Grindley And Reynolds 1986

Aloe leaves, especially their inner clear part or pulp, are widely used in various medical, cosmetic, and nutraceutical applications. Many of the beneficial effects of these plants have been attributed to the polysaccharides present in the leaf pulp (Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986 Reynolds and Dweck, 1999). Among the many constituents that have been identified in the pulp, the polysaccharides are most abundant and widely studied. The earliest description of polysaccharides from aloe leaves was...

Info

20 CFU ml 10 CFU ml 50 CFU ml 10-2,400 CFU ml 70-1,800 CFU ml 40-500 CFU ml 10-60 CFU ml 10-100 CFU ml 20 CFU ml 1 The frequency with which this organism was identified in nine ARF preparations. 2 These organisms were observed only in gel and were not isolated from the surface of the plant. 3 These organisms were identified by biochemical tests. The biochemical tests employed and the computer algorithms used for speciation were developed for the identification of human pathogens. Therefore they...

D

Figure 8.4 The steps in the initial processing of aloe gel. A Harvest of leaves and transport to preliminary processing station or integrated processing plant. B Leaf washing including initial wash in sodium hypochlorite solution (200 ppm), rinsing in 20 ppm hypochlorite solution, trimming off butts and tips, and culling of diseased or damaged leaves. This produces (C), washed and trimmed leaves. Next, the rind is removed, either by hand (D) or mechanically (E), producing gel fillets (F). These...

Bradykinindegrading glycoprotein

A homogeneous glycoprotein (MW 40 Kda), containing 50.7 protein, was isolated, from Kidachi aloe extract by precipitation with 60 ammonium sulfate. Aloe glycoprotein had bradykinin-degrading activity on an isolated guinea pig ileum in vitro. Peptide analysis using a reversed-phase HPLC coupled with amino acid analysis showed that aloe glycoprotein cleaves the Pro7-Phe8 and Phe8-Arg9 bonds of the bradykinin molecule. The proteolytic action suggests that aloe glycoprotein has carboxy-peptidase N-...

Immunomodulatory action

Aloe gel may also directly stimulate the immune system (Womble and Helderman, 1988) through its active ingredient acemannan. This polysaccharide increases lymphocyte response to alloantigen it activates macrophages to produce nitric oxide (Karaca etal, 1995) and cytokines (interleukins 1 and 6, interferon, tumor necrosis factor) it enhances phagocytosis (Shida etal., 1985) and, it increases the number of circulating monocytes and macrophages. Aloe gel also causes a local activation of...

Character And Structure Of Aloe Vera Bioactive

* The mannans listed are those whose linkage and or degree of acetylation have been determined besides sugar composition. a The d.s. value is converted from the content (5.3) of acetyl groups along with a protein content of 10.4 (assuming rest of the preparation is carbohydrate). * The mannans listed are those whose linkage and or degree of acetylation have been determined besides sugar composition. a The d.s. value is converted from the content (5.3) of acetyl groups along with a protein...

Ethanolsoluble Extracts Of Aloe Barbadensis Miller

An ethanol extract of aloes was found to have strongly hemagglutinating effects (Bouthet etal, 1996). Lectins or lectin-like substances had been generally prepared as water-soluble substances. However, an ethanol extract of A. barbadensis was described to have lectin-like properties, i.e. strong hemagglutinating effects toward human erythrocytes. In this study, the recognition sites of specific sugars with ethanol extract was particularly discussed and identified. A commercially available gel...

Mealy bugs

Adults and nymphs of the mealy bug Planococcus citri were found on 31 of the 58 species of Aloe surveyed in Table 17.1. High numbers of adults were found on the underside of the leaves and in the rosettes. Young nymphs were often found aggregating around spines at the edge of the leaves. Three species, A. ferox, A. marlothii and A. vaombe, growing in the research glasshouse were very heavily invested with all stages of the mealy bug and would not have been suitable for growing in the public...

History

The topical and internal effects of aloes have been known since ancient times. Nefertite and Cleopatra, two Egyptian queens, used aloes as a beauty aid. The drug was used by Dioscorides to heal skin ailments and haemorrhoids. Aloes were used by Pliny the Elder, Celsus, Galen and other famous physicians to treat wounds and gastrointestinal disturbances, but no mention of aloes was made by either Hippocrates or Theophrastus (Shelton, 1991 Hennessee, 1998). Aloe was largely prescribed by Arabian...

Final processing concentration and drying

About a decade and a half ago one of the major expenses in the aloe industry was shipping. Pasteurized aloe gel (Product M) and pasteurized, decolorized aloe 'gel' (Product Q) are 99 water. As the market for A. barbadensis gel expanded, companies who could drastically reduce shipping costs could reduce the ultimate cost of aloe feed stocks to manufacturers by one-third. Given that the primitive state of aloe quality control focused on solids, ions and organic acids, the reduction of costs by...

Conclusion

Aloe pulp is indeed a very unique plant tissue. One aspect of its analysis is to establish the basic chemical composition of the pulp. Another is for detailed structural analysis of various compounds in relation to biological activity. Clearly, the first aspect is not yet mature. This is evidenced by the lack of a consistent approach for the initial pulp processing and adoption of standardized methods. Most descriptions in literature on this aspect are vague the extent of grinding, filter pore...

Antifungal activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes

The antifungal activity of a lyophilized powder containing aloe leaf homogenate against Trichophyton mentagrophytes was investigated to show the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) of 25 mg ml by the agar dilution method. The powder containing components with a molecular weight higher than 10 Kda, prepared by filtration followed by dialyzer concentrator, showed MIC against three strains of T. mentagro-phytes were all 10 mg ml. The inhibitory activity was fungicidal and lost by heating at 100...

Tetraploidy Aloe Vera

The chromosome complement of the genus Aloe has long been considered to be exceptionally stable. All species have a single basic chromosome number (x 7) and a large, strongly bimodal karyotype always comprising three short chromosomes and four much longer ones in the haploid set. Nevertheless, major and minor changes in chromosome morphology occur frequently, together with a two-fold range of interspecific variation in overall nuclear DNA amount, with the low values in primitive species....

Leaf Exudate Compounds

Most of the chromones so far described from aloe leaf exudates are derivatives of Variation arises from the degree of oxidation in the propyl side-chain, methylation of the hydroxyl group on C7 and esterification of the glucose moiety. Of the aglycones (Figure 3.1), aloesone was reported as a minor component from 11 Aloe species (Holdsworth, 1972), while the reduction product, aloesol occurs in Rheum (Kashiwada etal., 1984). Methylation of the 7-hydroxyl group has been achieved synthetically...

Conclusion Of Aloe Vera Plant

Chromosome evolution in Aloe is a mixture of stability and variation. It has been shown that polyploidy is uncommon in the genus and is a minor contribution to the evolution of its species. The highly-conserved, orthoselected karyotype of Aloe displays a uniform absence of the telomere structure that is otherwise widespread, but shows variability of distribution of nucleolar constrictions and rDNA sites (Adams etal, 2000a). It does not stabilise other major structural chromosome changes as...

Pre Processing Plant Of Aloe Vera

Aloe barbadensis gel3 Bacto Agar4 (for pour plates) 3 Pasteurized and activated charcoal absorbed (ARF Process C or E). particularly severe if the plates are incubated at higher than standard temperatures (35 37 C) in order to reproduce the temperatures at which aloe-associated bacteria often grow. There is a long way to go before we can consider this system and the taxonomic status of the organisms established. Are they lactobacilli, streptococci, micrococci or a completely different genus...

Antimicrobial properties

Even today we employ a varied armamentarium of topical substances to control and prevent infection, without a complete understanding of their influence on the process of wound healing. In fact, it has been demonstrated that concentrations of several antimicrobial agents used to control wound infections are in fact toxic to tissue-cultured cells (McCauley etal, 1992). Extracts from Aloe vera gel have been shown to have beneficial heterogeneous properties, which include an ability to penetrate...

The Effects Of Aloe Vera Gel On Wound Healing

In order to understand how Aloe vera gel effects wound healing, it is necessary to first examine its chemical composition. Working with a single compound makes it simple to develop scientific research to prove or disprove its proposed benefits. This is not the case with Aloe vera. Whereas most botanicals have a single ingredient isolated from the parent that is responsible for its observed benefits, the gel is known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients (Rowe and Parks, 1941). In all...

Pectins

Aloe vera cell walls contain a unique pectin (Ni etal, Chapter 4, this volume). This low-methoxy pectin contains up to 90 glucuronic acid. As a result it has unusual biological properties, such as the ability to bind and stabilize certain mammalian growth factors. Its presence in crude acemannan preparations may explain, in part, why these preparations can accelerate wound healing under certain circumstances (Tizard etal, 1994). Other complex carbohydrates may be present in aloe gel extracts in...

Preface On Topic Medicinal Plants

Aloes provide a fascinating subject for research from a chemical, biochemical, pharmaceutical, taxonomic, horticultural and economic point of view. Their use as medicinal plants is mentioned in many ancient texts, including the Bible, although here as elsewhere there may be doubts as to the botanical identity of the material. This multitude of medicinal uses described and discussed over the centuries is sometimes difficult to evaluate. Authors such as Crosswhite and Crosswhite (1984) have given...

Introduction

There is no doubt that ancient peoples classified plants. However, the folk-taxonomic groupings that they used were much simpler and more robust than those used today (Stace, 1980). Typical mental abstractions (categories) into which plants were placed were whether they were useful (e.g. as sources of food or building materials), poisonous, or could be worshipped. The species of Aloe L., particularly the widely known and used A. vera (L.) Burm.f., would no doubt have been included in the...

References

Barringer, S.A., Mohamed-Yasseen, Y. and Splittstoesser, W.E. (1996) Micropropagation of endangered Aloe juvenna and A. volkensii (Aloaceae). Haseltonia, 4, 43 45. Carter, S. (1994) Aloaceae. In Flora of Tropical East Africa, edited by R.M. Polhill, 60 pp. Rotterdam Balkema. Cutler, D.F. (1982) Cuticular sculpturing and habitat in certain Aloe species (Liliaceae) from Southern Africa. In The Plant Cuticle, edited by D.F. Cutler, K.L. Alvin and C.E. Price, pp. 425 444. London Academic Press....

Aphids

In the glasshouses at RBG Kew, aphids can be found on aloe flowers in the autumn and through the winter until spring (Table 17.1). It was rare to find populations of aphids establishing themselves on the leaves of aloes and they were not observed breeding on Table 17.1 Insect pests found on some of the aloes growing at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Table 17.1 Insect pests found on some of the aloes growing at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Scales

Eight species of Aloe were contaminated with scales (Table 17.1) (Figure 17.4). However, on examination, the majority of scales did not contain live insects. However, A. ferox was badly attacked by the soft scale, Coccus hesperidum L., and the hemispherical scale, Saissetia coffeae Deplanche. It was noted that the accessions of A. ferox infested with scales also had high numbers of mealy bugs. Figure 17.4 Severe infestation of aloe plant with scale showing bluish-white overall appearance....

Cytoprotective Oligosaccharide And Interleukin10

When the Aloe Research Foundation originated ten years ago, the initial task laid before the Scientific Advisory Board was to assess the biological activities of Aloe sp. Most of us would have been content to assess the biologic activities in the best commercial 'Aloe vera' materials. B. William Lee, President of Aloecorp, challenged the Scientific Advisory Board to do better and determine the biological activities in the 'freshest possible gel' regardless of the commercial feasibility of the...

O o

Structure 3 The core xyloglucan repeating unit of the Tamarind polysaccharide. Modified from Pelley and Strickland (2000). This repeating subunit of the Tamarind polysaccharide is an analogue of the classical xyloglucan 'Oligosaccharin' plant growth regulator (reviewed in Albersheim etal, 1992 Darvill etal, 1992). Our finding that a biologically active SIS oligosaccharide in aloe was generated by cleavage of a precursor plant polysaccharide was reminiscent of this biologically active...

Habitats

Aloes occupy a wide range of habitats, varying from forests to exposed rock surfaces and cliff faces. The genus does not occur in moist lowland forest, but the dry coastal forests of eastern Africa include arborescent species such as A. eminens and A. volkensii Engl. subsp. volkensii. Not all arborescent species are forest trees, the huge A. dichotoma L. being a prominent feature of the arid Namaqualand landscape. Many shrubby species are found in Acacia scrub and other thickets, sometimes...

Modification of the immune system

Using Aloctin A (Suzuki etal, 1979 Imanishi and Suzuki, 1984, 1986) and AFT 1011 (Yoshimoto etal, 1987) isolated from whole leaves of A. arborescens, the possibility of cytotoxicity against tumor cells via the modified immune system was evaluated. The following actions of aloe lectins were also evaluated anti-inflammatory and gastric function protective effects of Aloctin A isolated from whole leaves of A. arborescens (Saito etal, 1982 Imanishi etal, 1984) the contribution of a 40 kDa lectin to...

Mannan

Mannans are the most widely studied polysaccharides from aloes. This is because they are the most often isolated and have been shown to have several biological effects (Marshall etal, 1993 Tizard etal, 1989 Zhang and Tizard, 1996 Ramamoorthy and Tizard, 1998). The mannan from A. vera is a partially acetylated 1 4 linked polymannose (Yagi etal, 1977 Paulsen etal, 1978 Gowda etal, 1979). A mannan with these two primary characteristics (the 1 4 linkage and acetylation) has been detected in all...

Summary Objects of studies

Various species of Aloe, A. barbadensis and A. arborescens have been mostly used as folk medicines. A. barbadensis is more popular than A. arborescens, because A. arborescens has been mainly used in the East, particularly in Japan and Korea. Therefore, studies of aloe lectins have been mainly conducted using these two species of Aloe. During the course of studies on A. barbadensis, A. saponaria was simultaneously studied for comparison and two fractions, S I and S II, were respectively obtained...

Analysis Of Pulp And Its Components

In analyzing pulp, it is important to realize that we are dealing with material from a living plant whose conditions and properties can be influenced by many factors, including geographical location, seasonal change, and plant genetics (Pierce, 1983 Wang and Strong, 1993 Yaron, 1993). For example, differences in irrigation level can result in significant differences in total soluble sugar and polysaccharide content (Yaron, 1993). Furthermore, there are many different Aloe species. Fluctuations...

Uses

Aloes have been used as medicinal plants for centuries. Aloe vera was mentioned in the herbal of Dioscorides, produced in the first century CE and an illustration appeared in the Codex Aniciae Julianae, produced in the year CE 512. It was formally named Aloe perfoliata var. vera by Linnaeus in 1753, which is the starting point for flowering plant nomenclature. Reynolds (1966) argued that it was first recognised as a distinct species in 1768 by Miller, who called it Aloe barbadensis. However,...

Taxonomic Notes On The Genera Of The Aloaceae

Brief notes are given here on the genera of the Aloaceae upheld in this study, with emphasis on recent taxonomic contributions. For additional information on the genera, Smith and Van Wyk (1991, 1998) should be consulted. In the taxonomy of the Aloaceae, Aloe is of central importance. Not only is it the oldest genus in the family, but of all the genera of the Aloaceae it has been studied most extensively, both in terms of taxonomy and systematics. For the taxonomy versus systematics controversy...

Family Concepts In The Aloaceae

Batsch, is accredited as the first person to afford the alooid plants segregate suprageneric status at the familial rank. However, Batsch's (1802 138) Aloaceae (published as Alooideae) were not widely accepted and fell into disuse for approximately 180 years, most taxonomists referring the aloes and related genera to the Linnaean Hexandria Monogynia (e.g. Schultes and Schultes, 1829 631) or, later, to the Liliaceae (e.g. Baker, 1880 148). 'Aloeaceae' were...

Chemical Constituents

Aloes contain anthraquinone derivatives (10 to 40 ) like aloin, mucilage (30 ), resinous substances (16 to 63 ) like aloesin and aloesone, sugars (about 25 ), polysaccharides like acemannan and betamannan, fatty acids and cholesterol, campe-sterol, P-sistosterol, glycoproteins (aloctins A and B), lectins, a gibberellin-like substance, enzymes such as cyclo-oxygenase and bradykininase, together with other compounds such as lupeol, salicylic acid, urea, cinnamic acid, phenol, sulphur, magnesium...

L

Figure 9.5 Formation of melanosis coli in the mucosa of the colon or rectum. L, laxative P, cellular fragment M, macrophage Ma, macrophage with apoptotic bodies Mp, pigmented macrophage Dl, lysosomal digestion Vl, lymphatic vessel LM, mesenteric lymphnode CE, eptithelial cell LP, lamina propria MM, muscularis mucosae. The etiology of pseudomelanosis is still unclear. Laxatives could interact with colonic epithelial cells and induce migration of fragments of these cells into the spaces among the...

Preface to the series

There is increasing interest in industry, academia and the health sciences in medicinal and aromatic plants. In passing from plant production to the eventual product used by the public, many sciences are involved. This series brings together information which is currently scattered through an ever increasing number of journals. Each volume gives an in-depth look at one plant genus, about which an area specialist has assembled information ranging from the production of the plant to market trends...

A 35 Kda Mannosebinding Lectin From Aloe Arborescens Miller

A novel lectin having hemagglutinating and mitogenic activities was isolated from leaf skin of A. arborescens (Koike etal, 1995a, b). The lectin with a molecular mass of 35 kDa consists of subunits containing 109 amino acid residues. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the intact subunit showed a homology with that of snowdrop lectin. The homogenates of the leaf skin of A. arborescens were filtered and the filtrates were mixed with two-fold cold acetone. The precipitate was collected by...

Kiruma Or Bitter Aloevera

Afzal, M., Ali, M., Hassan, R.A.H., Sweedan, N. and Dhami, M.S.I. (1991) Identification of some prostanoids in Aloe vera extracts. Planta Medica, 57, 38 40. Ando, N. and Yamaguchi, I. (1990) -Sitosterol from Aloe vera (Aloe vera(L.) Burm. f.) gel. Kenkyu Kiyo-Tokyo Kasei Daigaku, 30, 15 20. Auterhoff, H., Graf, E., Eurisch, G. and Alexa, M. (1980) Trennung des Aloins in Diastereomere und deren Charakterisierung. Archiv der Pharmazie, 313, 113 120. Awe, W., Auterhoff, H. and Wachsmuth-Melm, C.L....

Frostbite Injuries Introduction

Frostbite is a localized cold-induced injury as a result of improper protection of oneself from the harshness of a cold environment. The first official report of the effects of cold injury was published in 1805 (Wilson and Goldman, 1970). However, these injuries have existed as far back as ancient times, including numerous accounts of soldiers perishing in various wars (Lange and Loewe, 1946 Nakagomi etal, 1985 Orr and Fainer, 1951 Sarhadi etal, 1995 Shelton, 1991 Somboonwong etal, 2000). Some...

Thinlayer chromatography

It was felt that for routine quantitative determinations an increase in precision and a reduction in manipulation time for the preservation of the active compounds was desirable, so the new process of planar chromatography on thin layers of adsorbant was applied to aloe analysis (Gerritsma and Rheede van Oudtshoorn, 1962), following the method introduced for qualitative separations (Stahl and Schorn, 1961). For this purpose, the developing solvent introduced by Teichert etal. (1961),...

The Japanese health food and nutrition food association JHNFA

JHNFA is a public service corporation approved by the Minister of Health and Welfare and was established in 1980 with the aim of encouraging people to develop and maintain healthy dietary habits. JHNFA recognized 47 business items including 1081 commodities as health foods until March, 2000. Both Aloe arborescens and Aloe vera processed preparations were registered with the serial number of 44 as a health food by JHNFA on March, 1997. What follows is a public announcement about the standard of...

Preparation Of Barbados Aloe

There are at least 600 known species of Aloe (Family Liliaceae) (Kawai etal, 1993), many of which have been used as botanical medicines in many countries for thousands of years (Grindlay and Reynolds, 1986 Gjerstad and Riner, 1968 Reynolds and Dweck, 1999 Swanson, 1995). Species of the genus Aloe are indigenous to Africa (A. ferox Miller, A. africana Miller, A. spicata Baker, A. platylepis Baker, A. candelabrum Berger) and Socotra (A. perryi Baker, A. forbesii Balf.fil.). Some have been...

Effects Of Aloederived Extracts And Compounds On Insects

Many plants produce compounds that inhibit some herbivores, especially insects, from feeding. A few of these compounds will deter and be toxic, whereas others deter feeding but are not toxic. Insects vary in their responses to these compounds and a compound that deters one species of insect could stimulate another. In fact, some compounds produced by plants are used as 'sign' compounds by insects to assist them identify a host plant. Although some research has been done on the chemistry of...

Alovera Medicine Plants Introduction

Two features of the Aloe family make them somewhat unique in the field of medicinal plants. First, there is no agreement on which ailments they might cure and second, there is no agreement on the components within the aloe plant that may exert beneficial medicinal activity. Anecdotal reports describe a bewildering array of both immuno-stimulating and immunosuppressive effects. Few controlled studies have supported these claims and to this day, much uncertainty exists as to whether aloe extracts...

Microcirculation Crewe

Anderson, D.O., Weber, N.D., Wood, S.G., Hughes, B.G., Murray, B.K. and North, J.A. (1991) In vitro virucidal activity of selected anthraquinones and anthraquinone derivatives. Antiviral Research, 16, 185-196. Atherton, P. (1998) Aloe vera magic or medicine Nursing standard, 12, 4952. Barnard, D.L., Huffman, J.H., Morris, J.L.B., Wood, S.G., Sidwell, R.W. and Hughes, B.G. (1992) Evaluation of the antiviral activity of anthraquinones, anthrones and anthroquinone derivatives against human...

Chromosome Number And Size

Cytologically, Aloe and its close relatives are remarkable for the uniformity of the basic number and the gross morphology of their chromosomes. Every species that has been investigated cytologically (the great majority of the described taxa) has the basic number x 7 and a karyotype that is always bimodal (Brandham, 1971). The haploid karyotype comprises three short acrocentric chromosomes and four long ones, of which three are acrocentric and one, the L1, submetacentric with a more substantial...

1 8 Dihydroxyanthraquinone Derivatives

Aloe Vera Dihydroxyanthraquinone

Table 3-3 Derivatives of 8-C-glucosylaloediol (aloesindiol). 2' - O -Cinnamoyl-7- O -methyl-aloesindiol A 2' - O -Cinnamoyl-7 - O -methyl-aloesindiol B Figure 3-4 Chrysophanol (3-methyl,1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone) and its derivatives. Figure 3-4 Chrysophanol (3-methyl,1,8-dihydroxy-anthraquinone) and its derivatives. Figure 3.5 Derivatives of Laccaic acid D methyl ester Deoxyerythrolaccin Figure 3.5 Derivatives of may be because anthraquinones are a minor component of leaf exudates and tend to...

Aloe De Vahombe

Marshall, G.D. and Druck, J.P. (1994) In vitro stimulation of NK activity by acemannan. Journal of Immunology, 150, 241A. Marshall, G.D., Gibbons, A.S. and Parnell, L.S. (1993) Human cytokines induced by acemannan. Abstract 619. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 91, 295. Meikrantz, W., Gisselbrecht, S., Tam, S.W. and Schlegel, R. (1994). Activation of cyclin A-dependent protein kinases during apoptosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 91, 3754-3758. Merino, R.,...

Arabinan and arabinogalactan

Arabinan and arabinogalactan are commonly found in plant cells. Arabinogalactan is often associated with a small amount of protein and is therefore called arabinogalactan protein (Fincher etal, 1983 Knox, 1995). Its carbohydrate composition is dominated by arabinose and galactose along with other sugars, including glucuronic acid and or galacturonic acid. Certain arabinans and arabinogalactans are also often found as the neutral side-chains in pectins. Mandal and Das (1980b) detected an...

What Are The Aloaceae

A wide range of different classifications for the Aloaceae have been proposed during the past few decades, and seven genera are widely accepted (Table 2.1). These genera Table 2.1 Synonymy of genera of the Aloaceae. Genera recognized in present chapter Gasteria Duval 6 (1809) Haworthia Duval 7 (1809) Poellnitzia Uitewaal 61 (1940) Astroloba Uitewaal 53 (1947) Smith (1995b) Roberts Reinecke (1965) Catevala Medikus 67 (1786) pro parte Kumara Medikus 69 (1786) Rhipidodendrum Willdenow 164 (1811)...

Biologic Effects Of Crude A Barbadensis Extracts On Epithelial Tissues

Extracts from a number of Aloe species are widely regarded as having therapeutic dermatologic properties useful in the treatment of sunburn and mild thermal injury (Heggers etal., 1993). These properties seem to be separate from aloe's laxative activity, anti-gastrointestinal ulcer activity and from efficacy in the treatment of severe thermal burns and wound-healing activity (Pelley and Heggers, unpublished observations). The popular recognition of aloe as a dermatologic has led to the...

Antiinflammatory properties

At the time of tissue injury, the eicosanoid cascade is initiated by platelets and the primary mediator of progressive tissue loss is the potent vasoconstrictor, thromboxane Table 10.3 Bactericidal Effects of 70 concentration of gel. Gram negative organisms Gram positive organisms Escherichia coli Stapylococcush. Aureus Enterobacter sp. Streptococcus. Pyogenes Serratia marcescens S. sp., group D enterococci Klebsiella sp. Pseudomonas aeruginosa A2 (Rosenburg and Gallin, 1999). Aloe acts as a...

Deleterious Effects

As plant sources for allergic contact dermatitis, exudates of ginkgo and lacquer tree are well known in Japan and Kidachi aloe gel portion is topically applied to cure an itchy dermatitis. However, several case studies of Kidachi aloe jelly portion were reported on allergic contact dermatitis as follows. A case study of contact dermatitis to Kidachi aloe A 66-year-old Japanese male with allergic dermatitis to Kidachi aloe leaf gel had generalized nummular and papular dermatitis after 20 days...

The standard of Aloe arborescens processed foodA Applying range

This standard is applied to the powder, granule, and pill type of Aloe arborescens Miller var. natalensis Berger (abbreviated to A. arborescens) food and A. arborescens processed food and the liquid type of A. arborescens juice and A. arborescens drink. A. arborescens in this standard is the leaf part of A. arborescens (Asphodelaceae) 1 A. arborescens powder is the powder of dried A. arborescens. 2 A. arborescens liquid is the liquid prepared from extraction followed by filtration of 3 A....

Intermediate Processing Bacteria And Spoilage

Almost a decade ago, we observed the following pattern during studies of the biological activity of Process A crude aloe gel (Strickhand, Waller and Pelley, unpublished results). Table 8.5 Relationship between the bacterial content of fresh Aloe barbadensis gel and its ability to protect the skin immune system from UVB-induced suppression. Table 8.5 Relationship between the bacterial content of fresh Aloe barbadensis gel and its ability to protect the skin immune system from UVB-induced...

Geographical Distribution

The majority of Aloe species occur naturally on mainland Africa, in tropical and subtropical latitudes. The genus is found almost throughout the African continent south of the Sahara Desert, except for the moist lowland forest zones and the western end of West Africa. As will be seen in Figure 1.1 the majority of species occur in southern Africa and on the eastern side of the continent. Many other species are found on the Arabian Peninsula and on Madagascar and a few, mostly formerly in the...

Clinical studies

Laxative Abuse Kidney

The first case report on the use of aloe gel for wound healing was published in 1935 (Collins and Collins, 1935). Roentgen dermatitis developed by a woman for depilatory purposes, treated with aloe gel, showed rapid relief. Since then, there are other reports dealing with successful medicinal applications of aloe gel, in roetgen dermatitis, ulcers and telangiectasis (Wright, 1936 Loveman, 1937), palmar eczema and pruritus vulvae (Crewe, 1937), finger abrasions (Barnes, 1947) and thermal burns...

Aloe Preparations

Near the epidermis or outer skin the leaves of aloes contain a row of fibrovascular bundles, the cells of which are much enlarged and filled with a yellow latex. Aloe latex is obtained by cutting the leaf transversely close to the stem and inclining the leaf so that the latex flows out in about six hours (Figure 9.2). No pressure must be applied otherwise the product will be contaminated with the mucilage present in the inner part of the leaf. The preparation obtained is bitter and yellow it is...

Polyploidy

Polyploidy is uncommon in Aloe and is not uniform in its geographical distribution in the genus. In southern Africa, where large numbers of species occur (Reynolds, 1950), only A. ciliaris Haw. is known to be polyploid, with A. ciliaris var. ciliaris being hexa-ploid (2n 42). This is the only known case of hexaploidy in the entire genus, and has been known for many years, since it was first discovered by Resende (1937). More recently, other varieties of A. ciliaris were found not to be...

Gel Components

Turning now to the central parenchymatous tissues of the aloe leaf, these are tasteless and colourless and of a more or less glutinous nature. These tissues in A. vera yield the aloe gel now so widespread in commercial therapeutic and cosmetic preparations (reviewed elsewhere in this volume). Although not accepted medically because of the difficulty in establishing the dosage, there are very many reports of healing properties, especially for skin complaints. It seems that activity may take...

Reference On Aloe Vera Biochemistry

Agarwala, O.P. (1997) Whole leaf aloe gel vs. standard aloe gel. Drug and Cosmetics Industry, February, 22-28. Akev, N. and Can, A. (1999) Separation and some properties of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp lectins. Phytotherapy Research, 13, 489-493. Aspinall, G.O. (1980) Chemistry of cell wall polysaccharides. In The Biochemistry of Plants, edited by J. Preiss, p. 473. New York, Academic Press. Bewley, J.D. and Reid, J.S.G. (1985) Mannana and glucomannans. In Biochemistry of Storage Carbohydrates in...

Pharmacology And Therapeutic Applications Constipation

Aloe Vera Mechanism Action

Aloe latex possesses laxative properties and has been used traditionally to treat constipation (Benigni etal., 1962). The old practice of using aloe as a laxative drug is based on its content of anthraquinones like barbaloin, which is metabolised to the laxative aloe-emodin, isobarbaloin and chrysophanic acid (Leung, 1980 Blumenthal, 1998). The term 'aloe' (or 'aloin') refers to a crystalline, concentrated form of the dried aloe latex. In addition, aloe latex contains large amounts of a...

Anthraquinones and anthrones

Free anthraquinones and anthrones have been observed in some Aloe species but are not a major component of leaf exudates as they are found in greater variety in the roots and subterranean stems (Yagi etal, 1974 Dagne, 1994 Van Wyk etal, 1995). The compounds are derivatives of either 1, 8-dihydroxy-3-methyl-anthraquinone (chrysophanol) (Figure 3.4) or 3, 8-dihydroxy, 1-methyl-anthraquinone (aloesaponarin II) (Figure 3.5). Although it was early noted in drug aloes (Horhammer etal., 1965),...

Figure Of Aloe Species

Figure 3.10 Esters of barbaloin derivatives Figure 3.11 C,O,-Diglucosylated compounds. Figure 3.11 C,O,-Diglucosylated compounds. chrysophanol dimers, A, B, C and D from A. saponaria (Figure 3.12) (Yagi et al, 1978b) and a pair of diastereomers based on aloe-emodin from A. elgonica, present as gluco-sides (Conner etal., 1990b) and then found in A. vera (Choi etal., 1996). Dimer A was found to be identical to (+) asphodelin (4,7'-bichrysophanol) (Gonzalez etal, 1973) and was identified in the...

Conservation

Many aloes are regarded as endangered species. Various threats exist, and they can be placed into three main categories over-collection of plants for cultivation, destruction of plants in harvesting leaf exudates and destruction of natural habitats. Some species, especially the miniature species of Madagascar and smaller-growing plants of South Africa, are possibly over-collected by people supplying the nursery trade (Newton and Chan, 1998 Oldfield, 1997). The rising popularity of 'field trip...

Pollination And Dispersal

Flowers of almost all Aloe species are diurnal, tubular, brightly coloured red or yellow, unscented and produce abundant nectar. These features point to ornithophily as the pollination syndrome, and sunbirds (Nectariniidae) are frequent visitors to aloe flowers in the field and in African gardens (Figure 1.2). Although they are not typical melittophilous flowers, aloes are also visited by bees. In some areas, especially in South Africa, the flowering of aloes is important in apiculture, though...

Arborans A and B with hypoglycemic activity

Arboran A and B, fractionated by gel permeation, showed the following characteristics arboran A, MW 12Kda, containing peptide moiety 2.5 neutral sugar components Rha, Fuc, Ara, Xyl, Man, Gal, Glc 0.3, 0.2, 0.1, 1.0, 0.2, 1.0, 0.3 in molar ratio 16.7 of acetyl group arboran B, MW, 57Kda, containing peptide moiety 10.4 neutral components Man, Glc, 10.3 1.0 in molar ratio. When administered IP (inter-peritoneal) to normal mice, both arboran A and B diminished plasma glucose levels in a...

Madicinal Plants Of Aloe Vera Introduction

The chemistry of the aloe plant has been studied for many years from a number of viewpoints. The leaf, the most frequently studied organ, can be divided into the outer green mesophyll, including the vascular bundles and the inner colourless parenchyma containing, to various degrees, the well known aloe gel. When a typical aloe leaf is cut there appears on the cut surface an exudate arising from cells adjacent to the vascular bundles (Beaumont etal, 1985), which is usually yellow-brown, which in...

Oh ooh

Figure 3-15 Phenolic dimers from aloes. R Glc A. hildebrandtii leaf glucoside Figure 3-15 Phenolic dimers from aloes. Pole Evans and A. ortholopha Christian et Milne-Redh. was said to be responsible for deaths in Africa (Drummond etal, 1975). The first two, together with A. christianii Reynolds, are listed as poisonous in Zimbawe (Nyazema, 1984) and the same two again, listed as highly toxic (Parry and Matambo, 1992 Parry and Wenyika, 1994). A smell of mice or rats was associated with some of...

Arthropod Pests

The most frequently encountered arthropod pests that damage aloes grown commercially include mealy bugs, scales, beetles and mites (Jeppe, 1969 Beyleveld, 1973). Other groups of insects that can damage aloes include locusts and aphids (Beyleveld, 1973). At the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, thrips have also been observed feeding on the flowers. The fact that aphids and thrips are feeding on aloes is of concern as they are vectors for a range of pathogenic viruses. If these viruses became...

Use Of Aloe Vera To Control Maize Weevil With Reference

Aloe Hildebrandtii

In their natural environment aloes suffer very little damage from insect pests. Their main herbivore predators are mammals and include baboons (Figure 17.1), elephants and cattle. However, when grown under high densities in glasshouses or in fields they can be susceptible to damage from scale insects, beetles and mealy bugs. Although species of Aloe in cultivation or grown as part of a botanical collection can be damaged by pests it is uncommon for them to be totally destroyed. Very little has...

Life Forms

All Aloe species (Newton, 2001) are perennial, leaf-succulent xerophytes. Xerophytes are plants adapted to survive in areas of low or erratic precipitation, and the adaptations may include structural and physiological features. Succulence is one kind of xerophytic adaptation. It is the development of water storage tissue, or aqueous tissue, consisting of large thin-walled cells in which water is held in mucilage. The accommodation of the aqueous tissue requires enlargement of either leaves, as...

General features of macrophage activation

Normal macrophages, when cultured in medium alone, tend to be round, resting cells and usually do not spread on the glass surface until many hours have elapsed. Very few morphological changes about 5 occur in cells exposed to AI alone. When exposed to the macrophage activating agent IFN-y, approximately 40 of the cells begin to spread. In contrast, when exposed to a combination of AI and IFN-y approximately 90 of the macrophages enlarge and develop cytoplasmic spreading. This spreading is a...

Analysis Of Bitter Aloes

The dried exudate of a number of Aloe species has been described in ancient documents and has been an article of commerce in Europe for centuries Haller, 1990 . Aloe vera L. Burm.f. seems to have been known to the ancient Egyptians and described in detail by Dioscorides c. 78 A.D. Reynolds, 1966 . Aloeperryi Baker was valued by Alexander the Great fourth century B.C. Hodge, 1953 Crosswhite and Crosswhite, 1984 . Aloe ferox Miller was known somewhat later Reynolds, 1950 following exploration of...

Overview Processing Aloe And Quality Control

Extracts of Aloe barbadensis, particularly the gel, are well accepted on a worldwide basis as a premier ingredient in over-the-counter dermal therapeutics and high-end cosmetics. Abbreviations Alcohol precipitable hexose APH Aloe Research Foundation ARF complementary and alternative medicine CAM International Aloe Science Council IASC methanol precipitable solids MPS molecular weight MW polysaccharide Ps Rio Grande Valley RGV tetrahydroxyanthraquinone THA. This is because aloe's efficient...

P

We noticed an aloe plant struggling to maintain a foothold on the cold, rocky, windswept summit of the hill. Soon enough we noticed another, and yet another. Soon we realized that the entire hilltop was colonized by aloe plants. These must have been brought more than a century ago, directly from the Cape and planted on this desolate spot for laxative purposes by the staff of the semaphore station and if so were A. ferox Miller. However, the endurance of one plant does not equate with the...

Tetrahydroanthracenone glycosides

Isobarbaloin

The 6-O-glucosides of aloesaponol I and II were described from A. saponaria Yagi etal, 1977 as well as the 8-O-glucoside aloesaponol III Yagi etal., 1977 . Subsequently the 4-O-glucosides of aloesaponol III and IV were isolated from A. barbadensis callus tissue Yagi etal, 1998 . These compounds are considered typical of aloe leaf exudate constituents although they do not, in fact, occur in all species Reynolds, 1985b . Where they do occur they are usually the main component of the exudate and...

Aloctin A And Aloctin B

Aloctin A and Aloctin B are lectins purified from A. arborescens and biochemically characterized by Suzuki etal. 1979 for the first time. Since then, biological and pharmacological activities of Aloctin A were aggressively studied. Therefore, Aloctin A is one of the most well studied lectins in Aloe. Suzuki etal. 1979 purified two different lectins from whole leaves of Aloe and initially called these lectins P2 and S1, respectively. Lately, these two lectins were named Aloctin A and Aloctin B....

Internal anatomy

Transverse Section Aloe Vera

The leaf anatomy of aloes was first studied for taxonomic purposes Cutler, 1969 . Later, when it became clear that aloe exudates could be of medicinal interest, anatomy was used to try and locate the cells or tissues in which particular substances arose or were stored. Beaumont etal, 1985, 1986 . The internal anatomy of aloe leaves is fairly constant, regardless of the species. This means that apart from defining about three groups of miscellaneous species, transverse sections provide little...

Species Level Taxonomy Of The Aloaceae

From its modest beginning as a single, heterogeneous genus, Aloe, the number of both genera and species in the Aloaceae has increased substantially. Apart from the 29 genus names which have been proposed for taxa of the family at one time or another Rowley, 1976c, d , Aloe alone currently boasts about 400 species Smith and Van Wyk, 1998 Newton, 2001 and numerous infraspecific taxa. However, the taxonomy of the Aloaceae remains in flux as the existence of some genera is questioned and boundaries...

Thrips

The survey showed that the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande , can occur on the flowers of many of the species of Aloe that flower during the winter months. Thrips tabaci Lindemann Onion Thrips and Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Bouch Greenhouse Thrips were also found on flowers. The number of thrips on flowers during the summer months was very low and during the year only a few thrips were observed on aloe leaves. The occurrence of F. occidentalis on aloes is a concern as...

Antihistamine and antiinflammatory activities of barbaloin

Aloe Vera Anatomy Images

Inhibitory effect ID 50 of barbaloin on antigen dinitrophenyl-bovine serum albumin and compound 48 80-induced histamine from mast cells degranulation was shown to Figure 14.1 Structure of barbaloin, aloesin and aloenin. Figure 14.1 Structure of barbaloin, aloesin and aloenin. be 0.02 and 0.06mg ml, respectively, and barbaloin was focused as an important constituent in Kidachi aloe. Anti-inflammatory activity of barbaloin was exhibited by the monitoring of carrageenin-induced edema in rats and...

References Of Aloe Vera Plant

Auterhoff, H. and Ball, B. 1954 Inhaltsstoffe und Wertbestimmung von Aloe-drogen und Zubereitungen. Arzneimittel-Forschung, 4, 725 729. Auterhoff, H. and Scherff, F.C. 1960 Die Dianthrone der pharmazeutisch interessierenden Hydroxyanthrachinone. Archiv der Pharmazie, 293, 918 925. Auterhoff, H., Graf, E., Eurisch, G. and Alexa, M. 1980 Trennung des Aloins in Diastereomere und deren Charakterisierung. Archiv derPharmazie, 313, 113 120. Awe, W., Auterhoff, H. and Wachsmuth-Melm, C.L. 1958...

Anatomy Refrences Of Aloevera

Akev, N. and Can, A. 1999 Separation and some properties of Aloe vera L. leaf pulp lectins. Phytotherapy Research, 13,489-493. Afzal, M., Ali, M., Hassan, R.A.H., Sweedan, N. and Dhami, M.S.I. 1991 Identification of some prostanoids in Aloe vera extract. Planta Medica, 57, 38-40. Agarwala, O.P. 1997 Whole leaf aloe gel vs. standard aloe gel. Drug and Cosmetics industry, February 22-28. Ashleye, A.D. 1983 Applying heat during processing the commercial Aloe vera gel. Erde International, 1, 40-44....