Acid Reflux Relief
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic recurrent condition affecting millions of Americans. A recent study investigating the economic and social burden of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in the United States indicated that GERD was the most common GI-related diagnosis given at office visits in 2006. This study also showed that sales of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exceeded 10 billion per year, and the number of prescriptions for PPIs per year has doubled since 1999.1 Numerous environmental and genetic risk factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of GERD. GERD commonly presents with heartburn and acid regurgitation, although there are numerous atypical presentations, such as chronic cough, noncardiac chest pain, laryngitis, and poor sleep quality. This disease is associated with several other conditions, including Barrett's esophagus, esophageal carcinoma, gastritis, esophagitis, respiratory conditions, sleep disorders, and various ear-nose-throat (ENT) conditions....
Various associations between asthma and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been elucidated in recent clinical investigations The prevalence of GERD in people with asthma is generally higher than in people without asthma. Patients who have asthma with GERD have a higher risk of hospitalization for asthma symptoms. Asthma medications such as albuterol decrease lower esophageal sphincter pressure and esophageal contraction amplitude, while oral prednisone results in increased esophageal acid contact times, and respiratory symptoms correlate with esophageal acid introduction events.8 These findings suggest the possibility of asthma medications acting as promoting factors in the development of GERD in patients with asthma. It is estimated that incidence of GERD in children with asthma reaches nearly 50 -60 and is higher than in the general population.9 This is not a newly discovered association however, many studies are underway to determine the relationships between asthma and...
Leguminosae SC SE North America (Mexico to Nicaragua) NW MW South America (Colombia, Ecuador Pichincha, Cotopaxi) S dr (bark against indigestion) fd (seeds) fr (fruits cattle) fw pl (ornamental) ti (posts) Inga pennatula Cham. & Schltdl. Pithecellobium minutissimum M.E.Jones Poponax pennatula (Cham. & Schltdl.) Britton & Rose e feather acacia f acacia plume
Actions Antiphlogistic, pectoral, sialogogue, stomachic and tonic. Therapeutics In Vietnam the plant is used in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis, general debility, flatulence, dyspepsia, reduced salivation, parched and thirsty mouth, night sweats, fever and anorexia.
125 g of dried plant material Pimpinella diversifolia and 2-3 tsp (15-20 g) common salt are ground together and stored in a glass or plastic bottle given to patients suffering from indigestion, abdominal swelling, leucor-rhoea, gas trouble, and stomach disorders. For children, 1 tsp (4-5 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water twice daily(morning-evening) for 8-10 days. For adults, 2-3 tsp (10-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) water twice daily (morning before breakfast, evening at bedtime) for 8-10 days. Gas trouble, indigestion, abdominal swelling, leucorrhoea, and stomach disorders.
Soaked daily at night in 1 cup (250 m) of water. The next morning 1-2 tsp (10-12 g) of sugar and 2 tsp (10-12 g) of seed powder of Punica granatum is also mixed in the whole mixture is shaken well and then filtered with a piece of cloth. This filtrate (sharbat) is given to patients suffering from jaundice, internal body inflammation, dysentery, and indigestion. For children, 1 cup (250 mL) of drug (at one time) is given daily, before breakfast, for 8-10 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of drug (at one time) is given once daily, before breakfast, for 15-20 days. (b) 20-30 g of dried fruit daily is boiled in 1 cup (250 mL) of water for 10-15 min, 1 tsp (6-7 g) of common salt is also mixed. This syrup is given with bread 1-2 times per day. and indigestion.
Leaves of Mentha longifolia, 30 g of dried Trachyspermum ammi, 2 tsp (10-15 g) of black salts are ground together for 10-15 min. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from cholera, stomach disorders, gas trouble, and indigestion. For children, 1 tsp (6-8 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 3-4 days. For adults, 2 tsp (12-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 4-5 days. For piles, 4-5 ft of young stem is cut with a stone (not with an iron) and used as a stick to heal piles. For mouth sores and toothache, 6-8 in. young twigs are cut with a knife daily and used as a toothbrush (miswak) for mouth sores and toothache. Diseases Cured Gas trouble, cholera, stomach disorders, piles, mouth gum, toothache, and indigestion.
150 g of fresh leaves is boiled daily in L of water for 15-20 min when 3 cups (750 mL) of water remains, the water is filtered with a piece of cloth given to patients suffering from piles, gas trouble, stomach griping, or indigestion. For children, not used. For adults, 1 cup (375 mL) of decoction (at one time) are given twice daily (morning-evening) for 10-15 days. Piles, gas trouble, indigestion, and grippe.
Trachyspermum ammi (Ajwain), and 1-2 tsp (10-12 g) of common salt are ground together for 7-8 min. This powder is stored in a plastic bottle or paper bag and given to patients suffering from indigestion, gas trouble, and stomach disorders. For children, 1 tsp (10-15 g) of powdered drug (phaki) (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 2-3 days. For adults, 2 tsp (10-15 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 2-3 days. (c) 30 g of dry leaves of Mentha longifolia, 15 g of dried seeds of Punica granatum (Druna), 10-12 g of fresh scales of Allium cepa (Piaz), and 1 tsp (5-6 g) of common salt are ground together daily for 7-8 min and then 2-3 cups of water is added. This mixture is shaken well and then filtered with a cloth or filtration pot. This juice is given to patients suffering from cholera, indigestion, vomiting, stomach disorders, and gas trouble. For children, xh cup (125 mL) of drug is given (at...
In Ayurveda and Sidha systems of medicine cardamom finds application as a component of several therapeutic formulations. Charakasamhita, the ancient Indian medical text, describes the use of cardamom as an antidote for food poisoning. This forms a constituent of Bhrahmi rasayana, which is used as a treatment for inflammations. Also used as a component of many balms, ointments and therapeutic oils used against cramps, rheumatic pain, inflammations etc. In Ayurvedic texts the properties of cardamom seeds are described as aromatic, acrid, sweet, cooling, stimulant, carminative, diuretic, cardiotonic and expectorant. Cardamom is used as an ingredient in preparations used for the treatment of asthma, bronchitis, hemorrhoids, renal and vesicle calculi, cardiac disorders, anorexia, dyspepsia, gastropathy, debility and vitiated conditions of vata. But no pharmacological investigations were carried out to validate the above properties. An aqueous extract of seeds is given to nursing mother to...
The British pharmacopoeia officially recognised red lavender for 200 years. In the eighteenth century it was known as palsy drops and red hartshorn. The first formula was complicated and used thirty ingredients in a distillation fresh lavender, sage, rosemary, betony. Cowslips, lily of the valley, with French brandy cinnamon, nutmeg, mace, cardamom were digested with all the rest for 24 h and then musk, ambergris, saffron, red roses and red sanders wood was tied up in a bag and suspended in to perfume and colour it.
The range of Carum carvi is immense (from Northern Europe to the Mediterranean regions, Russia, Iran, Indonesia and North America). In numerous countries it is a very common species and, as a result, an integral part of their folk medicines. For example in Poland caraway is recommended as a remedy to cure indigestion, flatulence, lack of appetite, and as a galactagogue (Tyszynska-Kownacka and Starek 1988). In Russia it is also used to treat pneumonia (Czikow and Laptiew 1982). In Great Britain and the USA it is regarded a stomachic and carminative. On The Malay Peninsula caraway is one of the nine herbs ground together and made into a decoction to be drunk at intervals after confinement, and in Indonesia the leaves mixed with garlic and spat on the skin are recommended to treat inflamed eczema (Perry 1980). Some of the properties are supported by scientific research and observations and are the reason for using caraway in contemporary medicine.
Among vegetables, Alysum desertorum, Amaranthus viridis, Bauhinia varie-gata, Brassica campestris, B. rapa, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Ficus spp., Lamimum amplexicaula, Lathyrus aphaca, Medicago polymorpha, Nasturtium officinale, Plantago lanceolata, Raphanus sativus, Rumex chalpensis, R. hastatus, Solanum spp., Taraxacum officinale, and Torilis leptophyla are commonly utilized species. Allium cepa, A. sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Capsicum annuum, Mentha spp., Oxalis corniculata, and Pimpinella diversifolia are used as condiments and spices. The season for collection varies. Allium cepa, A. sativum, Brassica campestris, B. rapa, Chenopodium album, Cichorium intybus, Ficus variegate, Nasturtium officinale, Raphanus sativus, and Taraxacum officinale, are collected in early spring, while Amaranthus viridis, Capsicum annuum, Medicago polymorpha, Mentha spp., Oxalis corniculta, Pimpinella diversifolia, Plantago lanceolata., and Rumex spp. are collected in early winter. Allium...
Caraway is also used in veterinary medicine, but for animals the herb (Herba carvi) is a more popular remedy than the fruit. It contains a significant amount of essential oil and flavonoids. The decoction of the fruit and herb is used to cure gastrointestinal disorders like flatulence, indigestion, stomach aches and gripes. It promotes gastric secretion and stimulates appetite.
'Lavandula angustifolia has a yang quality and its ruling planet is Mercury (Tisserand, 1985).' That author lists its properties as 'analgesic, anticonvulsive, antidepressant, antiseptic, antispas-modic, antitoxic, carminative, cholagogue, choleretic, cicatrisant, cordial, cytophylactic, deodorant, diuretic, emmanogogue, hypotensive, nervine, sedative, splenic, sudorific, tonic, vermifuge and vulnerary'. Its uses are for 'abcess, acne, alopecia areata, asthma, blenorrhoea, blepharitis, boils, bronchitis, carbuncles, catarrh, chlorosis, colic, conjunctivitis, convulsions, cystitis, depression, dermatitis, diarrhoea, diphtheria, dyspepsia, earache, eczema, epilepsy, fainting, fistula, flatulence, gonorrhoea, halitosis, headache, hypertension, hysteria, influenza, insomnia, laryngitis, leucorrhoea, migraine, nausea, nervous tension, neurasthenia, oliguria, palpitations, paralysis, pediculosis, psoriasis, rheumatism, scabies, scrofula, gall stones, sunstroke, throat infections,...
Lifestyle modifications can have a great impact on GERD symptoms. Diet recommendations include avoiding foods that trigger symptoms. Common culprits include acidic foods, such as tomatoes, coffee, tea, and citrus foods. Additionally, avoidance of foods that decrease LES pressure, such as high-fat foods, chocolate, peppermint, and alcohol, may be necessary. Research has shown that diets high in the antioxidant vitamin C are associated with less risk of GERD symptoms, Barrett's esophagus, and esophageal adenocarcinoma.55 In addition, a small study showed that very-low-carbohydrate diets reduce GERD symptoms and decrease lower esophageal acid exposure in obese individuals with GERD. In fact, this study showed that diets containing less than 20 g of carbohydrates per day significantly reduced symptoms in less than six days.56 Another study demonstrated that chewing sugar-free gum for one half-hour after a meal reduced postprandial esophageal reflux possibly by increasing the frequency of...
Transient LES relaxation is the primary mechanism of GERD. It results from a vaso-vagal reflex triggered by stretch receptors of the proximal stomach. Studies have indicated that most reflux episodes are acidic. However, according to one study, 28 of episodes were only weakly acidic and 10 of episodes were weakly alkaline.15 Numerous factors may influence the symptoms of GERD. Delayed gastric emptying, volume of gastric content, quantity and acidity of refluxed contents, ability of the esophagus to clear this material, LES function, and the resistance of the esophageal tissue can influence reflux symptoms.16 Some researchers have proposed that patients with GERD can be categorized further as having erosive esophagitis, nonerosive reflux disease, and Barrett's esophagus.17
Capsicum preparations are used as counter-irritants in lumbago, neuralgia and rheumatic disorders. Taken internally, Capsicum has a tonic and carminative action and is especially useful in atonic dyspepsia. It is, however, contra-indicated in gastric catarrh. Taken inordinately, it may cause gastro-enteritis. It is sometimes added to rose gargles for pharyngitis and it relaxes a sore throat. It can be administered in the form of powder, tincture, linament, plaster, ointment or medicated wool. In some of the preparations, 'Oleoresins Capsici B.P.C.' syn. 'Capsaicin', the alcohol-soluble fraction or ether extract of Capsicum is the active ingredient. Pharmacopoeial requirements are chiefly met by the highly pungent varieties of Capsicum (C. frutescens) grown in Sierra Leone, Nyasaland and Zanzibar. Indian Capsicum, known in trade as 'Bombay Capsicum is used as a substitute (Wealth of India, 1985).
Fruits are macerated and macerated solution is orally taken in a dose of 90 - 120 ml for oliguria, dysuria, indigestion. Decoction of unmatured fruit is used as antiseptic for gingivitis. Ash of fruit ( tea spoonful) with jaggery is orally taken for bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract. Decoction of matured fruit is taken in a dose of 150 - 450 ml for menstrual disorders. Ash of fruit is externally used for skin infection with coconut oil.
Diagnosis of GERD is often based on symptoms. It is characterized by chronic intermittent heartburn as a burning sensation in the chest and throat as well as acid regurgitation presenting as a sensation of acid in the throat or mouth. GERD may also present with atypical symptoms of esophageal and extra-esophageal origin such as chronic cough, sleep disturbance, chest pain, asthma, and hoarseness.12 In fact, one study showed that 50 of individuals with noncardiac chest pain had abnormal pH tests or positive endoscopy confirming the presence of GERD.13 A positive response to PPI therapy is frequently used to confirm the diagnosis of GERD. Additional diagnostic tests are performed for an individual with an atypical presentation, a high risk for complications, or a poor response to initial therapy. Initially, a barium swallow and upper GI series are commonly performed. Esophageal pH monitoring is an important diagnostic tool for GERD. Ambulatory pH monitoring detects abnormal levels of...
There is conflicting evidence regarding the role that Helicobacter pylori may play in GERD pathology. There are various studies that have looked at treatment of gastritis by eradicating H. pylori and the effects of treatment on concurrent GERD symptoms. The results of these studies vary from showing improvement to showing worsening of GERD symptoms.18 Research regarding inflammation in the gastroesophageal junction, or cardia, has indicated that the presence of erosive GERD or H. pylori gastritis is associated with the inflammation.19 In addition, GERD and carditis are associated with intestinal metaplasia at the gastroesophageal junction.20
Eosinophilic esophagitis is frequently misdiagnosed as GERD. Allergy treatment may be indicated in individuals who are not responsive to typical GERD therapies. Allergy testing to measure both IgE and IgG antibodies is indicated. In addition, dietary supplementation, using products to treat allergic reactions directly may also be necessary. Quercitin is a bioflavonoid often used in allergies because it has antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. Vitamin C has been shown to be protective against GERD and to have antioxidant and some antihistamine properties.
Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2 blockers) are commonly prescribed for treating ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Lansoprazole, or Prevacid, is a PPI that ranked third in top pharmaceutical sales in the United States in 2004.12 Many studies indicate that these classes of drugs cause several nutrient deficiencies. Research indicates that treatment with both PPI and H2 blockers increases the risk of vitamin B12 deficiency significantly in elderly patients.13 Studies have shown that H2 blockers decrease protein-bound (as opposed to unbound) vitamin B12 absorption, owing to decreasing gastric acid and pepsin secretion and a resultant inability to cleave cobalamin. One small study showed a 53 decrease in protein-bound B12 absorption in individuals taking an H2 blocker.14 In addition, decreased protein-bound B12 absorption would not be detected on the standard Schilling test, as it measures unbound cobalamin only.15
(d) 1 kg of dried seeds and 250 g of sugar are ground together for 15-20 min. This powder is stored in a glass or plastic bottle and given to patients suffering from indigestion liver, stomach, intestinal, or bladder inflammation jaundice, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, dysentery, cold, gas trouble, and stomach disorder also used to purify blood. For children, 2-3 tsp (15-20 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is mixed in 1 cup (375 mL) of water and given 2-3 times per day for 8-10 days. For adults, 3-4 tsp (40-50 g) of powdered drug (at one time) is given with 1 cup (250 mL) of water 2-3 times per day for 10-15 days. Diseases Cured Diarrhea, dysentery, piles, diabetes, intestinal worms, fever, whooping cough, cooling, indigestion, stomach disorder, jaundice, vomiting, sore gums, toothache, liver, stomach, bladder, or intestinal inflammation also used to purify blood.
(d) 70-80 g each of fresh leaves, twigs, and fruit is ground daily for 8-10 min. This drug is given to cattle suffering from gas trouble and indigestion. A dose of 125 g of drug is given twice daily (morning-evening) for 2-3 days. and wounds to purify blood and gas trouble and indigestion in cattle.
In ancient India, ginger was not significant as a spice, but it was mahabheshaj, mahaoush-adhi, literally meaning the great cure, the great medicine. For the ancient Indian, ginger was the god-given panacea for a number of ailments. That may be the reason why ginger found a prime place in the ancient Ayurvedic texts of Charaka (Charaka samhita) and Susruth (Sushrutha samhita). In Ashtangahridyam of Vagbhatt (a very important ancient Ayurvedic text), ginger is recommended along with other herbs for the cure of elephantiasis, gout, extenuating the juices, and purifying the skin from all spots arising from scorbutic acidities. Ginger is also recommended when exotic faculties were impaired due to indigestion.
Seeds of Punica granatum (Druna), 10-12 g of fresh scales of Allium cepa (Piaz), and 1 tsp (5-6 g) of common salt are ground together daily for 7-8 min and mixed with water. This mixture is shaken well, filtered with a cloth or filtration pot, and given to patients suffering from cholera, indigestion, vomiting, stomach disorders and gas trouble. For children, xh cup (125 mL) of drug is given (at one time) 2-3 times per day for 1-2 days. For adults, 1 cup (250 mL) of drug is given (at one time) 3-4 times per day for 1-2 days. Diseases Cured Stomach disorders, gas trouble, indigestion, vomiting,
Use for symptomatic treatment of digestive ailments such as dyspepsia, epigastric bloating, impaired digestion, and flatulence 1, 3, 5, 29, 34, 35, 114 . Infusions of camomile flowers have been used in the treatment of restlessness and in mild cases of insomnia due to nervous disorders 34, 55 .
(b) Fresh rhizomes are crushed and squeezed to get the extract. A little water is added. Both the extract and powder drug are used in colic, dyspepsia, and flatulence. For children Half cup (125 mL) is used twice a day for 8-10 days. For adults One cup (250 mL) thrice a day for 15-20 days. Diseases Cured Irregular menstrual cycle, colic, dyspepsia, and
200 g of plant material is boiled in 1 L of water daily for 20-25 min. Five to six small amount black peppers and 2-3 tsp (20-25 g) of common salt is also added. When X L of water remains, it is filtered with a cloth or filtration pot. This decoction is given to cattle and patients suffering from indigestion, fever, cough, stomach disorders, and asthma and to improve hunger. For children, X cup (125 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given with bread 2-3 times per day for 6-7 days. For adults, 1-2 cups (250-500 mL) of decoction (at one time) is given with bread 2-3 times per day for 8-10 days. For cattle 1 cup (250 mL) of decoction if given (at one time) twice daily (morning-evening) for 4-5 days. Fever, cough, stomach disorders, asthma, and indigestion in cattle.
(a) A mixture of 250 g of freshly collected pulp, 250 g of desighee (fat), 250 g of sugar, and 250 g of flour (sooji) is cooked together for 25-30 min. This sweet meal (halwa) is given to patients suffering from rheumatism, constipation, phlegm, indigestion, back problems, and body weakness. For children, not used. For adults, one plate of halwa (60-70 g) is given daily at bedtime for 10-15 days. Rheumatism, constipation, phlegm, body weakness, indigestion, back problem, pimples, and skin lesions also used to cool inflamed body parts.
Esophagitis is common with GERD and may be classified as erosive or nonerosive with the severity based on the number and location of mucosal breaks. Other types of esophagitis, such as eosinophilic esophagitis, present with similar symptoms as GERD and are commonly misdiagnosed. The common presentation of eosinophilic esophagitis is dysphagia and food impaction. Additional symptoms may include epigastric pain, emesis, weight loss, and failure to thrive.21 The diagnosis is based on a histologic finding of greater than 20 eosinophils per high-powered field in the esophageal squamous mucosa. This condition also presents with motor disturbances that may cause food impaction in the absence of strictures. Manometry shows high amplitude long-duration waves in the distal esophagus particularly at night. The symptoms often respond to elimination or elemental dietary regimens and antiallergy treatment.22 Standard skin-prick tests measure type 1 hypersensitivity reactions, which are typically...
Surgery is considered based on severity of disease, response to pharmaceutical treatment, risk of complications, and individual patient needs. The most frequent antireflux procedure performed is laparoscopic fundoplication, although surgery can also be done to correct hiatal hernias and other anatomical causes of GERD. Laparoscopic fundoplication places a gastric wrap around the gastroesophageal junction, strengthening the barrier function. Research has indicated that fundoplication relieves heartburn and typical symptoms in 93 of patients, yet only 56 of individuals had relief of their atypical symptoms.53 This procedure does not appear to replace the use of acid-blocking medication or decrease the incidence of carcinoma over standard medication therapy.54
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra) is often used for gastrointestinal conditions such as GERD and ulcers. The finding that deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL) stimulates and or accelerates the differentiation of glandular cells in the stomach as well as stimulating mucous secretion is of particular interest. This increased mucous secretion in the stomach is believed to account for at least part of licorice's beneficial properties. DGL also contains flavonoids that produce antimicrobial activity, including working against the ulcer-causing bacterium Helicobacter pylori. It is important to treat GERD in individuals with sleepapnea as GERD can cause increased pharyngitis and sinusitis, exacerbating the apnea. Avoidance of caffeine, mints, chocolate, fatty or spicy foods, tomatoes, and alcohol is another way to decrease acid reflux. In addition, studies have shown that raising the head at night by raising the top of the bed may decrease nocturnal reflux.60
Both genetic and environmental factors appear to influence the presence of GERD. Numerous studies have shown that obesity, weight gain, and increasing body mass index (BMI) are associated with GERD. Hiatal hernia is also a risk factor for GERD symptoms. Studies indicate that individuals with large hiatal hernias have shorter and weaker lower esophageal sphincters (LES), increased amount of reflux, less-efficient acid clearance, less-effective peristalsis, and increased severity of esophagitis compared with individuals with small or no hiatal hernia.3 Research also indicates that smoking, excess alcohol consumption, irritable bowel syndrome, and a family history of upper GI disease are risk factors. Pharmaceutical usage such as anticholinergics, antidepressants, and inhaled bronchodilators are also related to the disease. This study also associated lack of education and manual work with the presence of GERD.4 Additional studies have suggested that increased intake of table salt,...
Were Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) and Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) associated with Glomus mosseae Nicolson & Gerd. (Mosse and Hepper 1975), and Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne. (strawberry) and Alium cepa L. (onion) associated with several Glomus species (Strullu and Romand 1986 Table 1).
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