Relationship Between Foliage Nutrient Content and Tree Growth

Foliar analysis has proven to be a powerful tool in tree nutrition and fertilizer research. In this, foliage nutrient levels are used as an index of the nutritional condition of the tree or stand. Given the relationship between tree growth and foliar nutrient levels, one can diagnose nutrient deficiencies, better interpret responses to fertilizer trials, and even predict fertilizer responses (Bevege 1978). In interpreting foliage nutrient contents, the concept of critical concentration has been used to define predictable functional relationships between nutrient concen-

Table 7.3. Mean height and diameter of A. mangium on different soils.

Age

Height

Diameter

Location

(years)

(m)

(cm)

Remark

Costa Rica

2

8.0

9.0

good site

Mindanao,

2

5.8

7.1

good site

Philippines

3

8.3

9.4

good site

Bangladesh

2

8.0

15.0

good site

2

4.0

7.0

poor site

Hawaii, U.S.A.

2

6.0

6.8

good site

Sook, Sabah,

6

5.2

13.4

compacted soil

Malaysia

Sibu, Sarawak,

2

2.3

n.a.

nyalau

Malaysia

2

0.7

n.a.

upland semado soil

Niah, Sarawak

2

5.0

n.a.

heavy, rcd-podzolic soil

Kemasul,

3.5

3.7

n.a.-

severely disturbed soil

P. Malaysia

3.6

13.8

17.8

old durian soil

Source: Hamsawi and Jugah (1989)

Source: Hamsawi and Jugah (1989)

ptoi r 3 7-r—i etc f 0#m«rty t«Mr <070 HMtAl k Inmii pxmi lint» 3»-r*w-e«d f I or« 11

Siand and sue tftiaih of ihc umplr plot» ir> ) io Swirold planianoni (Average local heifht and diamtief ai breast height bark arc gr*rn Wrixal line bar» repreitnt confidence inienab ol miai heighi )

c U■« PK>l I 7 S Ml' OW t Ormtfrtv W) IINI'lil i 6 v**'-«^

c U■« PK>l I 7 S Ml' OW t Ormtfrtv W) IINI'lil o

fotmity 10t9h mi irtw/ni

io- MDIX aO-cm

fotmity 10t9h mi irtw/ni

Figure 7.2. Stand and site details of sample plots in (a) 3- to 5-year-old plantations; (b) 6-to 7-year-old plantations; (c) 7- to 9-year-old plantations. Values for dbh and total height are averages. Vertical axes represent 95% confidence intervals of total height. Source: Thomas and Kent (1986)

tration and yield. This approach has proven successful for many tree species (Pinus spp. in Australia and New Zealand, rubber and Pinus caribaea in Malaysia). Many excellent reviews are available on the topic (see Qureshi and Srivastava 1966; Richards and Bevege 1969; Lambert 1984).

Mead and Speechly (1989) studied the relationship between the nutrient concentration of foliage and A. mangium growth. The freshly matured leaves taken from the upper part of the crown were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca, and Mg. There was no relationship between Bray-2 P and foliar P. However, foliar N level was related to foliar P, indicating that low P limits N fixation. The equations indicated that for A. mangium, foliar P levels of 0.12-0.15% is required to ensure 3.0% N in the foliage. The criteria for satisfactory foliage P levels was found to be 0.13-0.15% dry weight; this and other tentative criteria for interpreting foliage levels are given in Table 7.4.

Mead and Speechly (1989) also suggested that if foliage P is less than 0.120.13%, a broadcast application of 40 kg/ha P should immediately follow thinning, particularly if high-quality logs are desired.

Simpson (1992) studied these relationships in Kalimantan. Following standard sampling procedure, four representative trees were selected at each site and branches collected from the top third of the crown. Ten of the most recently formed, fully expanded leaves from the distal portions of the branches were collected from each tree and composited to give one sample of 40 leaves per sampling site. These were analyzed for chemical content (Table 7.5).

The results indicated that plantation productivity is related to foliar K levels (r = 0.48) but not to foliar N or P levels. Thus both soil and plant chemical data indicated that K deficienees could be limiting A. mangium growth in this locality. No relationship existed between soil and foliar N concentrations but a strong correlation between soil and foliar P was visible. Foliar P was also strongly related to available soil P (Figure 7.3).

Table 7.4. Proposed diagnostic levels oí Acacia mangium foliage.*

Nutriem

Critical

Satisfactory

N (%)

not known

>3.0

P (%)

<0.13

0.13-0.15

K(%)

<0.6

>1.0

Mg (%)

<0.11

0.15-0.20

Ca (%)

<0.2

S(%)

<0.10

B (ppm)

<10

Zn (ppm)

(10)

Cu (ppm)

(3)

*The fifth and sixth leaf from the bud of lateral, upper-crown branches should be sampled. Figures in brackets are tentative. Source: Unpublished information based on Mead's studies for CFPP and SAFODA

Table 7.5. Nutrient levels in foliar samples from Riam Kiwa, South Kalimantan.

Sample

Stand

N

P

K

Na

Ca

Mg

Mn

B

Cu

Zn

Number

Health

mc/c

ug/g

1

Good

25.5

0.93

8.76

1.68

3.73

2.22

470

16.4

14.1

22.8

2

Good

25.4

1.06

9.35

0.88

8.44

2.51

360

18.3

11.0

25.2

3

Mediocre

22.4

1.16

6.44

0.78

9.86

2.14

300

9.8

13.7

23.8

4

Very poor

21.5

2.36

4.75

0.59

14.54

3.35

270

11.2

21.8

35.5

5

Good

21.7

0.80

7.24

0.45

11.82

2.17

460

19.4

19.6

18.6

6

Very good

20.0

0.80

7.21

0.60

4.69

2.06

320

11.1

9.6

17.6

7

Poor

19.0

0.84

5.29

1.02

15.45

2.45

430

16.5

17.6

2,6.2

8F

Poor

20.8

0.72

5.61

0.66

15.86

2.45

930

18.9

23.0

16.7

8UF

Poor

18.3

0.69

5.66

0.55

17.91

2.52

870

21.7

21.9

19.8

9

Variable

24.0

0.80

8.59

1.19

8.37

1.99

390

15.4

8.4

13.4

Mean

A. mangium

21.8

1.02

6.89

0.8-4

11.07

2.39

480

15.8

16.05

22.0

10 Pinu.% oocarpa

13.7

0.66

4.23

1.25

2.97

1.49

620

4.2

2.8

11.5

F = fertilized willi 20 kg/lia P at planting; IIP = unfertilized plot. Source. Simpson (1992)

The study of foliar nutrient ratios indicates that relatively low K and high Ca and Mg proportions are probably responsible for poor health (Table 7.6). More studies are needed to confirm these results.

Simpson (1992) also compared the nutrient concentrations of A. mangium foliage from Kalimantan (Indonesia), Sabah (Malaysia), and Dongmen (China) (Table 7.7). The results indicated that:

• the foliar N levels were comparable, levels below 20 mg/g of N being unacceptably low

• regarding foliar P, the data was not enough to a suggest a critical concen (ration but levels below 1.0 mg/g may be taken with caution

• in Dongmen, 4 mg/g of foliar K was regarded as the critical level; however in Kalimantan. 6 mg /g should be regarded as the minimum acceptable level.

(a) Productivity vs. Foliar Nitrogen v = 4.7582 + 4.7267x R: = 0.106

(b) Productivity vs. Foliar Phosphorus ~ y = 9.2972 - 34.576x R- = 0.236

(a) Productivity vs. Foliar Nitrogen v = 4.7582 + 4.7267x R: = 0.106

(c) Productivity vs. Foliar Potassium y = 5.1909 + 15.447x R2 = 0.482

(b) Productivity vs. Foliar Phosphorus ~ y = 9.2972 - 34.576x R- = 0.236

Foliar P (%) (d) Foliar Nitrogen vs. Soil Nitrogen i.o >.>

(c) Productivity vs. Foliar Potassium y = 5.1909 + 15.447x R2 = 0.482

Foliar P (%) (d) Foliar Nitrogen vs. Soil Nitrogen y = 1.5057 - 5.4440x R- = 0.071

Foliar K (%) (e) Foliar Phosphorus vs. Soil Phosphorus

Soil N (%) (f) Foliar Potassium vs. Soil Potassium

Foliar K (%) (e) Foliar Phosphorus vs. Soil Phosphorus

Soil N (%) (f) Foliar Potassium vs. Soil Potassium

its loo aoo «os too too

Soil P (total) ppm

Figure 7.3. Plantation productivity related to foliar nutrient parameters (a-c) and relationships between soils and foliar nutrients (d-f): (a) productivity vs. foliar nitrogen; (b) productivity vs. foliar phosphorus; (c) productivity vs. foliar potassium; (d) foliar nitrogen vs. soil nitrogen; (e) foliar phosphorus vs. soil phosphorus; (0 foliar potassium vs. soil potassium. Source: Simpson (1992)

its loo aoo «os too too

Soil P (total) ppm

Figure 7.3. Plantation productivity related to foliar nutrient parameters (a-c) and relationships between soils and foliar nutrients (d-f): (a) productivity vs. foliar nitrogen; (b) productivity vs. foliar phosphorus; (c) productivity vs. foliar potassium; (d) foliar nitrogen vs. soil nitrogen; (e) foliar phosphorus vs. soil phosphorus; (0 foliar potassium vs. soil potassium. Source: Simpson (1992)

Table 7.6. Nutrient proportions, adjusted to Nitrogen 100, for foliar samples from Riam Kiwa plantations, South Kalimantan.

Sample Stand

Sample Stand

Table 7.6. Nutrient proportions, adjusted to Nitrogen 100, for foliar samples from Riam Kiwa plantations, South Kalimantan.

Number

Health

P

K

Na

Ca

Mg

Mn

B

Cu

Zn

1

Good

3.6

34.3

6.6

14.6

8.7

1.8

0.06

0.06

0.09

2

Good

4.2

36.8

3.5

33.2

9.9

1.4

0.07

0.04

0.10

3

Mediocre

5.2

28.7

3.5

44.0

9.5

0.9

0.04

0.06

0.11

4

Very poor

11.0

22.1

2.7

67.6

15.6

1.2

0.05

0.10

0.16

5

Good

3.7

33.4

2.1

54.5

10.0

2.1

0.09

0.09

0.08

6

Very good

4.0

36.0

3.0

23.4

10.3

1.6

0.05

0.05

0.09

7

Poor

4.4

27.8

5.4

81.3

12.9

2.3

0.08

0.09

0.14

8F

Poor

3.5

27.0

3.2

76.2

11.8

4.5

0.09

0.11

0.08

8UF

Poor

3.8

30.9

3.0

97.8

13.8

4.7

0.12

0.12

0.11

9

Variable

3.3

35.8

5.0

34.9

8.3

1.6

0.06

0.04

0.06

Mean

A. mangiuni

4.7

31.3

3.8

52.8

11.1

2.2

0.07

0.07

0.10

10 I3mus oocarpa

4.8

30.9

9.1

21.7

10.9

4.5

0.03

0.03

0:08

Source: Simpson (1992)

Source: Simpson (1992)

Table 7.7. Compilative mean foliar nutrient data for four Acacia tnangium plantations.

Location/ Condition (no. samples)

N

P

K

Ca mg/g

Mg

Na

Mn

Cu

Zn up/p

B

Riam Kiwa. Indonesia

21.8

1.02

6.89

11.07

2.39

0.84

0.48

16

22

16

(10)

Dongmcn. China (16)

unfertilized

19.5

0.74

3.67

5.91

1.24

1.48

9

18

13

fertilized

21.2

0.88

4.14

6.73

1.27

1.44

10

18

15

Vinh Phu. Vietnam (9)

mean

23.1

1.27

7.81

5.43

1.30

1.65

0.52

35

39

19

range

low

13.8

0.61

3.48

2.45

1.09

0.33

0.21

16

28

8

high

27.0

3.23

20.51

9.89

1.71

3.04

0.86

57

52

30

Sabah. Malaysia (4)

unhealthy

30.6

1.45

15.1

4.98

1.55

0.23

11

21

16

healthy

28.9

1.12

14.0

5.51

1.65

0.34

12

28

27

Source: Simpson (1992)

Source: Simpson (1992)

0 0

Post a comment