The antifungal activity of a lyophilized powder containing aloe leaf homogenate against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was investigated to show the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of 25 mg/ml by the agar dilution method. The powder containing components with a molecular weight higher than 10 Kda, prepared by filtration followed by dialyzer concentrator, showed MIC against three strains of T. mentagro-phytes were all 10 mg/ml. The inhibitory activity was fungicidal and lost by heating at 100° C for 30 minutes. Both the whole-leaf powder and the high molecular weight component powder induced various morphological abnormalities in spore and hyphae by the inhibition of spore germination and development of hyphae (Fujita etal, 1978b).
Inhibitory activity on induction of preneoplastic focal lesions in the rat liver
Inhibitory effects of whole leaf powder on induction of preneoplastic glutathione S-transferase (GST-P) positive hepatocyte foci GST-P + were studied in male rats. The results indicated that 30% Kidachi aloe extract inhibits the promotion and possibly even retards the initiation stage of hepatocarcinogenesis (Tsuda etal., 1993).
To assess mechanisms of chemoprevention of hepatocarcinogenesis by trans-(3)-carotene, DL-a-tochopherol and freeze-dried whole leaves of Kidachi aloe, a formation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-t]quinoline (IQ)-DNA adducts was measured by 32P-post-labeling analysis. CYP1Al(cytochrome P450 1A1) and CYP1A2 protein levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, P-carotene and possibly also a-tocopherol and Kidachi aloe were shown to have the potential to reduce IQ-DNA adduct formation, presumably as a result of decreased formation of active metabolites. The results may explain, at least in part, the previously observed inhibitory effects of these compounds on induction of preneoplastic hepatocellular lesions (Uehara etal, 1996).
In vivo effects on experimental tinea pedis in guinea-pig feet
Tricophytosis was induced in guinea-pigs and the antifungal effects of Kidachi aloe were evaluated in comparison with lanoconazol, a commercially available antifungal agent. Trichophytosis was induced by inoculation of arthrospores of Trichophyton metagrophytes cephalic strain SM-110 on to the plantar part of guinea pig feet. Culture studies after application of 30% freeze-dried Kidachi aloe for ten days showed a 70% growth inhibition compared with the untreated animals. In an in vitro experiment, the fraction with a molecular weight of less than 10 Kda and barbaloin showed growth inhibition of Trichophyton at a minimum concentration of 75mg/ml and 200^g/ml, respectively (Kawai etal., 1998).
Protection on skin injury induced by X-ray irradiation
Protective effects of Kidachi aloe on mouse skin injury induced by soft x-ray-irradiation were examined. The mechanisms on radiation protection were further investigated by measuring scavenger activity of activated oxygen, protective effects of nucleic acid and induction of antioxidative protein. The active fraction, S6—3-b, protecting the skin injury significantly, showed scavenger activity of hydroxyl radicals generated by the Haber-Weiss reaction, suppression of the changes of activity in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase at seven days after soft x-ray irradiation. Metallothionein, which is a protective low molecular weight protein containing a high cysteine against x-ray irradiation, was induced in the skin and liver against normal mice at 24 hours after administration of fraction S6—3-b (Sato etal, 1990).
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