Alexander, J.W., MacMillan, B.G., Law, E. and Kittur, D.S. (1981) Treatment of severe burns with widely meshed skin autograft and meshed skin allograft overlay. Journal of Trauma, 21, 433.
Barillo, D.J. and Goode, R. (1996) Fire fatality study. Demographics of fire victims. Burns, 22, 85-88.
Benigni, R. (1950) Substances with antibiotic action contained in anthraquinonic drugs. Chemical Abstracts, 44, 11036.
Blakeney, P., Meyer, W., Robert, R., Desai, M., Wolf, S.E. and Herndon, D.N. (1998) Long-term psychosocial adaptation of children who survive burns involving 80% or greater total body surface area. Journal of Trauma, 44, 625-632.
Boswick, J.A. ed. (1987) The Art and Science of Burn Care. Rockville: Aspen Publishers.
Boswick, Jr. J.A., Thompson, J.D. and Jonas, R.A. (1979) The epidemiology of cold injuries. Surgery Gynecology and Obstetrics, 149, 326-332.
Bourne, M.H., Piepkorn, M.W., Clayton, F. and Leonard, L.G. (1986) Analysis of microvascular changes in frostbite injury. Journal of Surgical Research, 40, 26-35.
Bouwman, D.L. Morrison, S., Lucas, C.E. and Ledgerwood, A.M. (1980) Early sympathetic blockade for frostbite—Is it of value? Journal of Trauma, 20, 744-749.
Brigham, P.A. and McLoughlin, E. (1996) Burn incidence and medical care in the United States: Estimates, trends, and data sources. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 17, 95-107.
Bruce, W.G.G. (1967) Investigations of antibacterial activity in the Aloe. South African Medical Journal, 41, 984.
Bulkley, G.B. (1983) The role of oxygen free radicals in human disease processes. Surgery, 94, 407.
Bull, J.P. and Fisher, A.J. (1949) A study in mortality in a burn unit: Standards for the evaluation for alternative methods of treatment. Annals of Surgery, 130, 160-173.
Cera, L.M., Heggers, J.P., Hagstrom, W.J. and Robson, M.C. (1982) Therapeutic protocol for thermally injured animals and its successful use in an extensively burn Rhesus Monkey. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 18, 633-638.
Cera, L.M., Heggers, J.P., Robson, M.C. and Hagstrom, W.J. (1980) The therapeutic efficacy of Aloe vera cream (Dermaide Aloe) in thermal injuries: two case reports. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 16, 768-772.
Coats, B.C. and Ahola, R. (1979) Aloe vera the silent healer. A modern study of Aloe vera, pp.1-288, Garland, Texas: Bill C. Coats.
Committee on Trauma, American College of Surgeons (1999) Resources for optimal care of the injured patient.
Danhof, I.E., McAnally, B.H. (1983). Stabilized Aloe vera: Effect on human skin cells. Drug and Cosmetic Industry, 133,52—54, 105-106.
Davis, R.H. and Maro, N.P. (1989) Aloe vera and gibberellin. Anti-inflammatory activity in diabetes. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 79, 24-26.
Desai, M.H., Herndon, D.N., Broemeling, L., Barrow, R.E., Nichols, R.J. Jr and Rutan, R.L. (1990) Early burn wound excision significantly reduces blood loss. Annals of Surgery, 211, 753-762.
Desai, M.H., Rutan, R.L., Herndon, D.N. (1991) Conservative treatment of scald burns is superior to early excision. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 12, 482-484.
Dziewulski, P. (1992) Burn would healing. Burns, 18, 466-478.
Engrav, L.H., Heimbach, D.M., Reus, J.L., Harnar, T.J. and Marvin, J.A. (1983) Early excision and grafting versus non-operative treatment of burns of indeterminant depth: A randomized prospective study. Journal of Trauma, 23, 1001-1004.
Fuhrman, F.A. and Crissman, J.M. (1947) Studies on gangrene following cold injury. Treatment of cold injury by immediate rapid rewarming. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 26, 476.
Fujita, K., Ito, S., Teradaira, R. and Beppu, H. (1979) Properties of a carboxypeptidase from aloe. Biochemical Pharmacology, 28, 1261-1262.
Fujita, K., Teradaira, R. and Nagatsu, T. (1976) Bradykinase activity of aloe extract. Biochemical Pharmacology, 25, 205.
Golding, M.R., Dejong, P., Sawyer, P.N., Hennigar, G.R., Wesolows, S.A. (1963) Protection from early and late sequelae of frostbite by regional sympathectomy: Mechanism of 'cold sensitivity' following frostbite. Surgery, 53, 303-308.
Gottshall, R.Y., Jennings, J.C., Weller, L.E., Redemann, C.T., Lucas, E.H. and Sell, H.M. (1950) Antibacterial substances in seed plants active against tubercle bacilli. American Revue of Tuberculosis, 62, 475-480.
Grindlay, D. and Reynolds, T. (1986) The Aloe vera phenomenon: A review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 16, 117-151.
Heggers, J.P., Robson, M.C., Manavalen, K., Weingarten, M.D., Carethers, J.M., Boertman, J.A., Smith Jr. D.J. and Sachs, R.J. (1987) Experimental and clinical observations on frostbite. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 16, 1056-1062.
Heggers, J.P., Pelley, R.P. and Robson, M.C. (1993) Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing. Phytotherapy Research, 7, S48-S52.
Heggers, J.P., Robson, M.C. and Zachary, L.S. (1985) Thromboxanes inhibitors for the prevention of progressive dermal ischemia due to the thermal injury. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 6, 466-468.
Heimbach, D.M. (1987) Early burns excision and grafting. Surgical Clinics of North America, 67, 93-107.
Herndon, D.N., Gore, D.C., Cole, M., Desai, M.H., Linares, H., Abston, S., Rutan, T.C., VanOsten, T. and Barrow, R.E. (1987) Determinants of mortality in pediatric patients with greater than 70% full thickness total body surface area treated by early excision and grafting.
Journal of Trauma, 27, 208-212.
Hurley, L.A. (1957) Angioarchitectural changes associated with rapid rewarming subsequent to freezing injury. Angiology, 819.
Kemp, A. and Sibert, J. (1997) Childhood accidents. Epidemiology, trends, and prevention.
Journal of Accident and Emergency Medicine, 14, 316-320.
Klein, A.D. and Penneys, N. (1988) Aloe vera. Journal of the American Acadamy of Dermatology, 18, 714-720.
Knize, D.M. (1977) Cold injury in reconstructive plastic surgery: General principles. Volume 1, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Knize, D.M., Weatherley-White, R.C., Paton, B.C. and Owens, J.C. (1969) Prognostic factors in the management of frostbite. Journal of Trauma, 9, 749-759.
Kulka, J.P. (1956) Histopathologic studies in frostbitten rabbits. In Cold Injury. edited by M.I. Ferrer, New York:Josiah Macy, Jr Foundation.
Kulka, J.P. (1961) Vasomotor microcirculatory insufficiency: Observations on non-freezing cold injury of the mouse ear. Angiology, 12, 491.
Kulka, J.P. (1964) Microcirculatory impairment as a factor in inflammatory tissue damage. Annals of the NewYork Academy of Sciencs, 6, 1018.
Kyosola, K. (1974) Clinical experiences in the management of cold injuries: A study of 110 cases. Journal of Trauma, 14, 32-36.
Lange, K. and Loewe, L. (1946) Subcutaneous heparin in the pitkin mastruum for the treatment of experimental human frostbite. Surgery Gynecology and Obstetrics, 82, 256.
Larrey, D.J. (1814) Memoirs of military surgery. Volume 2. Baltimore: Joseph Cushing.
Lawrence, W.F., Murphy, R.C., Robson, M.C. and Heggers, J.P. (1994) The detrimental effect of cigarette smoking on flap survival: An experimental study in the rat. British Journal of Plastic Surgery 1984; 37, 216-219.
Lehr, H.A., Guhlmann, A., Nolte, D., Keppler, D. and Messmer, K. (1991) Leukotrienes as mediators in ischemia-reperfusion injury in a microcirculation model in the hamster. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 87, 2036-2041.
Lorenzetti, L.J., Salisbury, R., Beal, J.L. and Baldwin, J.N. (1964) Bacteriostatic property of Aloe vera. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 53, 1287.
Mallonee, S., Istre, G.R., Rosenberg, M., Reddish-Douglas, M., Jordan, F., Siverstein, P. and Tunell, W. (1996) Surveillance and prevention of residential-fire injuries. New England Journal of Medicine, 335, 27-31.
Marzella, L., Jesudass, R.R., Manson, P.N., Myers, R.A. and Bulkley, G.B. (1989) Morphological characterization of acute injury to vascular endothelium of skin after frostbite. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 83, 67-76.
McCauley, R.L., Heggers, J.P. and Robson, M.C. (1990) Frostbite: Methods to minimize tissue loss. Postgraduate Medicine, 88(8), 67-68, 73-77.
Mills, W.J. Jr. (1964) Clinical aspects of frostbite injury. In Proceeding of the symposium on arctic medicine and biology. IV Frostbite. Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory. Fort Wainwright, 1964.
Mills, W.J. Jr. (1973) Frostbite A discussion of the problem and a review of an Alaskan experience. Alaska Medicine, 15, 27-47.
Mills, W.J. Jr. (1976) Out in the cold. Emergency Medicine, Jan, 134. 55. Molnar, G.W., Hughes, A.L., Wilson, O. and Goldman, R.F. (1973) Effect of skin wetting on fingercooling and freezing. Journal of Applied Physiology, 35, 205-207.
Muller, M.J., Nicolai, M., Wiggins, R., Macgill, K. and Herndon, D.N. (1996) Modern treatment of a burn wound. In Total Burn Care, edited by D.N. Herndon and J.H. Jones, pp.136-147. Philadelphia:WB Saunders Co.
Nakagomi, K., Oka, S., Tomizuka, N., Yamamoto, M., Masui, T. and Nakazawa, H. (1985) A novel biological activity in Aloe components: Effects on mast cell degranulation and platelet aggregation. Report of the Fermentation Research Institute, 23-30.
Orr, K.D. and Fainer, D.C. (1951) Cold injuries in Korea during winter of 1950—1951. Fort Knox: Army Medical Research Laboratory.
Orr, K.D. and Fainer, D.C. (1952) Cold injuries in Korea clinic: The winter of 1950-1951. Medicine 1952; 31, 177.
Porter, J.M., Wesche, D.H., Rosch, J. and Baur, G.M. (1976) Intra-arterial sympathetic blockage in the treatment of clinical frostbite. American Journal of Surgery, 132, 625-630.
Reus, W.F., Robson, M.C., Zachary, L. and Heggers, J.P. (1984) Acute effects of tobacco smoking on blood flow in the cutaneous microcirculation. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 37, 213-215.
Robson, M.C., DelBeccaro, E.J. and Heggers, J.P. (1980) Increasing dermal perfusion after burning by decreasing thromboxane production. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 20, 722-725.
Robson, M.C. and Heggers, J.P. (1981) Evaluation of hand frostbite blister fluid as a clue to pathogenesis. Journal of Hand Surgery-American volume 1981;6:43-47.
Robson, M.C., Heggers, J.P. and Hagstrom, W.J. (1982) Myth, Magic, Witchcraft or Fact? Aloe vera revisited. Journal of Burn Care and Rehabilitation, 3, 157-163.
Robson, M.C., Krizek, T.J. and Wray, R.C. (1979) Care of the thermally injured patient, In Management oftrauma, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders.
Rodriguez-Bigas, M., Cruz, N.J. and Suarez, A. (1988) Comparative evaluation of Aloe vera in the management of burn wound in guinea pigs Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 81, 386-389.
Ryan, C.M., Schoenfeld, D.A., Thorpe, W.P., Sheridan, R.L., Cassem, E.H. and Tompkins, R.G. (1998) Objective estimates of the probability of death from burn injuries. New England Journal of Medicine, 338, 362—366.
Sarhadi, N.S., Murray, G.D. and Reid, W.H. (1995) Trends in burn admissions in Scotland during 1970-92. Burns, 21, 612-615.
Schechter, D.S. and Sarot, I.A. (1968) Historical accounts of injuries due to cold. Surgery, 63, 527-535.
Shelton, R.M. (1991) Aloe vera. Its chemical and therapeutic properties. International Journal of Dermatology, 30, 679-683.
Simeone, F.A. (1960) Surgical volumes of the history of the United States Army Medical Department in World War II: Cold injury. Archives ofSurgery, 80, 296.
Snider, R.L. and Porter, J.M. (1975) Treatment of experimental frostbite with intra-arterial sympathetic blocking drugs. Surgery, 77, 557.
Somboonwong, J., Thanamittramanee, S., Jariyapongskul, A. and Patumraj, S. (2000) Therapeutic effects of Aloe vera on cutaneous microcirculation and wound healing in second degree burn model in rats. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 83, 417-425.
Vaughn, P.B. (1980) Local cold injury: Menace to military operations, A review. Military Medicine, 145, 305-311.
Visuthikosol, V., Sukwanarat, Y., Chowchuen, B., Sriurainratana, S. and Boonpuknavig, V. (1995) Effect of Aloe vera gel to healing of burn wound: Clinical and histologic study. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 403-408.
Weatherly-White, R.C.A., Sjostrom, B. and Paton, B.C. (1964) Experimental studies in cold injury. Journal ofSurgical Research, 4, 17.
Whayne, T.J. and DeBakey, M.F. (1958) Cold injury, ground type. Washington DC: US Government Printing Office.
Wilson, O. and Goldman, R.F. (1970) Role of air temperature and wind in the time necessary for a finger to freeze. Journal of Applied Physiology, 29, 658-664.
Zacarian, S.A. (1985) Cryogenics: The cryolesion and the pathogenesis of cryonecrosis. In Cryosurgery for skin and cutaneous disorders, edited by S.A. Zacarian. St Louis: Mosby.
Zacarian, S.A., Stone, D. and Clater, H. (1970) Effects of cryogenic temperatures in the microcirculation in the golden hamster cheek pouch. Cryobiology, 7, 27-39.
Zawacki, B.E. (1974) Reversal of capillary stasis and prevention of necrosis in burns. Annals of Surgery, 180, 98-102.
Zimmerman, E.R. and Simms, R. (1969) Antibacterial and antifungal in vitro properties of Aloe vera. Baylor University College of Dentistry, Microbiology Laboratory, Dallas, USA.
Was this article helpful?