Allergic Rhinitis Ebook
Both methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and hyaluronic acid are essential for maintaining connective tissue integrity, and thus for ensuring the rigidity and firmness of the underlying cellular matrix of the airway walls. MSM has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Anecdotal evidence suggests that MSM may be effective for addressing many conditions, including snoring and allergic rhinitis.61 Hyaluronic acid, a glycosaminoglycan, could be considered for treatment of snoring and augmentation of airway connective tissue integrity.62 Because of hyaluronic acid's visco-elastic quality, this substance may work to strengthen the connective tissue surrounding the airway and decrease obstructions.
Inhalative allergies are elicited predominantly by pollen of various plant species. A large number of grass, weed, and tree species shed their pollen in high concentrations during the pollen season, leading to allergic symptoms such as hay fever, rhinitis, and even bronchial asthma 27 . The last two decades were marked by large advances in the characterization of pollen-derived allergenic proteins.
In 1906, Clemens Von Pirquet, M.D., the noted Austrian pediatrician, coined the term allergy from the Greek alios (meaning changed or altered state) and ergon (meaning reaction or reactivity) to describe patients with excessive physiologic responses to substances in their environment. Currently, 50 million Americans suffer from allergies on a yearly basis, with allergy ranking as the fifth leading cause of chronic disease, and more than half of U.S. citizens test positive for one or more allergens.1 In fact, 16.7 million office visits to health care providers are attributed to allergic rhinitis alone.2 At all ages, allergic rhinitis without asthma is reported by nearly 90 people of every 1,000.3 In 1996, estimated U.S. health care expenditures attributable to sinusitis were more than 5.8 billion.4 Two recent estimates of allergy prevalence in the United States were 9 and 16 ,5 while the prevalence for specific allergic conditions, such as allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis, have...
Ecology As an important range plant, Timothy grass has been introduced over much of temperate North America, where it has often escaped cultivation and become established in fields, roadsides, and other open habitats. A prolific seed producer, it rapidly colonizes disturbed areas. Once established, Timothy grass stores carbohydrates and other products of photosynthesis in the base of swollen stems and in corms. These nutrient reserves are important to winter survival, to the initiation of early spring growth, and in the production of replacement tillers (shoots) following defoliation by grazers. Grasses, like other wind-pollinated plants, produce enormous amounts of pollen as a mechanism to facilitate successful pollination. A meadow dominated by Timothy grass, for example, can disperse over 1 billion pollen grains in just 2 weeks. Unfortunately, pollen produced by this grass is a common cause of hay fever. No matter how long a naturalized plant such as Timothy grass persists in an...
Many people also experience individual allergies to plants and mushrooms that are edible to the general population. Allergies to specific food plants, such as peanuts, lentils, or wheat, can be very serious. In some cases, these otherwise edible species are deadly poisonous allergens for those affected. Plant allergies, including hay fever, can develop at any age and may be alleviated by a program of immunization.
Davies and Smith first reported forecasting the start and severity of the hay fever season. Spieksma in the Netherlands conducted radio broadcasting of the expected influence of the weather on the subjective complaints of hay fever sufferers from 1980. By using several years' data collected from Stockholm, Sweden, aerobiologists have evaluated some models, to predict the starting and intensity of pollen seasons. Driessen et al. (1989) studied prediction of the start of the grass pollen season for the western part of Netherlands. Freguelli et al. (1991c) studied the influence of air temperature on the starting dates of pollen season of Alnus and Populus. Spieksma (1988) in the Netherlands conducted retrospective and predictive system of information on pollen concentrations in relation to hay fever. Spieksma et al. (1989) studied biometeorological and pollen flight forecast. Buch (1986) described pollen and mould spore counting methodologies for use in pollen forecasting in Denmark. The...
Haustorium haustoria, 2 180, 3 45, 110, 111, 118 Hawaiian Islands, 2 4, 3 92, 4 31 endangered species hot spot, 1 69 invasive species, 3 49 plants of, 1 101 species diversity, 1 78-79 threatened plants, 1 71 Hawk moths, 1 114, 3 178-179, 4 8 Hay fever, 3 174 Head (inflorescence type), 3 38 Heart disease, 3 11, 70, 71-72, 172 Heartwood, 4 172 Heather family. See Ericaceae Heaths, tundra species, 4 138 Heat stress, adaptations, 4 80
Clinical studies suggest that Spirulina is effective in melanosis and keratosis due to chronic arsenic posioning. It improves hemoglobin levels in malnourshied children and is effective in allergenic rhinitis or hay fever. A clinical trial from India, suggested a possible role of Spirulina fusiformis in
Meier compiled a vertical profile of fungal spores, ranging in height from 150 m to 11,000 m over Eastern United States. On the basis of his outstanding research work in a new direction, he was able to convince the National Research Council that it is worth extending this work even for other particles in air, such, as pollen known for causing hay fever. This also indicated his concern for human welfare. The classical work of Charles H. Blackley entitled 'Experimental researches on the causes and nature of Catarrhus Aestivus' published in 1873, is always quoted by aerobiologists as one of the most generally accepted being the first text giving evidence of airborne pollen as the cause of hay fever. Blackley's most cited experiment dealt with the collection of airborne particles using kites.
In another research investigation from Bangalore Rao et al, (1985) and Uthyashankar et al. (1985) performed extensive studies on the allerginicity of Parthenium hysterophorus in patients. Both skin tests and radio allegro solvent test (RAST) were performed on patients with classic symptoms of allergic rhinitis during July and December. These classical studies demonstrated that 34 of patients with classic allergic rhinits and 12 of patients with asthma were sensitive to extracts of Parthenium hysterophorus pollen. Similar studies were carried out by collecting sera from 18 patients selected on the basis of symptoms of allergic rhinitis or asthma related to the fall season and were shown to be reactive to Ambrosia species on the basis either skin testing or RAST.
Blackley tried many volatile substances that which produced head symptoms however, in no instances were there any symptoms in the least degree resembled those of Hay fever . Odours given by different flowers had sometimes a marked effect, but as for the preceding substances there were none of the symptoms of hay fever. Charles Blackley concluded that I have reason to believe that Penicillium generates symptoms not unlike those of hay fever in some respects, but differing materially in others, being much more like those of ordinary influenza .
Blackley was scientifically very observant. Once he reported on an attack caused by the dust cloud produced by a moving carriage on the road. Examination of the dust under the microscope revealed the presence of grass pollen grains. He concluded that various channels by which a cause may reach a patient, in out of way places and at out of way times . On account of his ever alert and inquisitive mind, Blackley posed himself some questions Can pollen produce the symptoms of hay fever Does this property belong to all pollen He also wondered if this condition is found in dried as well as in fresh pollen urticaria Blackley concluded that the action of the different pollen grains was not related to their size, shape, roughness or to the poisonous character of the family. Later he hypothesized on the possible involvement of alkaloid in hay fever.
Professor Hirst published his description of the Hirst trap in 1952 and immediately requests came to Rothamsted from other researchers to have duplicates made. It was decided to pass the design to an engineering firm and so production was begun by Casella Limited, later continued by Burkard Limited, when the seven-day trap was introduced. Within a few months Hirst traps were used by hospitals, studying hay fever and other allergic responses.
Ecology Ragweed is a disturbance-dependent species that emerges from dormant seeds in the soil. Famous for its power to induce allergic responses, ragweed pollen is the primary cause of late summer-fall hay fever. Because the flowers are pollinated by wind, huge amounts of pollen are needed to ensure successful pollination and seed set (a single plant can produce several million pollen grains). The surface of pollen grains contains proteins that cause sneezing, watery eyes, and breathing difficulties for people sensitive to ragweed pollen. Unfortunately, there is little relief in sight for hay fever sufferers as widespread disturbance continually creates habitat for ragweed moreover, increasing atmospheric CO2 levels associated with global climate change are causing increased pollen production in ragweed. Because ragweed grows best in open areas with full sun, plants grow vigorously the first year after disturbance, but later only stunted plants with relatively few flowers (and pollen...
Ecology It's not unusual to find multiple species of goldenrod within the same field or roadside area. Blooming in late summer or fall, goldenrods often turn drab openings into fields of gold. Like many goldenrods, tall goldenrod spreads vegetatively from underground stems (rhizomes), with some clones consisting of more than 20 connected shoots. The tall stems (up to 6 ft.) emerge from winter-dormant rhizomes in late spring and die back in late fall. A long growing season means that individuals must tolerate a wide range of climatic conditions, including heat, drought, and cold. People sometimes associate goldenrods with runny noses, itchy eyes, and sneezing, but goldenrods are not the culprit. Goldenrods are insect-pollinated, and their pollen grains are too large and sticky to be carried by wind. Instead, the primary cause of late summer or fall hay fever is ragweed (Ambrosia), with its abundant, small, nonsticky, wind-borne pollen.
The term 'allergy' was coined in 1906 by Dr. Clemens Freiherr von Pirquet, an Austrian physician, to describe any abnormal reaction of the immune system. The immune system is intended to protect the body against the noxious invaders. But in allergy, immunity has gone awry, and the system reacts to substances that are ordinarily harmless. By far the most familiar allergic reactions are respiratory - sneezing, runny nose and watery eyes caused by inhaled allergens from growing weeds, trees and grasses or moulds, house dusts, mites and animal danders. These symptoms are commonly referred as 'hay fever'. However, hay fever is a misnomer, since it is not necessarily caused by hay and a rise in body temperature is not one of its symptoms. Hay fever is most commonly recognized as an allergic problem. Other allergic manifestations are skin eruptions from food ingestion for example hives from strawberries and eczema from chocolate, and anaphylactic shock from nuts are also commonly recognized....
Ecology In late winter, male catkins hang like long tassels, releasing a little pollen at a time into cup-like sections of the flower before the pollen is picked up and dispersed into the wind. A tiny fraction of this pollen is caught by small, reddish, hair-like structures (stigmas) that project from young female catkins. The abundantly produced pollen helps ensure pollination success but contributes to hay fever. Alders spread vegetatively via underground stems and by layering, sometimes forming dense thickets. Alder roots, in association with certain bacteria, absorb atmospheric nitrogen and convert it into a form the plant can use. The leaves of alder are especially rich in nitrogen, and with fall leaf drop, substantial amounts of nitrogen are released into the soil, which can be used by neighboring plants. Based on fossil pollen, research shows alders have been in North America for at least 65 million years.
A 7-year-old boy had no personal or family history of contact dermatitis, eczema, asthma or hay fever. When he used the leaf gel of Kidachi aloe, because of a scaly eruption, he had an itchy, erythematous, buroring, papular and edematous eruption around the mouth. A patch test with the fresh leaf gel was positive after 48 hours. Six control subjects were all negative. He made a rapid recovery following the use of topical cortico-steroid. A mechanical irritation caused by crystals (calcium oxalate) was speculated to be the cause (Nakamura and Kotajima, 1984).
The primary active constituents of butterbur (Petasites hybridus) are the sesquiterpene compounds, petasin, and isopetasin. Numerous studies have shown the efficacy of Butterbur in allergic rhinitis. These studies have shown that butterbur supplementation significantly reduced the levels of histamine and leukotrienes.43 A prospective open trial with 64 adults and 16 children with asthma evaluated the effects of butterbur supplementation for two months. In this study, the number, duration, and severity of asthma attacks decreased. Peak flow, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), and all measured symptoms also improved. In addition, more than 40 of patients using asthma medications at baseline reduced intake of these medications by the end of the study.44 In a randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled study, 16 atopic asthmatic patients on a constant dose of inhaled corticosteroids were supplemented with 25 mg butterbur twice daily for one week. Exhaled nitric oxide was significantly reduced...