1 Values established by the IASC (2000).


1 Values established by the IASC (2000).

fraud (Pelley etal., 1998). Wang's database should form the basis for interpreting virtually all studies on the commercial aspects of A. barbadensis. Our overviews of agronomy, processing, and fraud in the aloe industry are ultimately based on his findings. The Texas A&M study forms the basis for the current IASC parameters, which are shown in Table 8.3 above.

The Aloe Research Foundation and biological activity

During this same 1991—1993 period, another set of standards were being established by the Aloe Research Foundation (ARF). The IASC standards addressed questions of physical and chemical identity of A. barbadensis gel but did not address biological activity. This fell to the ARF program. The ARF was established by one of the two major vertically integrated companies in the aloe industry to support biological research on Aloe sp. It was hoped that the other companies in the industry would be attracted to support high quality research, which, alas, never happened. At the very beginning it was decided that major factors holding back research on Aloe sp. was (i) the lack of standardized biologically active materials (Pelley etal, 1993; Waller etal, 1994) and (ii) concomitant standardized assays for aloe biological activity (for details see Chapter 12). These factors led to the production of the ARF Standard Samples (Table 8.4, below) and their analysis by the Inter University Collaborative Study. The key to the ARF Standard Samples was meticulous processing and freeze-drying from the native gel state.

These materials had a number of biological activities and their fractionation and characterization occupied much of A. barbadensis biochemical research during the second half of the decade. These materials were produced by Process A (Pelley etal, 1993; Waller etal, 1994), which comprises:

(i) subjecting leaves harvested only an hour or two in advance to a sanitizing wash and rinse;

(ii) filleting manually or mechanically, with utmost care to exclude the anthraquinone-rich mesophyll;

(iii) coarsely grinding the filets and removing pulp by passage through a screen with 250 ^m openings; and,

(iv) lyophilizing the depulped gel immediately, without any concentration or further processing.

Table 8.4 Key Analytical Parameters of the Aloe Research Foundation Process A Gel Fillet Standard Samples.

Standard Conductivity

Sample* Siemens

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