Compensatory Forest Plantation Project for General Utility Logs

Kanapathy et al. (1986) estimated financial and economic analyses of CFPP's production of general-utility timber on a 15-year rotation in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Pahang and in Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia. The analyses assumed an MAI for A. mangium of 20 mVha, with expected yields of 80 m3 ha of thinnings in Year 8 and final harvest of 220 m' ha in Year 15. For these analyses, the price of A. mangium logs had to be proxied (that is, represented by the price for another...

Flowering Phenology

A. mangium starts to flower and produce seeds 18-20 months after planting (NAS 1983). In Australia a single major peak of flowering occurs between March and May (Sedgley et al. 1992) in Peninsular Malaysia flowering occurs throughout the year, with a distinct flowering season occurring between June and July (Zakaria and Kamis 1991). Sedgley et al. (1992) report that in Sabah. the major peak flowering of A. mangium is in January. In Papua New Guinea, the...

Effect of Seedling

The age of stock plants from which cuttings are taken is the most important single factor affecting root formation. Cuttings of difficult-to-root species are normally rooted more easily from younger stock plants than from older stock. For A. mangium, rooting percentage decreases significantly with older stock plants. For example, cuttings taken from 6- and 12-month-old seedlings give a higher rooting perceniage than those taken from IS- and 24-month old seedlings (Table 4.1). Similar results...

Nodulation with Interaction with Other Treatments

In a nursery experiment on the effect of liming and inoculation of A. mangium in the presence or absence of NPK fertilizer, Cali (1991) reported that inoculation independently improved height, shoot biomass. nodule weight, and nitrogen content and uptake of A. mangium. The relationship between shoot biomass and nodule number, nodule weight, and N-uptake was highly significant.The study used Annam clay with pH 5.9 and 0.74 OM and Adtuyon clay loam with pH 6.2 and 5.31 OM. In Adtuyon clay loam,...

Potting and Maintenance of Rooted Cuttings

R(X)led cuttings are usually transplanted into polythene bags immediately alter some lignification has taken place in the roots. If transplanting is clone before this, the non-lignilied roots can be easily broken and the plants will die. The time required to reach this stage of root lignilication varies with species. For many dipterocarps. it is about 10-12 weeks. For A. niangium, 4-5 weeks are sufficient (l)arus and Aminah 1993). For potting, the medium commonly used at Forest Research...

Potting and Maintenance of Rooted Plantlets

Two-month-old rooted plantlets can be lifted from rooting chambers for potting. Usually plantlets bearing incipient roots are kept in water-filled containers before they are transplanted into black polybags containing 100 forest topsoil. The newly potted plantlets need to be placed in nursery beds under 507r Sharlon shade for about one month, after which the shade should be removed to enable the plants to harden. Survival rate can be 80-90 . Potted plantlets should be watered regularly in the...

Fertilizer Application

A suitable source of fertilizers is essential for good seedling growth in the nursery. A. mangium appears to be an easy speeies to manage in the nursery from the point of view of nutrition and fertilization. Both chemical and organic fertilizers (for example, cow dung, chicken manure, or compost) have been used. If organic fertilizers are applied, they should constitute about 2()7r of the total media (FAO 1987). The need for different fertilizers varies with the type of the substrate and...

Acacia Mangium Medicinal Uses

Taxonomy, Distribution, Biology, and Use as an Exotic 1 Genetics and Tree Improvement 35 Economics and Market Prospects 243 Appendix B Scientists Studying Acacia mangium 271 Table 1.1. Common names of Acacia mangium. 2 Table 1.2. Climate data in A. mangium's natural range. 4 Table 3.1. Chromosome characteristics. 36 Table 3.2. Characteristics of A. mangium seeds. 37 Table 33. Average abaxial stomatal frequency of phyllodes. 39 Table 3.4. Net and total photosynthesis. 41 Table 3.5. Foliar...

Seed Stands Seed Production Areas and Seed Orchards

Improved seeds result in higher yields, good stem form, and or resistance to identified pests and diseases. Still, most tree seeds planted in the Asia-Pacific region are collected from unclassified seed sources, and usually give variable performance and poor yields. Some improvement in seed quality can be gained merely by collecting seeds from selected stands outside the species' natural range. For meeting Plate 3.2. Potential plus tree at five years of age. Dramaga, Indonesia. Phoio K. Awang...

Combined Effects of Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium

It is difficult to isolate the effect of mycorrhiza on the growth of A. mangium without also considering the effect of Rhizobium. Thus, many reports in the literature include dual effects of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium. Reddell and Warren 1987 reported that A. mangium forms associations with VAM fungi, and subsequent research suggests that this is the tree's dominant mycorrhizal association. Yantasath 1989 and Poonsawad and Yantasath 1991 reported that Acaulospora spp. and Glomus spp. were some of...

Symbiotic Associations

A. mangium's success in reclaiming adverse sites lmperata grasslands, acidic soils and soils low in nitrogen and phosphorus is often best exploited through the species' natural associations with both Rhizobium bacteria and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal VAM fungi. A. mangium appears to be more specific in its Rhizobium associations than other Acacia species, meaning that many Rhizobium strains isolated from A. mangium do not cross-inoculate other acacias. Some rhizobial strains are more...

Relationship Between Foliage Nutrient Content and Tree Growth

Foliar analysis has proven to be a powerful tool in tree nutrition and fertilizer research. In this, foliage nutrient levels are used as an index of the nutritional condition of the tree or stand. Given the relationship between tree growth and foliar nutrient levels, one can diagnose nutrient deficiencies, better interpret responses to fertilizer trials, and even predict fertilizer responses Bevege 1978 . In interpreting foliage nutrient contents, the concept of critical concentration has been...

Maluku Province

Landkaart West Ceram Maluku

This province consists of about 1,000 islands. A. mangium is known to occur in three main areas the Sula Islands f 52'S, 125 22'E , Ceram ca. 3 S, 129 E and the Am Islands ca. 6 S, 134 30'E . Sula Islands The islands of Taliabu, Mangole, and Sanana also called Sulabesi make up the Sula Islands. A. mangium is reported to occur on Taliabu, the most westerly natural occurrence along with Sanana Island Turnbull et al. 1983 . It occurs near sea level below 50 m on the margins between rainforest and...

Cost of Seedling Production

While A. mangium is not demanding in the nursery, it is important to keep the cost of seedling production to a minimum, especially in planning large plantation projects. Reliable information on seedling production costs is difficult to obtain. Generally in the region, estimates vary from US 0.02 to 0,031 per seedling, depending on the nursery type and size. There is a growing tendency to switch from the conventional system using polythene bags toward mechanized root-retainer nursery systems....

Phyllode Anatomy and Stomatal Characteristics

Atipanumpai 1989 reported phyllode anatomy and stomatal characteristics of 30-month old A. mangium trees from different provenances. The epidermis of the phyllode is heavily cutini .ed on both surfaces, and cells are square or rectangular in transection. The mesophyll consists ol two-layer palisade tissues, densely arranged and filled with abundant chloroplasts. The spongy parenchyma is slightly round and loosely arranged in the middle of the phyllode blade. Phyllodes of A. mangium are...

References

Acacias in agroforestry. In Acacias in Rural, Itulusirial, and Environmental Development, eds. Kaniis Awang and D.A. Taylor. Proc. of a workshop held in lldon Tliaru. Thailand, February 15-18. I'W3. Bangkok. Thailand Winrock International and FAO. Bhumibhamon S. and L. Alipanumpai. 1992. Family variation in growth and some morphological characteristics of Acacia mangium grown in Thailand. In Biotechnology for Forest Tree Improvement-, 155-162. BIOTROP...

Fertilizer Trials

Application of fertilizers is a standard practice in the countries where A. mangium is a major plantation species. In most cases, however, the nature of fertilizers and their quantity are not based on systematic research. Fertilization levels and time of application have been decided tentatively, probably based on a few studies or on experience with other species in the area. The main aim of fertilizer application is to produce uniform, fast-growing plantations. Uniformity makes it easier to...

Cement Bonded Particleboard CBP

Besides resin adhesives, wood particleboard can also be bonded using mineral binder, such as ordinary portland cement. A few researchers have investigated Table 11.9. Bending strength kgf cm2 of cement-bonded particle boards. Ordinary portland cement Rapid hardening portland cement Table 11.9. Bending strength kgf cm2 of cement-bonded particle boards. the variables involved in manufacturing cement-bonded paiticleboard. Tachi et al. 1988 , Rahim and Wan Asma 1989 , and Rahim et al. 1991 studied...

Acacia mangium

This monograph is published jointly by the Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia-Pacific FORSPA , the Forest Tree Improvement Project FORTIP of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO , and the Forestry Fuelwood Research and Development Project F FRED of the U.S. Agency for International Development USAID and Winrock International. FORSPA, an FAO-executed regional programme, enhances the capacity for forestry research in Asia-Pacific countries. FORTIP supports...

Veneer and Plywood

The conversion of A. mangium into veneer and plywood is feasible with no specific processing requirements needed. In conventional rotary peeling studies by Wong et al. 1988 , Chai 1989 , and Salim 1992 , the peeling process was rated as easy and the green veneers produced were tight, smooth, and of acceptable quality. They dried easily following the normal commercial species schedule to the desired moisture content. The green veneer recovery however, was found to range from 35-459 -. This...

Wood Characteristics

Despite the fact that variations in wood properties significantly aflect utilization, studies on provenance variation in terms of wood characteristics are scarce. Pipatwattanakul 1989 examined provenance variation in the wood density of a six-year-old A. mungiwn trial at Lad Krating. With values of 0.3-0.4. difler-ences among the 16 provenances studied were not significant. Similar results were obtained in the species network trials conducted at 10 sites in 4 countries by scientists in the...

Growth and Yield

Quite a bit has been published on the growth and yield of A. mangium. Studies have confirmed it can achieve a mean annual increment MAI of 5 cm in dbh and up to 5 m in height in the first four or five years. However, growth declines rapidly after seven or eight years, and except under ideal conditions or over a long period of more than 20 years, the tree will probably not grow beyond 35 cm dbh and 35 m tall. Volume yield estimates from dbh and height growth using several yield tables appear...

Seed Treatment

Germination of A. mangium, like that of most acacias, is inhibited by the hard and water-impermeable seed coat l oran and Gunn 1987 . While this assures seed longevity, it also makes germination slow, unpredictable, and difficult. To Table 5.3. The effects on germination and seed imbibition of heating dry seeds at 100 C for increasing intervals of time. Table 5.3. The effects on germination and seed imbibition of heating dry seeds at 100 C for increasing intervals of time. Control 100C soaking...

Potting Substrate

The supply of potting substrate in adequate quantity and quality is a major problem in many large nurseries, which can require huge amounts. Several substrates have been used for raising A. mangium planting stock, including topsoil, vermiculite, perlite, different types of compost, and tropical peat. These substrates can be used as a mixture or in pure form. Vermiculite or perlite should be mixed with a less expensive substrate for example, bagasse . A medium for container-grown seedlings...

Nursery Propagation

Nursery propagation is still the most common method, maintains a broad genetic base, and is often still the cheapest technique, with costs in Asia and the Pacific around US 0.02-0.031. Nursery practices for A mangium are not very demanding, and with the establishment of seed production stands and seed orchards in countries where A. mangium is grown on a large scale, seeds are now easily available see Appendix A . With that start, there remains a need for good-quality seeds of specific,...

Economics and Market Prospects

Economic and marketing aspects are crucially important in stimulating development of a country's forest plantation sector. A.mangium plantations have economic benefits in that they can help avert anticipated domestic timber shortages, generate income, increase profitability of degraded land resources, and reduce the drain on a country's foreign exchange reserves. Economists use the analytical instruments of net present value, internal rate of return, and benefit-cost ratio in financial and...

Appendix B Scientists Studying Acacio mangium

This list, although incomplete, provides a 'snapshot' of researchers working with A. mangium, in addition to the chapter authors. The list focuses on the Asia-Pacific region. Areas of interest for each entry are indicated after each name, using the codes below. AF Agroforestry Systems D Biotechnology C Climatology Co Conservation Cu M Cultivation Management DM Data Management D A Design Analysis ED Econ. Development FE Forest Economics. FPU Forest Products and Utilization G B Genetics Breeding...

Priorities for Future Research

Table 13.1 summarizes the priority research gaps identified for the areas described above. More details are available in the respective chapters. Research on any species does not proceed in isolation of findings on other species. In terms of crop compatibility, relative productivity, and local suitability, scientists at a given planting site will naturally need to weigh the benefits of A. mangium with those of other crops. This type of assessment is needed not only at the outset of a program...

Insect Pests

The rapid increase in forest plantation establishment in South and Southeast Asia with fast-growing, exotic tree species like A. mangium, often in monocultures or with a few high-yielding varieties, tends to narrow the genetic base. Particularly for an exotic species, this reduction in diversity of species, tree age, and genetic variation produces conditions favorable to the spread of pest and disease pathogens. Although very few insects cause significant problems to A. mangium, foresters and...