Allergy Testing Ebook

Allergy Relief

Allergy Relief

Have you ever wondered how to fight allergies? Here are some useful information on allergies and how to relief its effects. This is the most comprehensive report on allergy relief you will ever read.

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Allergy Relief

This easy-to-read guide contains every piece of information you will EVER need to beat allergy, and get the relief from allergic reactions that you have always needed. Sniffing, itching, and watery eyes are NOT a natural part of life, and they ARE something that you can get rid of! Don't sit around feeling miserable and wishing you were feeling better when there are solutions to your problems! You don't have to pay HUGE amounts of money to a doctor for expensive medicines when this book can give you the tools to get rid of allergy symptoms once and for all. We are so sure that it will help you that we give a 60 day money-back guarantee if it doesn't help you. That's how sure we are that your symptoms will be GONE. Breathe easy; help is on the way! Order now to get the relief of allergy symptoms you deserve.

Allergy Relief Overview


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Delayed Food Sensitivities And Allergies

In 1906, Clemens Von Pirquet, M.D., the noted Austrian pediatrician, coined the term allergy from the Greek alios (meaning changed or altered state) and ergon (meaning reaction or reactivity) to describe patients with excessive physiologic responses to substances in their environment. Currently, 50 million Americans suffer from allergies on a yearly basis, with allergy ranking as the fifth leading cause of chronic disease, and more than half of U.S. citizens test positive for one or more allergens.1 In fact, 16.7 million office visits to health care providers are attributed to allergic rhinitis alone.2 At all ages, allergic rhinitis without asthma is reported by nearly 90 people of every 1,000.3 In 1996, estimated U.S. health care expenditures attributable to sinusitis were more than 5.8 billion.4 Two recent estimates of allergy prevalence in the United States were 9 and 16 ,5 while the prevalence for specific allergic conditions, such as allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, have...

Allergy Status In Bangalore India

Inspite of the fact that Bangalore has the unique distinction of gaining many adjectives including 'Air Conditioned City of India' , 'Garden City', etc. it is also gaining another dubious distinction as 'Allergy City'. It is said that this city has the highest atmospheric pollution next to Delhi, which is responsible for a large proportion of the population suffering from various types of allergies. On account of the numerous parks and gardens-grasses, weeds and trees, atmospheric pollen occur abundantly. This causes allergic symptoms in sensitive individuals. There have been number of reports indicating that many people who are free from allergies develop the allergic symptoms the moment they enter Bangalore city limits. However, they feel much better and perhaps feel free from allergy symptoms the moment they leave the city. The above concept has been depicted in the cartoon Fig.13.13. It should be noted that allergy sufferers who have to stay in Bangalore can get better

Incidence of Pollen Allergy

According to Iwanami et al. (1988), one out of every ten Japanese suffers from pollinosis. About 90 species of plant pollen have been identified as aeroallergens. The commonest among them are Artemisia vulgaris (common mugwort), Oryza sativa (rice) Ambrosia artemisisaefolia (ragweed), Betula tauschii (birch), Nerium indicum (oleander), Castanea crenata (Spanish chestnut). The gymnospermous pollen-causing allergy are Ginkgo biloba (maidenhair tree) and Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese red cedar). Commonly occurring pollen aeroallergens of North America have been sufficiently listed and described along with their allergenic significance by Lewis et al. (1983) in a very exhaustive book. It also contains vast amount of aerobiological data of major pollen groups. Siwert Nilsson's Pollen Flora of Europe, Fungal Spores of Europe and Tourist Guide for Allergenic Plants in Europe, Scandinavian Pollen Flora, and European Pollen Network are very useful in understanding allergenicity of common...

Food Allergy

Asthma can be one of the major symptoms of chronic food allergy, which contributes to the total overall antigenic load of a patient. Food-mediated allergic reactions may become clinically apparent immediately or even hours to days later in a patient with asthma, manifested by specific production by B lymphocytes of IgE and IgG antibodies to food proteins. From 20 to 60 of patients with bronchoconstrictive symptoms are reported to develop these symptoms as a result of food ingestion.13 One study demonstrated that the elimination of previously determined food allergens early in life resulted in decreased asthma symptomatology as well as inhibiting the progression of allergic tendencies (represented by decreased production of total and specific IgE) compared to a control group that did not undergo such eliminations.14 Increased gastrointestinal (GI) permeability and GI symptomatology has been found in a larger percentage of patients with asthma compared to controls without asthma...

Allergy Treatment

Eosinophilic esophagitis is frequently misdiagnosed as GERD. Allergy treatment may be indicated in individuals who are not responsive to typical GERD therapies. Allergy testing to measure both IgE and IgG antibodies is indicated. In addition, dietary supplementation, using products to treat allergic reactions directly may also be necessary. Quercitin is a bioflavonoid often used in allergies because it has antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Vitamin C has been shown to be protective against GERD and to have antioxidant and some antihistamine properties.


The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 by Dr. Clemens Freiherr von Pirquet, an Austrian physician, to describe any abnormal reaction of the immune system. The immune system is intended to protect the body against the noxious invaders. But in allergy, immunity has gone awry, and the system reacts to substances that are ordinarily harmless. By far the most familiar allergic reactions are respiratory - sneezing, runny nose and watery eyes caused by inhaled allergens from growing weeds, trees and grasses or moulds, house dusts, mites and animal danders. These symptoms are commonly referred as 'hay fever'. However, hay fever is a misnomer, since it is not necessarily caused by hay and a rise in body temperature is not one of its symptoms. Hay fever is most commonly recognized as an allergic problem. Other allergic manifestations are skin eruptions from food ingestion for example hives from strawberries and eczema from chocolate, and anaphylactic shock from nuts are also commonly recognized....

Oleosins and Allergy

Plant seeds and tree nuts are responsible for the vast majority of food allergies. The prevalence of peanut and tree nut allergy has doubled among the children in the United States from 1997 to 2002, reaching 1.2 75 . Considerable research has been conducted to identify and characterize nut and seed allergens 76 . Most of these allergens belong to the cupin and the prolamin superfamilies, but a new family, oleosin, has recently been identified 77 . The first suspicion of oleosin involvement in allergy was reported more than 10 years ago 78 , but awaited 2002 for formal evidence. Pons et al. 79 showed specific igE-binding with peanut oleosin in three of 14 sera of patients with allergic reaction to peanuts. Interestingly, the IgE binding was weak against oleosin monomers but stronger with proteins of HMW, presumed to be oleosin oligomers. The authors also argued for a possible cross-reactivity between oleosins from various seeds. More recently, oleosins were identified as allergens in...

Pollen Allergy

Airborne pollen of Phoenix sylvestris of the Palmae family commonly occurs in and around areas of Kolkata, the North East and the South eastern regions of India. The plants grow wild and are also cultivated on account of their fruit-yielding sugar and alcoholic drinks. Janaki Bai and Subba Reddi (1982) had reported its occurence in and around Visakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh, South eastern India. Recently Gupta-Bhattacharya and Chakraborty (2006) have exploited the allergenic significance of airborne pollen of Phoenix sylvestris. Their pollen extracts were found to be effective in seasonal respiratory allergic subjects. This conclusion was brought out by them after subjecting 18 patients for immunotherapy at the Institute of Child Health in Kolkata. They found noticeable increase in FEV1 and specific IgG1 and IgG4 in these patients.

Alternative Treatments And Lifestyle Changes

Although specific studies on alternative treatments for sleep apnea are generally lacking, there are well-documented natural therapies that address the altered biochemistry and etio-logic factors known to exist in sleep apnea. These therapies may prove important as adjunctive interventions, which are particularly important, given the well-documented poor compliance with nCPAP BiPAP interventions and the invasiveness of many conventional options. Diet, nutritional supplements, and environmental modifications may improve sleep-disordered breathing. Controlling inflammation and allergies is paramount in treating OSA. Allergies can cause an increase in adenoids and tonsil size as well as an increase in mucous production, which can occlude the nasal airway.

Etiology And Pathophysiology

Studies have found a greater frequency of certain traits and characteristics among parents of autistic than of healthy children. Greater maternal and paternal age are independently associated with an increased risk for ASD in offspring.7 Additionally, mothers who have allergies and asthma during the second trimester of pregnancy have a twofold greater than average risk of having a child with ASD. Although this same study found maternal psoriasis to be the only autoimmune disease associated with an increased risk for ASD,8 another study found a link between both maternal ulcerative colitis and paternal type 1 diabetes and increased risk for infantile autism.9

Botanical Treatments For Cataracts

The changes in normal pressure accommodation can ultimately lead to blindness and account for more than 150,000 cases per year. In many circumstances, the cause is unknown. In some cases, however, glaucoma is caused by an underlying pathologic condition that must be arrested. Therefore, it is important for people with glaucoma to be diagnosed by, and to remain under the care of, an ophthalmologist. Regular eye examinations are especially important for patients with high-risk profiles. These include patients with familial histories of the disorder, African-American patients (who have a four to six times higher incidence of glaucoma), patients with long-term metabolic disorders (e.g., diabetes mellitus, thyroid-hormone dysre-gulation), patients who take high-dose oral corticosteroids for prolonged periods of time, patients with food sensitivities or allergies,28 or patients who are more than 40 years old.1

Characterization of Protein Fractions

Proteomics offers an effective approach for identifying wheat allergens. 2-DGE was coupled with Edman microsequencing 50, 51 or MS 52 to identify wheat proteins involved in baker's asthma, an IgE-mediated allergy. Proteins that cross-reacted with sera from asthmatic patients include a-amylase inhibitor 50, 51 GAPDH, TPI, and serpin 52 and acyl-CoA oxidase and FBA 51 . Wheat food allergies are also IgE-mediated proteins that cross-react with sera from allergic patients include lipid transfer protein (LTP) as well as a-, P-, y-, and -gliadins 53 . Proteomic procedures are also being developed for the screening of allergens with S-S bonds 54 . Allergen research appears to be an especially promising area for applying proteomics to identify and characterize allergens in foods and food products.

An Example of Application Pollen Allergen Analysis

Inhalative allergies are elicited predominantly by pollen of various plant species. A large number of grass, weed, and tree species shed their pollen in high concentrations during the pollen season, leading to allergic symptoms such as hay fever, rhinitis, and even bronchial asthma 27 . The last two decades were marked by large advances in the characterization of pollen-derived allergenic proteins. Nevertheless, due to numerous isoforms of pollen allergenic proteins and great variation in patient susceptibility, the repertoire of pollen allergens is far from being exhaustive. Given the clinical value of this research area, proteomic combined with immunoserological approaches will still be necessary to identify new pollen allergens, as well as to predict the allergenic potential of novel pollen proteins.

The Complex Roles Of Immunoglobulins

Food allergies, including immediate hypersensitivity reactions involving IgE and other, delayed hypersensitivity reactions involving other immunoglobulins, contribute to immunemediated tissue injury and disease. IgE antibodies are thought to trigger allergic reactions when cross-linking occurs on GI mast cells, resulting in a cascade of histamines and leukotrienes. Histamine-receptor activation is one possible mechanism for underlying cellular pathways that cause the barrier function of the intestinal epithelium to break down.13 The onslaught of previously mentioned inflammatory allergic molecules and their alteration of intestinal permeability permit food macromolecules to pass through the mucosal serosa. Once food antigens are in circulation, they may predispose other organs and systems of the body to allergic reactions. In addition, IgG antibodies have been shown, experimentally, to increase the permeability of the intestinal wall.14 Increased intestinal permeability has been...

The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay ELISA

The ELISA is a useful and powerful method for estimating ng mL to pg mL ordered materials in the solution, such as serum, urine, and culture supernatants (i.e., any cell-derived material that is used in the test, depending on the ELISA that is being run). This is the most reliable test for detecting antibodies and is commonly used in diagnostic testing for allergies. Antibodies to various antigens are detected easily by this test. Extracted and purified antigens are fixed to a surface to which the patient's serum is added. After washing and centrifugation, adherent immunoglobulin is then detected when a second antibody couple to an enzyme is added to the original surface. The last stage of the test involves adding the enzyme's substrate, causing a color reaction that is then measured by a spectrophotometer. This test is also performed by placing the antibody on the plate surface. ELISA assays are very sensitive and can measure IgA, IgE, IgG, and IgG4 antibodies, yielding disclosure of...

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

Allergic reactions in the gut have an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 -2 in adults. Clinical symptoms include abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, cramping, and diarrhea. Intestinal mast cells and intestinal eosinophils have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of food-allergy-related enteropathy. In addition to classical IgE-dependent degranulation, other agonists, such as interleukin (IL)-4, have been demonstrated to activate mast cells.29,30 Because low-grade mucosal inflammation predominates in IBS, undiagnosed food allergies may play a role in the promotion and perpetuation of the low-grade inflammatory process.30,31 Food products have variously been reported as causing, perpetuating, or being used to treat IBS, and many patients with IBS report histories of food intolerance concomitant with IBS symptoms.31,32 A study with 150 IBS patients were ELISA tested and were randomized to receive either a diet excluding all foods to which they had tested positive or a...

Identifying Food Allergens

For determining the food antigens to which a patient is susceptible, food-allergy tests are performed to determine a patient's allergies sensitively and specifically. Modern serum testing, used with detailed history taking and analysis of a patient's symptomatology, can expedite a diagnosis of food allergy. This approach is helpful because symptoms of such allergies are typically quite difficult to isolate and explain via food-ingestion-related causes and effects, because of the delayed reactions that are typically involved. Laboratory and challenge tests can provide reliable information to help identify both suspected and unsuspected food allergens. Although standard laboratory tests, such as the RAST and ELISA are simple for a patient, tests that entail challenging a patient with antigenic foods, either orally or dermally, are much more difficult or may not provide adequate specificity to identify offending food allergens. For example, the two common offenders, wheat and soy, are so...

The Alternative Approach

In general, alternative medical practitioners do not attempt to suppress allergy symptoms. An M.D. might attempt to achieve suppression by down-regulating the body's response to the antigen protein that is being treated by the body as a foreign substance. Instead, allergic reactions watery eyes, mucus production, sneezing, coughing, and other symptoms are considered to be protective warning signs that allergens have invaded the body. Thus, patients are encouraged to take supplements, such as methylsulfonylmethane, quercetin, vitamin C, and others, to support the body's ability to deal with the allergens.

Immunopharmacology and inflammation

Extracts of the flower buds of M. salicifolia were used for identification of antiallergic compounds. The extracts exhibited potent anti-allergy effects in a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The bioactive constituents of this medicinal drug were isolated by monitoring their activities with an in vitro bioassay system in which an inhibitory effect on histamine release was induced by compound 48 80 or Com. Of the ten isolated compounds, magnosalicin was found to be a new neolignan (Tsuruga et al., 1991).

Whey Protein and Branched Chain Amino Acids

Whey is a by-product of cheese manufacturing. Whey contains lactose, minerals, and proteins such as alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, and lactoferrin. In addition, whey contains approximately 24 branched chain amino acids (BCAAs), which have been shown to stimulate protein synthesis.17 Studies indicate that whey protein supplementation increases insulin sensitivity and decreases body weight in insulin-resistant rats.18 Research also shows an increase in satiety following a whey-protein meal compared to a meal containing casein protein.19 Side effects are rare with whey supplementation but may include fatigue, nausea, increased stool frequency, headaches, and thirst.17 Whey protein should be avoided in individuals with dairy allergies and may decrease absorption of some medications.20

Relationship Between Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity

The most commonly stated reason for minimising cineole concentrations in tea tree oil is that it is claimed to be a skin irritant (Lassak and McCarthy 1983 Barnes 1990 Carson et al. 1995b Raman et al. 1995). However, these claims are unsubstantiated. A recent study has reported no irritancy or allergenicity due to 1,8-cineole in any of the 25 participants, and, although there were three cases of allergy, none were due to cineole (Southwell et al. 1997). In another study, in which twenty-eight women were treated daily with vaginal pessaries impregnated with tea tree oil containing 9.1 1,8-cineole, no irritation of the mucous membranes was reported (Belaiche 1985a). The long-term use of eucalyptus oil, which contains approximately 75 1,8-cineole, as a chest rub also supports this view. There

Pamela S Coker and N Dwight Camper

Echinacea was introduced in the U.S. market in 1871 by a patent medicine vendor in Nebraska (Tyler, 1993). Traditional medicinal uses of this species include an immunostimulant for flu and colds, wound healing, and throat infections. Most frequent major therapeutic and prophylactic applications are for chronic and recurrent infections of respiratory and urogenital organs, chronic inflammations allergies, tonsillitis and sinusitis, infected wounds, eczema and psoriasis, chronic bronchitis and prostatitis, and malignant diseases (Bauer and Wagner, 1991). Both cortisone-like

Natural Remedies For Promoting Skin Health

The skin is susceptible to many diseases and disorders. Skin disorders may be external manifestations of systemic illness. One example is the butterfly rash of systemic lupus erythematosus. Other skin conditions reflect topical exposure reactions, arising from localized responses. Skin disorders have a wide range of etiologies, ranging from infection (e.g., scabies, ringworm) to allergy (e.g., to drugs, foods, and cosmetics) to nutritional deficiency (e.g., vitamin A or essential fatty acid EFA deficiency may lead to follicular hyperkeratosis). Other causes of skin outbreaks include reactions to bites and stings and reactions to plants such as poison ivy or poison oak. This chapter examines applications of natural remedies for treating several common skin conditions.

Potential Benefits and Concerns Regarding the Widespread Use of Genetically Engineered Crops

The potential concerns with widespread usage of Bt-toxin containing corn fall into three primary categories direct health impacts of Bt-toxin on humans, selection for Bt-toxin resistant populations of ECB, and unintended environmental impacts. Bt-toxin-containing insecticides have been used for many years, and there have been no indications of direct toxic effects on humans. Nonetheless, there is the possibility that some individuals could develop allergic reactions to this protein. Widespread human use of transgenic corn containing Bt-toxin could potentially expose a much larger number of people to this protein.

Correlation Of Aeroallergens With Meteorological Factors

A review of aeropalynology in Britain was published by Hyde (1969). It has also been found that the allergy symptoms are more severe when there is a change in the weather. Hence, it is worth assessing the pollen count of allergenically important pollen during climatic variations like a thunderstorm and depression so that the symptoms can be correlated to the climatic changes.

Irritants and Allergens

There are also several types of skin irritations caused by plants. Some plants, such as stinging nettle (Urtica spp.) and buttercups (Ranunculus spp.), have chemicals in their sap or hairs that can be irritating when they come in contact with skin. Some plants contain allergens, causing irritation to the skin of those sensitized to them. Most people find, for example, that they are allergic to poison ivy, and its relatives, poison oak and poison sumac (Toxicodendron spp.). While not everyone reacts to these plants, most people do, especially after an initial exposure. Sometimes allergic reactions to these plants are serious enough to lead to hospitalization. Many people also experience individual allergies to plants and mushrooms that are edible to the general population. Allergies to specific food plants, such as peanuts, lentils, or wheat, can be very serious. In some cases, these otherwise edible species are deadly poisonous allergens for those affected. Plant allergies, including...

Raymond J Mullins and Robert Heddle

Fifty percent of Australians report using some form of complementary alternative medicines (CAM) apart from vitamins in any 12-month period, with similar patterns of use in British and North American subjects (Eisenberg et al., 1993 Maclennan et al., 1996, 2002 Schafer et al., 2002). Despite the common perception that natural therapy is safe, toxic and hypersensitivity reactions to CAM have been described (Drew and Myers, 1997 Mullins and Heddle, 2002 Shaw et al., 1997 Vickers and Zollman, 1999). Given that these products are rarely packaged in childproof containers, accidental exposure also occurs (Anderson, 1996 Portansky, 1998). Allergic reactions are most common in atopic subjects. This is not surprising when one considers that up to 20 of atopic subjects use CAM. Furthermore, these patients are more likely than others to become sensitized to cross-reactive allergens and some use (or are advised to use) products such as Echinacea for treatment of allergic disease (Healy et al.,...

Aerobiology In The United Kingdom

The number of sampling sites increased gradually during the ensuing decades. It was not until some 50 years late in 1990 that a collaborative network was established in the U.K. The network became known as the British Aerobiology Federation (BAF), which had its origin in a meeting held in the Harley Street consulting room of Dr. William Frankland, a leading specialist in the treatment of allergies. Some 16 pollen monitors attended, and with the enthusiastic leadership of Jean Emberlin, the network began its operations. The centre of operations for a few years was based at the North East London University where Emberlin worked. A few years later, the headquarters of the BAF moved to the university college at Worcester where Emberlin established the National Pollen Research Unit (NPRU) now the National Aerobiology Pollen Research Unit (NAPRU). The BAF network currently operates at approximately 40 sites. The number fluctuates as monitors retire for one reason or other, new sites are set...

Economic Significance

Conifers are also considered the most important gymnospermous group from an economic perspective. Coniferous trees are a very important source of timber for lumber and paper. They are harvested in North America, parts of Europe and Asia, and in Australia. In addition to timber, conifers provide Christmas trees, ornamental trees and shrubs, turpentine, and resin. Pine nuts (or pignoli), the seeds of some pine trees, are used as food. An important cancer-fighting drug, taxol, has been derived from the bark and leaves of the Pacific Coast yew (Taxus). Other gymnosperms also are the source of drugs and herbal medications. The powerful stimulant ephedrine derived from the gnetophyte Ephedra is often used in cold and allergy medications, and compounds shown to improve the mental capacities of the elderly have been discovered in Ginkgo. Ginkgo seeds are also quite nutritious and are used as food in Asia. Ginkgo and cycads are also important as ornamentals. see also Coniferous Forests...

Most Common Fungal Aeroallergens

Aspergillus Fumigatus Conidiophore Sem

A comprehensive illustrated manual of the air-spora was recently published by Lacey and West (2006). The commonest fungal allergenic species belonging to the Zygomycetes are Rhizopus nigricans (black bread mould) and Mucor racemosus. Two significant allergenic ascomycetes are Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) yeast and Chaetomium indicum. In addition, skin sensitivity to conidia of powdery mildew, Microsphaera alvi has been reported. Among the basidiomycetes, known allergenic fungi belonging to mushrooms and bracket fungi are Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, Geaster saccatum and Agaricus. Other allergenic species are Ustilago and Urocystis (Smut fungi - Ustilaginales). The clinician can inform asthmatic patients if they have fungal allergy and the patient can be advised to take necessary measures against fungal exposure. Accurate diagnosis and treatment by an experienced and trained allergologist will help the patients to obtain relief from allergic symptoms, keep in...

Predominant Weed Pollen Include

While working on the allergenicity of various plants belonging to the family Mimosacae, Panicker (2002) had estimated protein contents in pollen grains of some plants of this family. He had reported that the highest protein contents of 201.3 mg gms of dry pollen of Acacia auriculiformis followed by Acacia mangium (196.4) and Prosopis juliflora (186.6). Mimosa pudica pollen grains had the least amount of proteins (68.2). ALLERGENICITY OF POLLEN OF MIMOSACEAE The literature abounds with reports about the allerginicity of Mimosaceae, members such as Acacia, Albizia, Prosopis and Mimosa. It is also known that proteinaceous material in the exine and intine especially at the apertural region of pollen grains acts as allergens in human beings. Out of 48 patients who underwent skin test for pollen antigens of various members of the family Mimosaceae, the pollen of Prosopis juliflora had proved the highest incidence of allergenicity with 66.66 of the patients showing two positive reactions. As...

Oleaceae Olive Tree Family

Show Oxalis Amaranth

Two predominant anemophilous plants producing allergenically significant pollens belong to the genera Fraxinus (ash) and Olea (olive tree). The latter one is also an important source of olive oil. It flowers from the end of July to September. The plant produces allergenic pollen, which are oblate, spheroidal, about 20 mm in diameter, tricolporate. The plants of this genus are mostly weeds growing on wet soils found all over Europe. The plant bears red coloured, bisexual inflorescence often giving the meadow landscape a very attractive aspect. Rumex crispus is the most common species. Pollen grains are oblate, spheroidal, tricolpate with narrow furrows, measuring 20-30 mm. Pollen is mildly allergenic.

Pollen Morphological Description of Some Plants

Pollen grains, which have been clinically proved to be allergenic are clustered in spherical polyads with 16 grains which are tetergonal. Polyads when subjected to acetolysis may separate into pollen tetrads, which measure in 64.2 to 66.3 m in diameter. Individual pollen grains are 19 -21 m in diameter. The pollen wall consists of exine, which is indistinctly foveolate with low laminar and lowly raised muri. Pollen are three zonoporate without depression (Fig. 5.2i).

History Of Aerobiology

History Aerobiology

The primary objective of aerobiological studies is to monitor, determine and detect the occurrence of pollen and spores and their relative representation in the atmosphere. Once trapped in pollen traps or air sampling mechanism, they are microscopically scanned thoroughly in the laboratory. Though the atmosphere consists of several hundred types of pollen and fungal spores, in applied aerobiology only the ones having significance in allergy are concentrated upon. On account of the tremendous applications of aeropalynology in public health and medicines, a new term has been added recently known as 'medical palynology'. This branch is concerned with the study of airborne pollen and fungal spores, which are responsible for causing allergic manifestations including the triggering effect leading to asthmatic attacks. (Mackay et al., 1992) In addition, various aspects of immunotherapy are investigated involving hyposensitization of allergy patients by using pollen and fungal aeroallergen...

General Requirements For Promoting Healthy Skin

Allergies Low EFA Allergy internal Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a common skin condition characterized by a chronic, itchy red rash. Eczema is thought to affect approximately 9 of the population in the United States, mostly children, and appears to be increasing.1 It is believed to be an allergic, immediate hypersensitivity disease also involving other immune responses. It often occurs as part of the atopic triad'' of asthma, hay fever, and eczema. A positive family history of allergies is found in two-thirds of patients who have eczema. Serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are elevated in 80 of patients with eczema, and they often test positive on skin, radioallergoabsorbant (RAST), or other allergy tests.2 White blood cells from patients with atopic dermatitis have decreased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels as a result of increased AMP-phosphodiesterase activity. This lack of cAMP results in increased histamine release and decreased bactericidal activity.3 Patients...

Zizyphus numalaria Linn

Medicinal Plants Kashmir

(b) 200 g of fresh leaves is ground daily for 8-10 min 1 cup (250 mL) of water is mixed in. Then it is filtered with a cloth and given to patients suffering from diarrhea and skin diseases (allergy). For children, xh cup (125 mL) of drug (at one time) is given twice daily (morning-evening) for 4-5 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of drug (at one time) is given 2-3 times per day for 4-5 days. Constipation, skin diseases (allergy), and diarrhea. Fruit in both fresh and dried forms is edible. Leaves are used as fodder for goats and sheep. The plant is used as firewood and for hedges and fencing. Fresh leaves are spread under dead bodies, so there is no smell from corpses in the summer. Wood is used to make agricultural implements. Alkaloid frangufdine, triterpenoids, triterpene esters, aporphine alkaloid, zizyphus, saponins I-III and jujuba saponins I-IV, ziziphin, querecetion-3-O-glucoside, diglucoside, rutinoside, rhamnetin and eriodictyol (Lvs), sugar, amino acids, minerals, volatile...

Spirulina Aphanizomenon and Chlorella sp

Clinical studies suggest that Spirulina is effective in melanosis and keratosis due to chronic arsenic posioning. It improves hemoglobin levels in malnourshied children and is effective in allergenic rhinitis or hay fever. A clinical trial from India, suggested a possible role of Spirulina fusiformis in

Toxicology Of Caraway 1141 Toxicity of Caraway towards

The common opinion about the absolute safety of herbal drugs is undoubtedly wrong. It is obvious that biologically active compounds causing a therapeutic effect may be dangerous in certain situations and doses. As far as caraway is concerned, most authors agree that it shows no toxic effect towards people, and is well tolerated in medicinal doses and as a spice. However Lewis (1977) discussing the problem of allergy, mentioned carvone as sensitising substance, and classified Carum carvi among plants causing contact dermatitis.

Ruth M Leuschner Born on 20th September 1922

Boehm who provided financial assistance to purchase two Burkard traps, Leuschner initiated a network of pollen monitoring stations in Switzerland which later included several stations such as, Davos, Geneva, Neuchatel, Zurich, Samendan, Buschs SG, Nugano and Lucerne. She carried out comparative studies of pollen flight between Basel located at 273 m above sea level and Davos-Wolfgang which lies at 1,600 m above sea level. She contributed significantly to international publications including the Atlas of the European Allergenic Pollen (1974). She carried out aerobiological studies with the help of an individual pollen trap invented by Professor Boehm and used for correlating airborne pollen and allergy symptoms. Ruth Leuschner has also published several popular articles and made radio broadcasts regarding airborne pollen. She has been writing articles regularly since 1979 which were published weekly in the Newspaper entitled 'Basler Zeitung'. The column...

Toxicity of Caraway towards Bacteria Fungi Mites and Insects and its Advantages for People

Domestic mites being one of the main causes of allergy are quite a significant problem. Ottoboni et al. (1992) tested the toxicity of 10 essential oils from different plants towards the most popular house mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Eurogfyphus maynei, Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Glycyphagus domesticus, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Gohiera fusca. From all 10 volatile oils tested, the caraway oil was among the 4 most effective ones. The authors conclude that using essential oils combined with cleaning agents could help reduce the cause of allergy in people. The strong toxicity towards mites was also proved by Watanabe et al. (1989) who tested 52 essential oils. Caraway was among the 6 most powerful ones. Isolated d-carvone showed very high activity thus being responsible for acaricidal property of caraway essential oil to a great extend.

Chemical Composition of Pollen of Parthenium hysterophorus

Stanley and Linskens (1974) had stated that most of the pollen allergens are water-soluble which enhances their degree of diffusion in mucoid tissues and increases the reactive charge groups available on dissociated molecules. In order to assess allergenicity of Parthenium hysterophorus pollen, clinical investigations were carried on 160 patients attending the Allergy Clinic of the Institute of Child Health, Kolkata, India. A total of 56 patients (35 ) showed a positive response to Parthenium pollen antigen. Clinically one out of six patients showed ELISA positive reaction to Parthenium. Specific IgE antibodies in the patient were estimated to be 1.35 PRU ml-1 as against 0.35 PRU ml-1 in control

Pollen Calendar Of Allahabad Up India

It has been proved substantially that environmental biopollution, i.e., pollution caused by bio particles or particles of biological origin indoor and outdoor has significant role to play in human health hazards. Some of these bioparticles are responsible for causing various types of allergies hence they are called as aeroallergens. The commonest 'aeroallergens' reported from Bangalore comprise of pollen produced by anemophilous plants such as Parthenium hysterophorus, Holoptelea integrifolia, Casuarina equisetifolia, Poaceae, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus sp., Amaranthus-Chenopod. Cocos nucifera, Peltophorum pterocarpum, Syzygium sp., Cassia The above mentioned airborne pollen and fungal spores which act as biopollutants pose health hazards with respect to allergies. Their occurrence and relative abundance in the atmosphere is revealed in the pollen calendar compiled by the aerobiologists. However, it should be borne in mind that the relative abundance of pollen and spores is liable...

Development of soybean with improved amino acid composition

Tohoku 124 (Yumemori) has been bred using null alleles for a and a' sub-units of P-conglycinin. This breeding line contained 1.2 times more cysteine and methionine per gram of protein and offered an additional advantage of being devoid of allergenic protein, which is combined with a-subunits of P-conglycinin. Krishnan (2005) reviewed conventional breeding, transformation with heterologous sulphur-rich proteins and the introduction and expression of synthetic genes with a balanced amino acid composition employed for the enhancement of sulphur-containing amino acids in soybean. Transgenic soybean lines with elevated sulphur-containing amino acids (15-40 ) have been developed from heterologous protein of the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) (Townsend and Thomas, 1994) however, commercial soybean cultivars could not be undertaken due to a reported allergy caused by the 2S albumin fraction of the Brazil nut. Dinkins et al. (2001) reported on a transgenic soybean expressing 8-zein from...

Professor T Sreeramulu 19251974

All the allergists and aerobiologists from India, owe a great sense of gratitude to Dr. D. N. Shivpuri for initiating and encouraging research work on aerobiology and its direct application to the diagnosis and treatment of allergy. Dr. Shivpuri was born in Rajouri, Jammu & Kashmir, India on August 10, 1914 and obtained M.B.B.S. in 1949 and M.D. in chest diseases in 1955 from Lucknow University. His professional life was devoted to research and practicing allergy and immunology at Delhi. He D.N. Shivpuri worked at the Vallabhai Patel Chest Institute, affiliated to the University of Delhi. He had a profound knowledge of aerobiology, allergy and immunology. He guided several research students for their Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Botany (aerobiology), prominent among them are Dr. M. K. Agarwal and Dr. A. B. Singh, who became outstanding research workers in aerobiology and immunology. The former worked at V. P. Chest Institute and later worked at the CSIR centre for biochemicals...

Significance of Fungi as Aeroallergens

The possibility of fungal allergy was first mentioned by Cadham (1924) and Van Leeuwen (1924). However, the first systematic studies of fungal allergy were those of Feinberg (1935). The first systematic aerobiological work including airborne fungi in India was carried out by Cunningham (1873) in Calcutta. Agnihotri (1980) studied the fungi in the bedroom of bronchial asthma patients and found Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus fumigatus and Helminthosporium sp. as dominant fungi. The percentage of fungal spores in the air is approximately 10 times higher than that of pollen grains, however by volume the pollen dominate. Regional spore calendars are based on seasonal variation and circadian periodicity. This has proved significantly useful for the clinicians in proper treatment of innumerable ailing patients of allergy. There is an absolute need of trained aerobiologists and clinicians working in close cooperation and also need of an extensive...

The Scottish Centre For Pollen Studies

Current developing work involves the aerobiology of monitoring sites, both indoor and outdoor, urban and rural. Secondary school students in the fifth year of their studies are invited to apply to spend four weeks of their summer vacation working on this developing programme. The programme is generously funded by the Nuffield Foundation and is designed to encourage young students to gain work experience in science laboratories and in the hope that science will be the basis of university and their subsequent careers. All students working in the Centre are required to assist in the pollen and spore-monitoring programme, which uses the Burkard volumetric spore sampler. The Scottish Centre for pollen studies has gained the present important status on account of the deep interest, devotion and consistent efforts of Eric Caulton, the present Director of the centre. In Scotland, the pollen monitoring season begins in March and extends to the end of September, supplying daily data to the NPRU...

Contaminated And Poisonous Honeys

Honeys containing pollen from plants known to be poisonous or toxic are unsafe for human consumption. Individuals oversensitive to certain pollen may show allergic reactions to honeys contaminated with these airborne pollen. Pollen analysis helps to identify such honeys. Pollen of Lasiosiphon sp are not harmful to bees but honeys contaminated with these pollen are highly dangerous and poisonous for human consumption. In contrast pollen of Euphorbia geniculata is highly toxic, almost lethal to bees, but honeys contaminated with this pollen have no effects on human consumption.

The Hygiene Hypothesis

Recent analyses of risk-factor patterns for allergic disease in Europe has led to a causal theory for the increasing asthma epidemic this theory is known as the hygiene hypothesis. It stipulates that advances in hygiene have removed a protective influence against atopy and asthma that was once provided by infectious exposures in early childhood. This hypothesis has been questioned in the United States, where the largest sector of increasing asthma incidence since the 1970s occurs in the inner cities among minorities who are living in poverty with suboptimal hygienic conditions. When viewed from a historical perspective, the recent increasing trend in respiratory allergies among the less-advantaged in the United States may be explained as the consequence of several epiphenomena linked to Westernization (including declining exposure to foodborne and orofecal infections) that has moved downward from the richest socioeconomic strata to the poorest in the last 150 years.6 In regard to this...

Allerginicity of Parthenium hysterophorus

Subsequently it has spread like a wild fire in other regions of India resulting in serious agricultural problems and a medical hazard as a major source of allergic dermatitis. The major offender is the Sesquiterpene lacton, Parthenin found throughout the plant body including the pollen. There are different views on the pollination mechanism in Parthenuim. Pollination has been described as entomorphilous where insects are attracted to the pollen-containing disc flowers by glandular hair secretions. The plants produce an enormous quantity of pollen (an average 624 million plant). The pollen are carried away at least for short distances in clusters of 600 to 800 grains. The pollen become airborne to great heights in significant amounts either as individual grains or in clumps (Sitaramaiah et al, 1981 and Agashe et al., 1987). Sitaramaiah et al., have noted that Parthenium hysterophorus pollen could be a source of nasobronchial allergy. A clinical survey conducted by Sitaramaiah and co...

Study Of Pollen Grains Introduction

The second and major part of this book comprises chapters on application of pollen studies in various fields such as agriculture, horticulture, plant breeding, enhancing honey production (melissopalynology), as an important tool in forensic science, reconstruction of past vegetation and environmental pollution and its effect on health particularly with reference to pollen allergy. Applications of airborne pollen and mould spores have been thoroughly explained in seven different chapters covering various aspects of aerobiology and allergy. This has been done on account of the significant role of aerobiological studies in allergy and immunology. Minor applications of pollen studies also include a brief account of copropalynology, which concerns pollen analysis of coprolites and other faeces of animals that throw light on past vegetation, feeding habits of animals of the present and past. A detailed account of most common aeroallergens and their source plants such as Ambrosia (Ragweed),...

Allergic and antiallergic activities

Recently, a study was published where the effects of lavender oil on mast cell-mediated immediate-type allergic reactions in test animals were investigated. This EO inhibits dose-dependently the mast cell-dependent ear swelling response induced by an irritant administered either topically or intradermally. The same effect can be observed on passive cutaneous anaphylaxis as well as by studying the histamine release from the peritoneal mast cells. Furthermore, lavender oil exerted a significant inhibitory effect on anti-dinitrophenyl-IgE-induced tumour necrosis factor-a-secretion from these mast cells. These results show the versatility and usefulness of the EO of lavender in skincare preparations for all skin types (Kim et al., 1999). A series of EOs belonging to the Lamiaceae family were investigated as to their systemic allergic reactions using the prick-by-prick technique with dried commercial plants and prick tests with extracts. Skin tests with inhalants were positive to grasses...

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It isn't the urushiol itself that is dangerous, but rather the human body's allergic reaction to it. The oil penetrates to the inner dermis layer of skin, where white blood cells attack it, producing the rash and blisters. Some people seem immune to urushiol (about fifteen to twenty-five percent of the population), but such immunity is notoriously unreliable. Urushiol can, in fact, immunize against itself, but side effects are tricky, so it's not often injected. Urushiol can be spread by means of shoes and clothing as well as animal fur. Century-old herbaria specimens of poison ivy have, on occasion, produced rashes on unwary laboratory botanists. The breaking water blisters on already infected skin are not themselves contagious.

Nutraceuticallaboratory Test Interactions

Support patients with high cholesterol, cancer, HIV, diabetes, allergies, and other conditions Promote bone health treat OA enhance mental functioning increase muscle mass, (illustrates benefits of using trace minerals therapeutically) Support patients with OA and other joint conditions, including TMJ disease maintaining normal immune function for infections, cancer, and allergies a cofactor for several biochemical pathways

Problems arising in aromatherapy studies

More clinical and toxicological research is needed, in order to extend the use of aromatherapy. From the toxicological aspect, there is the danger of causing dermatitis in sensitive people (Rudzki et al., 1976) lavender oil is not implicated greatly, but there was a report of occupational allergy to a lavender shampoo used by a female hairdresser (Brandao, 1986). The hairdresser had allergy problems on her hands due to a variety of products, but reacted more strongly to a lavender shampoo and lavender oil itself. Menard (1961) reported a similar case, but this time the hairdresser was allergic to the eau de Cologne containing lavender, rather than to the lavender alone. Patch tests have shown a few allergies due to photosensitization and also pigmentation was reported (Brandao, 1986 Nakayama et al., 1976).


Quercitin is a bioflavonoid frequently used to treat allergies because of its antihistamine, antiinflammatory, and antioxidant effects. It is found in foods such as berries, brassica vegetables, apples, green tea (Camellia sinensis), onions, and red wine. Studies have demonstrated that quercitin inhibits the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils.50 (Histamine is a chemical mediator responsible for allergy symptoms, such as constriction in the lungs, congestion, and sneezing.) Absorption of quercitin is variable and may be improved by combining it with papain or bromelain.

Beefsteak Plant

The beefsteak plant (Perilla frutescens) contains several active ingredients such as rosmarinic acid and luteolin. Rosmarinic acid is a plant polyphenol found in the Lamiaceae genus of plants, which includes basil (Ocimum spp.), sage (Salvia officinalis), mint (Mentha spp.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and perilla leaf.56 Oral supplementation using perilla leaves or extracts of rosmarinic acid has been shown to suppress allergic reactions.57,58 A study confirmed that oral administration of perilla leaf extract inhibits production of TNF-alpha and decreases the allergic response and inflammation in mice.59 Another study demonstrated


Environmental allergies are important airway irritants. It is important to control allergies in order to minimize the nasal and pharyngeal congestion that can help compromise airway patency. The best way to treat allergies is to advise patients to avoid the substances that trigger symptoms. The environment should be kept as free of potential allergens as possible. Pillows and mattresses should be covered with dust- and mite-proof covers. Bedding should be washed frequently in very hot water. Removal of carpets and items that collect dust in the bedroom may also help avoid dust and dust mites. Bathing and washing hair before bed also is suggested. Mold anywhere in the home should be treated aggressively. Pets should be kept away from the sleeping areas and should be bathed regularly. High-efficiency particulate absorbing filters at home and work can improve air quality and decrease pollen exposure. Avoidance of cigarette smoke is recommended.


Limited evidence suggests that dietary restriction of gluten and casein may be beneficial in children with autism. A small controlled study found that such children showed significantly better development with a gluten- and casein-restricted diet than did controls.54 Food allergy may play a role in autistic symptomatology, as suggested by significantly increased levels of antibodies to casein, beta-lactoglobulin, and lactalbumin in autistic children than in controls, followed by reductions in behavioral symptoms with an eight-week elimination diet for these three food components.55 However, a small, double-blind, placebo-controlled study failed to find any significant changes in autistic children with a gluten- and casein-restricted diet, although the children's parents did report improvements in the children's conditions.56 Another study found behavioral improvement after six months in 60 of autistic children given a ketogenic diet.57

River birch

Uses River birch is a widely planted landscape tree because of its attractive peeling bark, adaptability, and drought tolerance. River birch helps reduce erosion and siltation along waterways, but produces abundant wind-dispersed pollen in early spring, which can be allergenic.

Air Quality

While there can be little doubt that the urban forest has a largely beneficial effect on air quality, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC Beckett et al. 1998) as precursors of ozone has recently gained attention. This may be an issue in hot climates with intensive solar radiation such as are experienced in Mediterranean cities. Also, the production of pollen from tree species such as birch needs to be carefully considered when tree species are selected for urban plantings, because of its allergenic effect.


Atopy is a major predisposing factor for asthma, and environmental allergens are a causal factor for producing asthma. Food allergy is frequently underestimated in association with asthma, despite having been shown to trigger or exacerbate broncho-obstruction in 2 -8.5 of children with asthma.25 Sensitization of food can occur early in life, involving a T-cell response of the Th2 phenotype in addition to the commonly cited IgE-mediated hypersensitivity. Diagnosis of asthma-associated food allergy is important for children with respiratory symptoms, especially when asthma symptoms begin early on in life and when they are associated with other manifestations of food allergies. Elimination of food allergens early in infancy have resulted in improved clinical asthma manifestations as well as exerting a protective effect on the progression of allergic tendencies later in life, as evidenced by decreased production of both total and specific IgE.26


Atopic disease prevalence is increasing worldwide. Atopic eczema affects nearly 18 of infants in the first two years of life. It has been widely speculated that food allergies are the main cause of atopy. Strong associations between atopic eczema and IgE-mediated allergies to milk, eggs, and peanuts have been demonstrated. However, nearly two-thirds of patients with food allergies display no IgE sensitization to the instigating food proteins and symptoms either returned or were exacerbated upon administration of food-challenge tests.26,27 These patients with allergic reactions to the ingestion of specific foods did not display sensitized IgE to the foods, yet still had allergic reactions when the foods were reintroduced in their diets. Thus, such patients can be said to be allergic to the foods with no identifiable IgE antibodies, in essence, having hidden food allergies.''

Migraine Headaches

The link between food allergy and migraine has long been dismissed by many general practitioners, who do not tend to treat their patients' migraine headaches as having food-allergy-based etiologies. However, various foods have been cited as causative agents including citrus fruits, tea, coffee, pork, chocolate, milk, nuts, vegetables, and cola drinks.28,29 In general, higher IgE incidence is no greater among people with migraine headaches than among the general population. However, this does not rule out food allergy as a cause of migraine headaches. There are various causes of migraines that are more appropriately labeled as food sensitivities to tyramine, phenylalanine, phenolic flavonoids, alcohol, and caffeine. In addition,


Rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sporenges, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Lactobacillus binds to the mucosal lining in the intestines. Here, they inhibit pathogenic bacteria by lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide synthesis, as well as preventing pathogenic bacteria from binding to the mucosal lining by competing for mucosal binding sites.38-40 Research has also suggested that Lactobacillus has immune-modulating effects, and is helpful in many GI conditions such as Crohn's disease, irritable bowel syndrome, food allergy, antibiotic-induced diarrhea, and pouchitis.41-43 Bifidobacteria. This strain of bacteria also produces lactic acid, but generally resided lower in the intestinal tract than Lactobacillus. Common strains include Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium infantis. Studies suggest that low levels of lactic-acid producing intestinal microflora in children increases the incidence of allergies and atopy. Also, studies indicate that...


Glutamine is an amino acid produced primarily in skeletal muscle and is the most abundant amino acid in the body. Glutamine can be considered a conditionally essential'' amino acid because, although the body can make glutamine, in times of severe stress it cannot meet the demand. It is important for immune function, intestinal health, and amino acid synthesis. This amino acid provides food for cells such as intestinal enterocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes and fibroblasts. It affects the activity and proliferation of many cells in the immune system. Studies indicate that glutamine supplementation stimulates proliferation and differentiation of intestinal cells, increases intestinal villous height, and maintains mucosal integrity. It also prevents intestinal hyperpermeability and bacterial translocation.45 Glutamine also plays a role in the regulation of intestinal IgA.46 It has been shown that glutamine supplementation normalized the cytokines that promote the TH2 allergenic...

Digestive Enzymes

Supplementation with digestive enzymes will help the natural enzymes secreted by the pancreas to properly digest carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Natural digestive enzymes are often missing or inadequately secreted in patients with food allergies.51 Supplementation of these enzymes can decrease absorption of inappropriately large macromolecules from the intestines. These enzymes are often supplemented as combinations including lactase, sucrase, lipase, amylase, protease, maltase, phytase, and cellulase. Betaine hydrochloride supplementation may also be beneficial.

Selection Criteria

Street trees should possess strong apical growth, strong branching angles, predictable growth rates, high overall aesthetic value and potential for a long lifespan. Trees with large fruits and allergy-inducing pollen should be avoided. Inherent potential for strong compartmentalization responses will be advantageous where trees are subjected to pruning or damages from human activities. There is a need for both large and small trees, as well as for a range of crown sizes and shapes to meet the needs of different streetscapes. Both nurseries and users of plant materials should be involved in the selection program. A number of tree species probably have great potential for improvement in selection programs aiming at use in urban areas.

The Rda For Iodine

The suggested daily RDA of 150 mg per day for iodine may be influenced by the fear that an excess of iodine can cause diseases including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, goiter, rashes, and iodine allergy. However, most of these reactions are caused by pharmacologic doses of iodine. Some research has linked iodine excess to autoimmune thyroid disease, which can cause both hypo- and hyperthyroidism,5,6 but such autoimmune disease has been increasing

Toxic Effects

The literature contains many references to Mugwort pollen due to its allergenic effects. For example, Nilsen and co-workers have published a series of papers which identified and characterized allergens from the pollen using a variety of immunological techniques (Nilsen, 1990a,1991a) and have purified allergen Ag7 by con-canavalin A affinity chromatography (Nilsen, 1990b). They have also reported the structural analysis of the glycoprotein allergen in Mugwort pollen (Nilsen et al., 1991b).

Proteolytic Enzymes

Proteolytic enzymes have analgesic effects in addition to their well-recognized antiinflammatory and antiedemic properties. Enzyme-derived analgesia is based on inhibition of the inflammatory cascade as well as exerting a direct influence on nociceptors.3 Bromelain (pineapple Ananas comosus) is used orally to treat acute swelling and inflammation following trauma. Bromelain is a grouping of proteolytic enzymes obtained from the stem and fruit of pineapple.4 Bromelain is thought to exert its anti-inflammatory effect by altering leukocyte migration and activation. Other mechanisms of action include proteolysis at point of inflammation, fibrinolysis via the plasminogen-plasmin system, depletion of kininogen, inhibition of inflammatory prostaglandins, and induction of prostaglandin E1 (an anti-inflammatory prostaglandin). Side effects of taking bromelain may include GI upset with diarrhea. Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic reactions are possible but this has not yet been widely...

Other properties

It is generally held that about 70 per cent of the allergy cases show positive antigenic reaction for house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae and D. petronyssinus). Yuri and Izumi (1994) studied the effect of essential oil of spices on D. farinae, and reported that some of the spice essential oils were effective against this mite (Table 12.4). They used a concentration of 80 g cm2 on filter papers, and the mortality rate was counted after 24 h. The essential oil of cardamom exerted only very low mortality rate.


Quercetin is a citrus bioflavonoid used for treating conditions such as atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hypercholesterolemia, vascular insufficiency, diabetes, and allergies. Many studies on rats with diabetes have demonstrated that quercetin increases NO availability and induces vasorelaxation via the endothelial NOS pathway.59,60

Pollen Calendar

The ultimate aim of an aerobiologist is to compile a pollen spore calendar, which will be useful to allergologists and the patients suffering from allergy. The aerobiological survey of an area involves aeropalynological surveys, identification of airborne pollen and spores, and determination of atmospheric pollen count. Although the atmosphere consists of an array of pollen and fungal spores, only a few of them are responsible for allergic manifestations. The knowledge of the occurrence and concentration of these allergenic pollen and spores, which can be inferred from a pollen calendar, is of great help to the clinicians. A detailed pollen calendar of a region is a prerequisite for the immunological treatment of pollen allergies (Caulton et al, 1997). Pollen calendars compiled by aerobiologists provide knowledge of the occurrence and concentration of the allergenic pollen, which is of great help to the clinicians for proper diagnosis. Hence, proper interaction among the...


It is well documented that consumption of herbal medicine can result in direct adverse effects, such as allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, and sedation (Ernst and De Smet, 1996). Most medicinal plants contain scores of active ingredients, and unlike conventional medicinal drugs, concentrations of these elements differ from one crop to the next and even within the plant itself. As with any unregulated products, Echinacea use during pregnancy and lactation can be of concern, especially with issues of dosage variation, contamination, incorrect labeling, and interactions with other medications (Smith et al., 1996). For this reason, it is essential for pregnant and nursing mothers to be educated about these issues.

Cassia fistula Linn

Cedrela Toona

Then 1-2 tsp (10-15 g) of common salt is mixed in. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from fever, diabetes, and skin diseases (allergy and pimples) and to purify the blood. For children, 1 tsp (4-6 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water once daily, in the morning, for 10-15 days. For adults, 2-3 tsp (12-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water once daily, in the morning, for 15-20 days. (b) 125 g of dried bark is ground for 10-15 min. The powdered drug is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from dysentery or ulcers and to heal wounds. For children, 1 tsp (4-6 g) of drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water twice daily (morning-evening) for 3-4 days. For adults, 2-3 tsp (12-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water twice daily (morning-evening) for 6-7 days. (allergy and pimples), ulcers, and...

Michael Russell

In this chapter, toxicology will be discussed in relation to acute oral and dermal toxicity, to dermal irritancy and to dermal allergy responses. The amount of an essential oil needed to bring about a response in each of these broad categories varies greatly. This variation is due to individual human tolerance (oral or dermal), dose frequency and the oil's intrinsic toxicity. Adults are also susceptible with one sixty-year-old male, after ingesting half a teaspoonful of oil, reacting with severe dermatitis in addition to feeling quite unwell (Elliot 1993). This was thought to be systemically induced eczema or a cutaneous reaction to an ingested contact allergen (Moss 1994).

Mentha royleana Linn

Mentha Linn

(250 mL) of water is left, it is strained with a piece of cloth. Given to patients suffering from urinary disorders (scanty urination), kidney pain, skin diseases (allergy and pimples), and to purify blood. For children, 1 tsp (5 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given twice daily (morning-evening) for 6-7 days. For adults, xh cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given twice daily (morning-evening) for 10-15 days. The drug's taste is bitter and its color is light yellow. Intestinal worms, urinary disorder (scanty urination), kidney pain, and skin diseases (allergy and pimples) also used to purify blood.

Who Flos Chamomillae

Camomile is contraindicated in patients with a known sensitivity or allergy to plants of the The presence of lactones in Flos Chamomillae-based preparations may cause allergic reactions in sensitive individuals, and there have been reports of contact dermatitis due to camomile preparations 47, 89, 102 . It should be noted that very few cases of allergy were specifically attributed to

Durham Sampler

Durham in 1946, who was for many years Head Botanist at the Abbott Laboratories. Durham's sampler was adopted as the standard pollen sampler by the Pollen and Mold Committee of the American Academy of Allergy. It is still used sometimes by allergists, hospitals, and public health agencies on account of its easy availability.

Pollen Production

The quantity of pollen in the air depends on several factors, the most important being pollen production in the individual species. The amount of pollen production and methods of dispersal are very important factors, which are directly or indirectly involved in causing environmental pollution and allergy. In general the pollen production is controlled not only by their size, but also by genetic and physiological factors. Average pollen production per flower in Acacia mangium is reported to be the highest (16,640), followed by Acacia auriculiformis (15,360), Mimosa invisa var. invisa (12,800), Albizzia falcataria (12,288). Out of these four plants, three are tree species, which are capable of contributing an enormous quantity of pollen to the atmosphere. The pollen of these three tree species have been proved to cause pollen allergy in human beings. Agashe and Soucenadin (1992) had worked out pollen productivity in certain allergenically significant plants in Bangalore, India. Pollen...


Aeropalynological survey and field botanical studies carried out in Bangalore, India has consistently shown that when nonallergenic Taebubia argentia starts flowering, it coincides with the flowering of allergenic Holoptelea integrefolia. Hence, Taebubia argentia acts here as a marker for Holoptelea integrefolia. A set of reference slides of the pollen of common plants of the locality, may be considered essential for such investigations. A pollen calendar is constructed on the basis of field botanical studies as well as aeropalynological surveys. The compilation of a pollen calendar is the ultimate objective of aerobiologists, as this is most useful for clinicians in diagnosis and treatment of allergy.

Palynology of Fungi

Historically, the fungal spores were observed for the first time during the latter half of the 16th century by the Italian botanist J. P. Porta. The role of fungi in causing diseases by means of dissemination of spores was responsible for drawing the attention of botanists and medical men. A detailed account of certain airborne fungal spores and their significance in allergy and immunology has been dealt with separately in Chapter 16 'Significance of fungi as aeroallergens'.

Aloe De Vahombe

Marshall, G.D., Gibbons, A.S. and Parnell, L.S. (1993) Human cytokines induced by acemannan. Abstract 619. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 91, 295. Paquet, P. and Pierard, G.E. (1996) Interleukin-6 and the skin. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology, 109, 308-317.


Esophagitis is common with GERD and may be classified as erosive or nonerosive with the severity based on the number and location of mucosal breaks. Other types of esophagitis, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, present with similar symptoms as GERD and are commonly misdiagnosed. The common presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis is dysphagia and food impaction. Additional symptoms may include epigastric pain, emesis, weight loss, and failure to thrive.21 The diagnosis is based on a histologic finding of greater than 20 eosinophils per high-powered field in the esophageal squamous mucosa. This condition also presents with motor disturbances that may cause food impaction in the absence of strictures. Manometry shows high amplitude long-duration waves in the distal esophagus particularly at night. The symptoms often respond to elimination or elemental dietary regimens and antiallergy treatment.22 Standard skin-prick tests measure type 1 hypersensitivity reactions, which are typically...

Prostrate Spurge

Spine, the plant oozes white milky sap.) But don't feed this milk to your kids or your pets because it is quite toxic. The technical term for it is latex, and if you have latex allergies, your body is unusually well primed to protest contact with the natural plant version of the stuff. In that case, definitely don't eat your poinsettia.