Coptotermes curvignafhus Holmgr Termite

Host trees Young plantations of Acacia mangium and many other tropical tree species appear to very susceptible to attack. In Malaysia, Hamid (1987) also reported Coptotermes sepangensis destroying A. mangium. Nobushi and Hariyono (1987) identified the host tree genera as Albizia, Araucaria, Eucalyptus, Fagratae, Ficus, Gmelina, Hevea, Hymenaea, Mangifera, Pitius, Salix, Shorea, Tectona. Distribution Sumatra (Indonesia), Malaysia, and Thailand Description Soldier Head and antennae yellowish...

Growth Performance in Provenance Trials

The success of plantation establishment and productivity is determined largely by the grower's choice of species and seed source (Larsen 1954 Callaham 1964 l.acaze 1978). Provenance trials to evaluate growth performance, stem form, and susceptibility lo pests and diseases is the lirst step in a genetic improvement program component of plantation establishment. The primary aim of such trials is to identify suitable provenances for large-scale planting locally. Strictly speaking, provenance...

Compensatory Forest Plantation Project for General Utility Logs

Kanapathy et al. (1986) estimated financial and economic analyses of CFPP's production of general-utility timber on a 15-year rotation in Kemasul Forest Reserve, Pahang and in Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve, Johore, Peninsular Malaysia. The analyses assumed an MAI for A. mangium of 20 mVha, with expected yields of 80 m3 ha of thinnings in Year 8 and final harvest of 220 m' ha in Year 15. For these analyses, the price of A. mangium logs had to be proxied (that is, represented by the price for another...

Flowering Phenology

A. mangium starts to flower and produce seeds 18-20 months after planting (NAS 1983). In Australia a single major peak of flowering occurs between March and May (Sedgley et al. 1992) in Peninsular Malaysia flowering occurs throughout the year, with a distinct flowering season occurring between June and July (Zakaria and Kamis 1991). Sedgley et al. (1992) report that in Sabah. the major peak flowering of A. mangium is in January. In Papua New Guinea, the...

Nodulation with Interaction with Other Treatments

In a nursery experiment on the effect of liming and inoculation of A. mangium in the presence or absence of NPK fertilizer, Cali (1991) reported that inoculation independently improved height, shoot biomass. nodule weight, and nitrogen content and uptake of A. mangium. The relationship between shoot biomass and nodule number, nodule weight, and N-uptake was highly significant.The study used Annam clay with pH 5.9 and 0.74 OM and Adtuyon clay loam with pH 6.2 and 5.31 OM. In Adtuyon clay loam,...

Potting and Maintenance of Rooted Cuttings

R(X)led cuttings are usually transplanted into polythene bags immediately alter some lignification has taken place in the roots. If transplanting is clone before this, the non-lignilied roots can be easily broken and the plants will die. The time required to reach this stage of root lignilication varies with species. For many dipterocarps. it is about 10-12 weeks. For A. niangium, 4-5 weeks are sufficient (l)arus and Aminah 1993). For potting, the medium commonly used at Forest Research...

Potting and Maintenance of Rooted Plantlets

Two-month-old rooted plantlets can be lifted from rooting chambers for potting. Usually plantlets bearing incipient roots are kept in water-filled containers before they are transplanted into black polybags containing 100 forest topsoil. The newly potted plantlets need to be placed in nursery beds under 507r Sharlon shade for about one month, after which the shade should be removed to enable the plants to harden. Survival rate can be 80-90 . Potted plantlets should be watered regularly in the...

Seed Stands Seed Production Areas and Seed Orchards

Improved seeds result in higher yields, good stem form, and or resistance to identified pests and diseases. Still, most tree seeds planted in the Asia-Pacific region are collected from unclassified seed sources, and usually give variable performance and poor yields. Some improvement in seed quality can be gained merely by collecting seeds from selected stands outside the species' natural range. For meeting Plate 3.2. Potential plus tree at five years of age. Dramaga, Indonesia. Phoio K. Awang...

Combined Effects of Mycorrhiza and Rhizobium

It is difficult to isolate the effect of mycorrhiza on the growth of A. mangium without also considering the effect of Rhizobium. Thus, many reports in the literature include dual effects of mycorrhiza and Rhizobium. Reddell and Warren 1987 reported that A. mangium forms associations with VAM fungi, and subsequent research suggests that this is the tree's dominant mycorrhizal association. Yantasath 1989 and Poonsawad and Yantasath 1991 reported that Acaulospora spp. and Glomus spp. were some of...

Relationship Between Foliage Nutrient Content and Tree Growth

Foliar analysis has proven to be a powerful tool in tree nutrition and fertilizer research. In this, foliage nutrient levels are used as an index of the nutritional condition of the tree or stand. Given the relationship between tree growth and foliar nutrient levels, one can diagnose nutrient deficiencies, better interpret responses to fertilizer trials, and even predict fertilizer responses Bevege 1978 . In interpreting foliage nutrient contents, the concept of critical concentration has been...

Cost of Seedling Production

While A. mangium is not demanding in the nursery, it is important to keep the cost of seedling production to a minimum, especially in planning large plantation projects. Reliable information on seedling production costs is difficult to obtain. Generally in the region, estimates vary from US 0.02 to 0,031 per seedling, depending on the nursery type and size. There is a growing tendency to switch from the conventional system using polythene bags toward mechanized root-retainer nursery systems....

Smorn Prompechara

Acacias in agroforestry. In Acacias in Rural, Itulusirial, and Environmental Development, eds. Kaniis Awang and D.A. Taylor. Proc. of a workshop held in lldon Tliaru. Thailand, February 15-18. I'W3. Bangkok. Thailand Winrock International and FAO. Bhumibhamon S. and L. Alipanumpai. 1992. Family variation in growth and some morphological characteristics of Acacia mangium grown in Thailand. In Biotechnology for Forest Tree Improvement-, 155-162. BIOTROP...

Fertilizer Trials

Acacia Mangium Plantation

Application of fertilizers is a standard practice in the countries where A. mangium is a major plantation species. In most cases, however, the nature of fertilizers and their quantity are not based on systematic research. Fertilization levels and time of application have been decided tentatively, probably based on a few studies or on experience with other species in the area. The main aim of fertilizer application is to produce uniform, fast-growing plantations. Uniformity makes it easier to...

Acacia mangium

This monograph is published jointly by the Forestry Research Support Programme for Asia-Pacific FORSPA , the Forest Tree Improvement Project FORTIP of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations FAO , and the Forestry Fuelwood Research and Development Project F FRED of the U.S. Agency for International Development USAID and Winrock International. FORSPA, an FAO-executed regional programme, enhances the capacity for forestry research in Asia-Pacific countries. FORTIP supports...

Veneer and Plywood

The conversion of A. mangium into veneer and plywood is feasible with no specific processing requirements needed. In conventional rotary peeling studies by Wong et al. 1988 , Chai 1989 , and Salim 1992 , the peeling process was rated as easy and the green veneers produced were tight, smooth, and of acceptable quality. They dried easily following the normal commercial species schedule to the desired moisture content. The green veneer recovery however, was found to range from 35-459 -. This...

Growth and Yield

Quite a bit has been published on the growth and yield of A. mangium. Studies have confirmed it can achieve a mean annual increment MAI of 5 cm in dbh and up to 5 m in height in the first four or five years. However, growth declines rapidly after seven or eight years, and except under ideal conditions or over a long period of more than 20 years, the tree will probably not grow beyond 35 cm dbh and 35 m tall. Volume yield estimates from dbh and height growth using several yield tables appear...

Seed Treatment

Germination of A. mangium, like that of most acacias, is inhibited by the hard and water-impermeable seed coat l oran and Gunn 1987 . While this assures seed longevity, it also makes germination slow, unpredictable, and difficult. To Table 5.3. The effects on germination and seed imbibition of heating dry seeds at 100 C for increasing intervals of time. Table 5.3. The effects on germination and seed imbibition of heating dry seeds at 100 C for increasing intervals of time. Control 100C soaking...

Biomass

Biomass as a unit of yield has only become fairly widely used since the 1970s. It is in many ways a more useful measure than volume, as it allows comparisons to be made between different crops, as well as among different tree components for example, leaves, fruits, and stems . Furthermore, it can be used to estimate energy and nutrient contents rapidly. In agroforestry, the amount of leaf or litter that can be used for fodder is more appropriately measured in terms of biomass rather than...

Potting Substrate

The supply of potting substrate in adequate quantity and quality is a major problem in many large nurseries, which can require huge amounts. Several substrates have been used for raising A. mangium planting stock, including topsoil, vermiculite, perlite, different types of compost, and tropical peat. These substrates can be used as a mixture or in pure form. Vermiculite or perlite should be mixed with a less expensive substrate for example, bagasse . A medium for container-grown seedlings...

Vegetative Propagation

Where conditions permit, vegetative propagation can be more cost-effective and can result in more uniform growth. A. mangium stem cuttings can be easily rooted, but rooting percentage declines with older stock plants. For better rooting, auxins, such as the growth hormone Seradix 3 or indole butryic acid IBA should be applied at appropriate concentrations and cuttings with one or one-half phyllodes should be used. Rooting medium should have a relatively high pH and good moisture-holding...

Appendix B Scientists Studying Acacio mangium

This list, although incomplete, provides a 'snapshot' of researchers working with A. mangium, in addition to the chapter authors. The list focuses on the Asia-Pacific region. Areas of interest for each entry are indicated after each name, using the codes below. AF Agroforestry Systems D Biotechnology C Climatology Co Conservation Cu M Cultivation Management DM Data Management D A Design Analysis ED Econ. Development FE Forest Economics. FPU Forest Products and Utilization G B Genetics Breeding...

Priorities for Future Research

Table 13.1 summarizes the priority research gaps identified for the areas described above. More details are available in the respective chapters. Research on any species does not proceed in isolation of findings on other species. In terms of crop compatibility, relative productivity, and local suitability, scientists at a given planting site will naturally need to weigh the benefits of A. mangium with those of other crops. This type of assessment is needed not only at the outset of a program...