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Abscisic acid (ABA) is the key hormone in plant responses to water deficit, caused by abiotic stresses associated with dehydration (drought, salinity, and cold) and during specific developmental stages (e.g., seed maturation). ABA signal transduction pathway is initiated by binding of ABA to its receptors (GTG1, GTG2, Mg protoporphyrin IX chelatase H-subunit, and 14-member family of PYR/PYL/RCAR proteins). PYR/ PYL/RCARs directly interact with ABA and the main negative regulators of ABA signaling - type-2C serine threonine protein phosphatases (PP2Cs). Formation of the complex results in derepression of specific protein kinases, especially of SnRK2 family. In cytoplasm, SnRK2.6 (OST1) modulates the activity of ion channels (stimulating anion efflux and inhibiting K+ influx). By fast stimulation of ion efflux, turgor of stomata cells is reduced, which results in their closure. In the nucleus, ABA signal trans-duction induces a wide change in the transcriptome not only by stimulation of the expression of defense genes, but also by degradation of specific mRNAs, by change of mRNA stability, splicing, and transport. Elucidation of the mechanism of ABA signal transduction significantly contributes to establishment of a suitable strategy for elevation of plant tolerance to abiotic stresses.
Abscisic acid • PYR/PYL/RCAR proteins • PP2C • SnRK2 • Stomatal aperture • Transcriptome • mRNA processing
Laboratory of Hormonal Regulations in Plants, Institute of Experimental Botany AS CR, Prague, The Czech Republic e-mail: [email protected]
P. Ahmad and M.N.V. Prasad (eds.), Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Metabolism, Productivity and Sustainability, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0634-1_19, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
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