988) Inhibition of auxin-stimulated growth of pea stem segments by a specific nonasaccharide of xyloglucan. Planta, 175, 412-416.

Mori, M., Eda, S. and Kato, K. (1980) Structural investigation of the arabinoxyloglucan from Nicotiana tabacum. Carbohydrate Research, 84, 125-135.

Mukhtar, H. and Ahmad, N. (1999) Green tea in chemoprevention of cancer. Toxicologic Science, 52(S), 111-117.

Muller, H.K., Bucana, C.D., Kripke, M.L., Cox, P.A., Saijo, S. and Strickland, F.M. (1995) Ultraviolet irradiation of murine skin alters cluster formation between lymph node dendritic cells and specific T lymphocytes. Cellular Immunology, 157, 263—276.

Nataraj, A.J., Trent, J. and Ananthaswamy, H.N. (1995) p53 gene mutations and photocar-cinogenesis. Photochemistry Photobiology, 62, 218—230.

Newton, L.E. (1979) In defence of the name Aloe vera. The Cactus and Succulent Journal of Great Britain, 41, 29-30.

Niizeki, H. and Streilein, J.W. (1997) Hapten-specific tolerance induced by acute, low-dose ultraviolet B radiation of skin is mediated via interleukin-10. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 109, 25.

Nishigori, C., Yarosh, D.B., Ullrich, S.E., Vink, A.A., Bucana, C.D., Roza, L. and Kripke, M.L. (1996) Evidence that DNA damage triggers Interleukin-10 cytokine production in UV-irradiated murine keratinocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 93, 10354-10357.

Noonan, F.P., Bucana, C., Sauder, D.N., DeFabo, E.C. (1984) Mechanism of systemic immune suppression by UV radiation in vivo. II. The UV effects on number and morphology of epidermal Langerhans cells and the UV-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity have different wavelength dependencies. Journal of Immunology, 132, 2408-2416.

Noonan, F.P., DeFabo, E.C. and Kripke, M.L. (1981) Suppression of contact hypersensitivity by UV radiation and its relationship to UV-induced suppression of tumor immunity. Photochemistry Photobiology, 34, 683-689.

Okamoto, H. and Kripke, M.L. (1987) Effector and suppressor circuits of the immune response are activated in vivo by different mechanisms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA,84,3841-3845.

Ouhtit, A., Muller, H.K., Davis, D.W., Ullrich, S.E., McConkey, D. and Ananthaswamy, H.N. (2000) Temporal events in skin injury and the early adaptive responses in ultraviolet-irradiated mouse skin. American Journal of Pathology, 156, 201-207.

Pai, S.A., Cheung, M.C.P., Romsdahl, M.M., Multani, A.S. and Pathak, S. (1999) Can genetic instability be studied at a single chromosome level in cancer cells? Evidence from human melanoma cells. Cancer Genetics, Cytogenetics, 109, 51-57.

Pathak, MA. (1991) Sunscreens: Principles of photoprotection. In Pharmacology of the Skin, edited by H. Mukhtar, p229. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Paulsen, B.S., Fagerheim, E. and Overbye, E. (1978) Structural studies of the polysaccharides from Aloeplicatilis Miller. Carbohydrate Research, 60, 345-351.

Pawelec, G., Zeuthen, J. and Kiessling, R. (1997) Escape from host-anti-tumor immunity. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis, 8, 111-145.

Pawelec, G., Rees, R.C., Kiessling, R., Madrigal, A., Dodi, A., Baxevanis, C., Gambercorti-Passareni, C., Masucci, G. and Zeuthen, J. (1999) Cells and cytokines in immunotherapy and gene therapy of cancer. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis, 10, 83-127.

Pelley, R.P., Wang, Y-T. and Waller, T.A. (1993) Current status of quality control of Aloe barbadensis extracts. SOFWJournal. 119, 255-163.

Pelley, R.P., Martini, W.J., Liu, D.Q., Rachui, S., Li, K.-M., Waller, T.A. and Strickland, F.M. (1998) Multiparameter testing of commercial 'Aloe vera' materials and comparison to Aloe barbadensis Miller extracts. Subtropical Plant Science Journal, 50, 1-14.

Pelley, R.P. and Strickland, F.M. (2001) Plants, polysaccharides and the treatment and prevention of neoplasia. Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis 12, 1-37 (in press).

Pierceall, W.E., Goldberg, L.H., Tainsky, M.A., Mukhopadhyay, T. and Ananthaswamy, H.N. (1991a) Ras gene mutation and amplification in human nonmelanoma skin cancers. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 4, 196-202.

Pierceall, W.E., Mukhopadhyay, T., Goldberg, L.H., and Ananthaswamy, H.N. (1991b). Mutations in p53 tumor suppressor gene in human squamous cell carcinomas. Molecular Carcinogesis, 4, 445-449.

Puhlmann, J., Bucheli, M.J., Dunning, N., Albersheim, P., Darvill, A.G. and Hahn, M.G. (1994) Generation of monoclonal antibodies against plant cell-wall polysaccharides. I. Characterizaztion of a monoclonal antibody to a terminal a (1-2)-linked fucosyl-containing epitope. Plant Physiology, 104, 699—710.

Radjabi, F., Amar, C. and Vilkas, E. (1983) Structural studies of the glucomannan from Aloe vahombe. Carbohydrate Research, 116, 166—170.

Radjabi-Nassab, F., Ramiliarison, C., Monneret, C. and Vilkas, E. (1984) Further studies of the glucomannan from Aloe vahombe (liliaceae). II. Partial hydrolyses and NMR 13C studies. Biochimie, 66, 563—567.

Reeve etal. (1995) The protective effect of indomethacin on photocarcinogenesis in hairless mice. Cancer Letters, 95, 213—219.

Rivas, J. and Ullrich, S.E. (1992) Systemic suppression of delayed-type hypersensitivity by supernatants from UV-irradiated keratinocytes: An essential role for keratinocyte-derived interleukin-10. Journal of Immunology, 149, 3865—3871.

Robertson, B., Gahring, L., Newton, R. and Daynes., R.A. (1987) In vivo administration of IL-1 to normal mice depresses their capacity to elicit contact hypersensitivity responses: Prostaglandins are involved in this modification of immune function. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 88, 380-387.

Roboz, E. and Haagen-Smit, A.J. A mucilage from Aloe vera. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 70, 3248-3249.

Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Cruz, N.I. and Suarez. (1988). Comparative evaluation of Aloe vera in the management of burn wounds in guinea pigs. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 81, 386-389.

Romerdahl, C.A., Stephens, L.C., Bucana, C. and Kripke, M.L. (1989) Role of ultraviolet radiation in the induction of melanocytic skin tumors in inbred mice. Cancer Communications, 1, 209-216.

Ross, G.D., Vetvicka, V., Yan, J., Xia, Y. and Vetvickova, J. (1999) Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer. Immunopharmacology, 42, 61-74.

Rovatti, B. and Brennan, R.J. (1959). Experimental thermal burns. Industrial Medicine and Surgery, 28, 364-368.

Sakai, K., Nakahara, Y. and Ogawa, T. (1990) Total synthesis of nonasaccharide repeating unit of plant cell wall xyloglucan: An endogenous hormone which regulates cell growth. Tetrahedron Letters, 21, 3035-3038.

Sauder, D.N., Tamaki, K., Moshell, A.N., Fujiwara, H. and Katz, S.I. (1981) Induction of tolerance to topically applied TNCB using TNP-conjugated ultraviolet light-irradiated epidermal cells. Journal of Immunology, 127, 261-265.

Saijo, S., Bucana, C.D., Ramirez, K.M., Cox, P.A., Kripke, M.L. and Strickland, F.M. (1995) Deficient antigen presentation and Ts induction are separate effects of UV radiation. Cellular Immunology, 164, 189-202.

Saijo, S., Kodari, E., Kripke, M.L. and Strickland, F.M. (1996) UVB irradiation decreases the magnitude of the Th1 response to hapten but does not increase the Th2 response. Photoderma-tology, Photoimmunology, Photomedicine, 12, 145-153.

Schmitt, D.A., Owen-Schaub, L. and Ullrich, S.E. (1995) Effect of IL-12 on immune suppression and suppressor cell induction by ultraviolet radiation. Journal of Immunology, 154, 5114-5120.

Schreiber, H. (1999) Tumor immunology. In Fundamental Immunology, edited by W.E. Paul, pp. 1237-1270. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.

Schwarz, T., Urbanska, A., Gschnait, F. and Luger, T.A. (1986) Inhibition of the induction of contact hypersensitivity by a UV-mediated epidermal cytokine. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 87, 289-291.

Schwarz, T. and Luger, T.A. (1992) Pharmacology of cytokines in the skin. In Pharmacology of the Skin, edited by H. Mukhtar, p. 283. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press.

Segal, A., Taylor, J.A. and Eoff, J.C. (1968) A reinvestigation of the polysaccharide material from Aloe vera mucilage. Lloydia, 31, 423-424.

Shreedhar, V.K., Pride, M.W., Sun, Y., Kripke, M.L. and Strickland, F.M. (1998) Origin and characteristics of UV-B radiation-induced suppressor T lymphocytes. Journal of Immunology, 161, 1327—1335.

Simon, J.C., Tigelaar, R.E., Bergstresser, P.R., Edelbaum, D. and Cruz, P.D. (1991) Ultraviolet B radiation converts Langerhans cell from immunogenic to tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells. Journal of Immunology, 146,485—491.

Simon, J.C., Mosmann, T., Edelbaum, D., Schopf, E., Bergstresser, P.R. and Cruz, P.D. (1994) In vivo evidence that ultraviolet B-induced suppression of allergic contact sensitivity is associated with functional inactivation of Th1 cells. Photodermatology Photoimmunology Photo-medicine, 10, 206.

Smith, C., Lilly, S., Mann, K.P., Livingston, E., Myers, S., Kim, H., Lyerly, H.K. and Miralles, D. (1998) AIDS-related malignancies. Annals of Medicine, 30, 323—344.

Solar, S., Zeller, H., Rasolofonirina, N., Coulanges, P., Ralamboranto, L., Andriat-Simahavandy, A.A., Rakotovao, L.H. and Deaut, J.Y. (1979) Mis en evidence et etude des proprietes immuno-stimulantes d'un extrait isole et partiellement purifie a partir d'Aloe vahombe. Archives Institute Pasteur Madagascar, 47, 1—31.

Stone, J.M. and Walker, J.C. (1995). Plant protein kinase families and signal transduction. Plant Physiology, 108, 451.

Strickland, F.M., Pelley, R.P. and Kripke, M.L. (1994) Prevention of ultraviolet radiation-induced suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity by Aloe barbadensis gel. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 102, 197—204.

Strickland, F.M. and Kripke, M.L. (1997) Immune response associated with nonmelanoma skin cancer. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 24, 637—647.

Strickland, F.M., Pelley, R.P. and Kripke, M.L. (Oct. 20th 1998) Cytoprotective oligosacchar-ide from Aloe preventing damage to the skin immune system by UV radiation. U.S. Patent No. 5, 824, 659.

Strickland, F.M., Darvill, A., Albersheim, P., Eberhard, S., Pauly, M. and Pelley, R.P. (1999) Inhibition of UV-induced immune suppression and Interleukin-10 production by plant polysaccharides. Photochemistry Photobiology, 69, 141—147.

Strickland, F.M., Muller, H.K., Stephens, L.C., Bucana, C.D., Donawho, C.K., Sun, Y. and Pelley, R.P. (2000) Induction of primary cutaneous melanomas in C3H mice by combined treatment with ultraviolet radiation, ethanol and aloe emodin. Photochemistry Photobiology, 72, 407—414.

Strom, S.S. and Yamamura, Y. (1999) Epidemiology of nonmelanoma skin cancer. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 24, 627—636.

Stutman, O. (1974) Tumor development after 3-methylcolanthrene in immunologically deficient athymic-nude mice. Science, 183, 534—536.

Stutman, O. (1979) Chemical carcinogenesis in nude mice: comparison between nude mice from homozygous matings and heterozygous matings and effect of age and carcinogen dose. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 62, 353—358.

Tam, A., Pomerantz, J., O'Hagan, R. and Chin, L. (1999) Tetracyclin-regulatable expression of Ras in mouse melanocytes and melanomas. In Cancer Biology of the Mutant Mouse: New Methods, New Models, New Insights. Proceedings of the Keystone Symposium, Abstract B-7.

Toews, G.B., Bergstresser, P.R. and Streilein, J.W. (1980) Epidermal Langerhans cell density determines whether contact hypersensitivity or unresponsiveness follows skin painting with DNFB. Journal of Immunology, 124, 445—453.

Ullrich, S.E. (1994) Mechanisms involved in the systemic suppression of antigen-presenting cell function by UV irradiation: keratinocyte-derived IL-10 modulate antigen-presenting cell function of splenic adherent cells. Journal of Immunology, 152, 3410—3416.

Ullrich, S.E. (1986) Suppression of the immune response to allogenic histocompatibility antigens by a single exposure to UV radiation. Transplantation, 42, 287—291.

Ullrich, S.E., McIntyre, B.W. and Rivas, J.M. (1990) Suppression of the immune response alloantigen by factors released from ultraviolet-irradiated keratinocytes. Journal of Immunology, 132,489-498.

Ullrich, S.E., Yee, G.K. and Kripke, M.L. (1986) Suppressor lymphocytes induced by epicuta-neous sensitization of UV-irradiated mice control multiple immunological pathways. Journal of Immunology, 158, 185—190.

Urbach, F. (1978) Evidence and epidemiology of ultraviolet-induced cancers in man. National Cancer Institute Monograph, 50, 5.

van der Leun, J.C. and Tevini, M. (November 1991) Environmental effects of ozone depletion: 1991 update. United Nations Environment Programme, Panel Report.

Vermeer, M. and Streilein, J.W. (1990) Ultraviolet-B-light induced alterations in epidermal Langerhans cells are mediated in part by tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Photodermatology Photoimmunology Photomedicine, 7, 258—265.

Vink, A.A., Strickland, F.M., Bucana, C., Cox, P.A., Roza, L., Yarosh, D.B. and Kripke, M.L. (1996) Localization of DNA damage and its role in altered antigen-presenting cell function in ultraviolet-irradiated mice. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 183, 1491—1500.

Waller, T.A., Strickland, F.M. and Pelley, R.P. (1994) Quality control and biological activity of Aloe barbadensis extracts useful in the cosmetic industry. In Cosmetics and Toiletries Manufacture Worldwide edited by M.Caine, pp. 64—80. London: Aston Publishing Group.

Weber, R.S., Lippman, S.M. and McNeese M.D. (1990) Advanced basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. In Carcinomas of the Head and Neck: Evaluation and Management, edited by C. Jacobs, pp.61-81. Norwell: Kluwar Academic.

Weber, R.S. (ed.). (1995) Basal and Squamous Cell Carcinoma Skin Cancers of the Head and Neck. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

Welsh, E.L. and Kripke, M.L. (1990) Murine Thy-1 dendritic epidermal cells induce immunologic tolerance in vivo. Journal of Immunology, 144, 883—891.

Williams, M.S., Burk, M., Loprinzi, C.L., Hill, M., Schomberg, P.J. and Nearhood, K. etal. (1996) Phase III double-blind evaluation of an Aloe vera gel as a prophylatic agent for radiation-induced skin toxicity. InternationalJournal of Radiation Oncology Biology and Physics, 36, 345—349.

Wolf, P. and Kripke, M.L. (1996) Sunscreens and immunosuppression. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 106, 1152-1154.

Wolf, P., Donawho, C.K. and Kripke, M.L. (1993) Analysis of the protective effects of different sunscreens on ultraviolet radiation-induced local and systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity and inflammatory responses in mice. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 100, 254—259.

Yagi, A., Makino, K., Nishioka, I. and Kuchino, Y. (1977) Aloe mannan, polysaccharide, from Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Planta Medica, 31, 17—20.

Yagi, A., Hamada, K., Mihashi, K., Harada, N. and Nishioka, I.. (1984) Structure determination of polysaccharides in Aloe saponaria (Hill.) Haw. (Liliaceae). Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 73, 62—65.

Yagi, A., Nishimura, H., Shida, T. and Nishioka, I. (1986) Structure determination of polysaccharides in Aloe arborescens var. natalensis. Planta Medica, 213—218.

Yagi, H., Tokura, Y., Wakita, H., Furukawa, F. and Takigawa, M. (1996) TCRV-7+ Th2 cells mediate UVB-induced suppression of murine contact photosensitivity by releasing IL-10. Journal of Immunology. 156, 1824—1831.

Yarosh, D.B. and Yee, V. (1990) SKH-1 hairless mice repair UV-induced pyrimidine dimers in epidermal DNA. Journal of Photochemistry Photobiology, 7, 173—179.

York, W.S., Darvill, A.G. and Albersheim, P. (1984) Inhibition of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-stimulated elongation of pea stem segments by a xyloglucan oligosaccharide. Plant Physiology, 75, 295-297.

York, W.S., Oates, J.E., van Halbeek, H., Darvill, A.G. and Albersheim, P. (1988) Location of the O-acetyl substituents on a nonasaccharide repeating unit of sycamore extracellular xyloglucan. Carbohydrate Research, 173, 113—132.

York, W.S., van Halbeek, H.M., Darvill, A.G. and Albersheim, P. (1990) Structural analysis of xyloglucan oligosaccharides by 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy and fast atom-bombardment mass spectrometry. Carbohydrate Research, 200, 9—31.

York, W.S., Harvey, L.K., Guillen, R., Albersheim, P. and Darvill, A.G. (1993) Structural analysis of tamarind seed xyloglucan oligosaccharides using ß glactosidase digestion and spectroscopic methods. Carbohydrate Research, 248, 285—301.

Young, R.C. (2000) The sounds of silence: No news about cancer prevention is good news. Nature, 408, 141.

Zablackis, E., York, W.S., Pauly, M., Hantus, S., Reiter, W-D., Chapple, C.C.S., Albersheim, P. and Darvill, A. (1996) Substitution of L-fucose by L-galactose in cell walls of Arabidopsis mur1. Science, 272, 1808-1810.

Zerp, S.F., Van Elsas, A., Peltenburg, L.T.C. and Schrier, P.I. (1999) P53 mutations in human cutaneous melanoma correlates with sun exposure but are not always involved in melanom-agenesis. British Journal of Cancer, 79, 921-926.

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Aloe and Your Health

Aloe and Your Health

This іѕ а health guide, whісh саn hеlр people knоw hоw tо mаkе uѕе оf Aloe vera tо improve оvеrаll health аnd deal wіth mаnу kinds оf diseases.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment