Infleunce Of Soil Fertility On Soybean Production

Adriano DC (1986) Trace elements in the terrestrial environment. Springer, New York, pp 1-533 Ahmad A, Abdin MZ (1999) NADH: nitrate reductase and NAD(P)H: nitrite reductase activities in mustard seedlings. Plant Sci 143:1-8 Aijen 2004 Importance of root growth parameters to Cd and Zn acquisition by non-hyperaccumulator and hyperaccumulator plants. Dissert of Hohenheim University, Verlag Grauer Beuren, Stuttgart Ali G, Srivastava PS, Iqbal M (1998) Effect of cadmium and copper on growth of Bacopa monniera regenerants. Biol Plant 41:635-639 Alia K, Saradhi PP (1991) Proline accumulation under heavy metal stress. J Plant Physiol 138:554-558 Allakhverdiev SI, Nishiyama Y, Suzuki I, Tasaka Y, Murata N (1999) Genetic engineering of the unsaturation of fatty acids in membrane lipids alters the tolerance of synechacystis to salt stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:5862-5867 Al-Najar H, Schulz R, Roemheld V (2003) Plant availability of thallium in the rhizosphere of hyperaccumu-lator plants a key factor for assessment of phytoextraction. Plant Soil 249:97-105 Anderson TA (1997) Development of a phytoremediation handbook: consideration for enhancing microbial degradation in the rhizosphere. Environmental Science and Engineering Fellow, Claudia Sturges, 202-326. Andrade JL, Larque SA, Trejo CL (1995) Proline accumulation in leaves of four cultivars of Phaseolus vulgaris L. with different drought resistance. Phyton Beunas Aires 57:149-155 Anonymous (2001) CERCLA priority list of hazardous substances. ATSDR HazDat Data base information centre: US Department of Health and Human Services Aspinall D, Paleg LD (1981) Proline accumulation: physiological aspects. In: Paleg LD, Aspinall D (eds) Physiology and biochemistry of drought resistance in plants. Academic, Sydney, pp 215-228 Aydinalp C, Marinova S (2003) Distribution and forms of heavy metals in some agricultural soils. Pol J Environ Stud 12(5):629-633 Bala R, Setia RC (1990) Some aspects of cadmium and lead toxicity in plants. In: Malik CP, Setia RC, Singh P (eds) Advances in frontier areas of plant. Narendra Publishing House, Delhi, India, pp 167-180 Barber SA (1984) Soil nutrient bioavailability: a mechanistic approach. Oxford Claradon Press, Wiley, New York

Barber SA, Lee RB (1974) The effect of micro-organisms on the absorption of manganese by plants. New Phytol 73:97-106

Barcelo J, Vazquez MD, Poschensieder C (1988) Structural and ultrastructural disorders in Cd-treated bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). New Phytol 108:37-49 Baszynski T, Wajda L, Krol M, Wolinska D, Krupa Z, Tukendorf A (1980) Photosynthetic activities of cadmium treated tomato plants. Physiol Plant 48:365-370

Bazzaz FA, Rolfe GL, Carlson RW (1974) Effect of Cd on photosynthesis and transpiration of excised leaves of corn and sunflower. Physiol Plant 32:373-376 Bhardwaj R, Mascarenhas C (1989) Cadmium-induced inhibition of photosynthesis in vivo during development of chloroplasts in Triticum aestivum L. Plant Physiol Biochem 16:40-48 Bharti N, Singh RP (1993) Growth and nitrate reduction by Seasum indicum c.v. PB-1 respond differentially to lead. Phytochemistry 33:531-534 Bhattacharyya M, Choudhuri MA (1995) Heavy metal (Pb2+ and Cd2+) stress-induced damage in Vigna seedlings and possible involvement of phytochelatin like substances in mitigation of heavy metal stress. Indian J Exp Biol 33:236-238 Blake RC, Choate DM, Bardhan S, Revis N, Barton LL, Zocco TG (1993) Chemical transformation of toxic metals by a Pseudomonas strain from a toxic waste site. Environ Toxic Chem 12:1365-1376 Bowen HJM (1979) Environmental chemistry of the elements. Academic, New York Bradeen DA, Winget GD, Gould JM, Ort DR (1973) Site-specific inhibition of photophosphorylation in isolated spinach chloroplasts by mercuric chloride. Plant Physiol 52:680-682 Brooks RR (1998) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals (Their role in phytoremediation, microbiology, archaeology, mineral exploration and phytomining). CAB International, Wallingford Buchanan BB, Gruissem W, Jones RL (2000) Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. Am Soc Plant Physiol, Rockville, MD 1367 Burdin KS, Polyakova EE (1987) Metallothioneins, their structure and functions. Usp Sovern Biol 103:390-400 Cakmak I (2002) Plant nutrition research: priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways. Plant Soil 247:3-24

Cedeno-Maldonado A, Swader JA, Heath RL (1972) The cupric ion an inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport in isolated chloroplasts. Plant Physiol 50:698-701 Chaney RL (1988) Metal speciation and interactions among elements affecting trace-element transfer in agricultural and environmental food chains. In: Kramer JR, Allen HE (eds) Metal speciation: theory, analysis and applications. Lewis Publishers Inc, Chelsa, MI, pp 218-260

Chaney RL, Li YM, Angel JS, Baker AJM, Reeves RD, Brown SL, Homer FA, Malik M, Chin M (1999) Improving metal hyperaccumulators wild plants to develop commercial phytoextraction systems: approaches and progress. In: Terry Nand Banuelos GS (ed) Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp 129-158 Chugh LK, Gupta VK, Sawhney SK (1992) Effect of cadmium on enzymes of nitrogen metabolism in pea seedlings. Phytochemistry 31:395-400 Clijsters H, Van Assche F (1985) Inhibition of photosynthesis by heavy metals. Photosynth Res 7:31-40 Cocking D, Rohrer M, Thomas R, Walker TJ, Ward D (1995) Effect of root morphology and Hg concentration in the soil on uptake by terrestrial vascular plants. Water Air Soil Pollut 80:1113-1116 Cooke DT, Burden RS (1990) Lipid modulation of plasma membrane bound ATPase. Physiol Plant 78:153-159 Cordovilla MP, Ligero F, Lluch C (1996) Growth and nitrogen assimilation in nodules in response to nitrate levels in Vicia faba under salt stress. J Exp Bot 47:203-210

Costa G, Spitz E (1997) Infleunce of cadmium on soluble carbohydrates, free amino-acids, protein content of in vitro cultured Lupinus albus. Plant Sci 128: 131-140 Crowley DE, Wang YC, Reid CP, Szansiszlo PJ (1991) Mechanism of iron acquisition from siderophores by micro-organisms and plants. Plant Soil 130:179-198 Dabas S, Singh RP (1995) Differential effect of lead on nitrate reductase activity and organic nitcrogen content in mung bean (var. P-105) seedlings. Indian J Plant Physiol 38:155-157 Datta AK, Misra M, North SL, Kasprzak KS (1992) Enhancement by nickel(II) and L-histidine of 2'-deox-yguanosine oxidation with hydrogen peroxide. Carcinogenesis 13:283-287 Datta AK, Shi X, Kasprzak KS (1993) Effect of carnos-ine, homocarnosine anserine on hydroxylation of the guanine moiety in 2'-deoxyguanosine, DNA and nucleohistone and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of nickel(II). Carcinogenesis 14:417-422 Davies BE (1980) Trace element pollution. In: Davies BE (ed) Applied oil trace elements. Wiley, New York, pp 287-351

Davies MS (1991) Effects of toxic concentration of metals on root growth and development. In: Alkinson D (ed) Plant root growth. Blackwell, London UK, pp 211-227

De Filippis LF, Pallaghy CK (1976) The effect of sublethal concentrations of mercury and zinc on Chlorella. In: Growth characteristics and uptake of metals. Z. Pflanzenphysiol. Bd. 78:197-207 De Vos CHR, Schat H, De Waal MAM, Voojis R, Ernst WHO (1991) Increased resistance to copper-induced damage of the root cell plasmalemma in copper-tolerant Silene cucubalus. Physiol Plant 82:523-528 De Vos CHR, Ten Bookum W, Vooijis R, Schat H, De Kok LJ (1993) Effect of copper on fatty acid composition and peroxidation of lipids in the roots of copper-tolerant and sensitive Silene cucubalus. Plant Physiol Biochem 31:151-158 De Vos CHR, Vonk MJ, Vooijis R, Schat H (1992) Glutathione depletion due to copper-induced phyto-chelatin synthesis causes oxidative stress in Silene cucubalus. Plant Physiol 98:853-858 Di Cagno R, Guidi L, Stefani A, Soldatini GF (1999) Effect of cadmium on growth of Helianthus annus seedlings: Physiological aspects. New Phytol 144: 65-71 Elenkov I, Stefanv K, Dimitrova-Konaklieve S, Popov S (1996) Effect of salinity on lipid composition of Cladophora vagabunda. Phytochemistry 42:39-44 Elstner EF, Osswald W (1994) Mechanisms of oxygen activation during plant stress. Proc Roy Soc Edinb 102:131-154

Erdmann B, Hoffmann P, Wiedenroth EM (1986) Changes in root system of wheat seedlings following root anaerobiosis. Ann Bot 58:597-605 Ernst WHO (1998) Effects of heavy metals in plants at the cellular and organismic level. In: Schuurmann G, Markert B (eds) Ecotoxicolology. Wiley, Specktrum Akademischer Veriog, New York, pp 587-620 Ernst WHO (2005) Evolution of metal tolerance and the implication on processes from the cellular to the whole plant level. In: Abstract of workshop on metal fluxes and stresses in terrestrial ecosystems. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL. Birmensdorf, 31-32 Ernst WHO, Verkeij JAC, Schat H (1992) Metal tolerance in plants. Acta Bot Neerl 41(3):229-248 Ferner DJ (2001) Toxicity, heavy metals. eMed J 2:1 Ferrara R, Maserti BE, Paterno P (1989) Mercury distribution in marine sediment and its correlation with the Posidonia oceanica Prairie in a coastal area by a Chloralkali complex. Toxicol Environ Chem 22: 131-134 Ferrara R, Mazzolai B, Lanzillotta E (2000) Temporal trends in gaseous mercury evasion from Mediterranean seawaters. Sci Total Environ 259:183-190 Fodor E, Szabo-Nagy A, Erdei L (1995) The effect of cadmium on the fluidity and H+ ATPase activity of plasma membrane from sunflower and wheat roots. J Plant Physiol 147:87-92 Foyer CH, Harbinson J (1994) Oxygen metabolism and the regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. In: Foyer CH, Mullineaux PM (eds) Causes of Photooxidative stress and amelioration of defense systems in plants. CRC, London, pp 2-42 Galvan A, Cardenas J, Fernandez E (1992) Nitrate reductase regulates expression of nitrite uptake and nitrite reductase activities in Chlamydomonas rein-hardtii. Plant Physiol 98:422-426 Gil J, Morel R, Gomez I, Novarro-Pedrerio J, Matrix J (1995) Effect of cadmium on physiological and nutritional aspects in tomato plant. II. Soluble and rubisco proteins and nutrient evolution. Fresenius Environ Bull 4:436-440 Grancharov I, Popova S (2003) Heavy metals pollution around the metallurgy plants in some regions in Bulgaria. In: Proceedings of the workshop "Bulgarian Priorities in Chemical Risk Assessment and Management", held on 12 September 2003 Sofia, 38-47

Greenfield SS (1942) Inhibitory effects of inorganic compounds on photosynthesis in Chorella. Am J Bot 29:121-131

Greger M, Ogren E (1991) Direct and indirect effects of cadmium on photosynthesis in sugarbeet (Beta vul-garis) Physiol. Plant 83:129-135 Griffin M, Antikainen M, Hon WC, Pihakaski-Maunsbach K, Yu XM, Chun JU, Yang DSC (1997) Antifreeze proteins in winter rye. Plant Physiol 100:327-332 Guo T, Zhang G, Zhou M, Wu F, Chen J (2004) Effects of aluminium and cadmium toxicity on growth and anti-oxidant activities of two barley genotypes with different Al resistance. Plant Soil 258:241-248

Gwozdz EA, Kopyra M (2003) Plant cell responses to heavy metals-biotechnological aspects. Biotechnologia 62:107-123

Hall DO, Rao KK (1999) Photosynthesis 6th Ed.

Cambridge University Press, UK Heeraman DA, Claassen VP, Zasoki RJ (2001) Interaction of lime, organic matter and fertilizer on growth and uptake of arsenic and mercury by Zorrofescue (Vulpia myuros L.). Plant Soil 234:215-231 Hemalatha S, Anburaj A, Francis K (1997) Effect of heavy metals on certain biochemical constituents and nitrate reductase activity in Oryza sativa L. seedlings. J Environ Biol 18:313-319 Hirt H, Casari G, Barta A (1989) Cadmium enhanced gene expression in suspension culture cells of tobacco. Planta 179:414-420 Hock B, Elstner E (2005) Preface. In: Hock B, Elstner E (eds) Plant toxicology, 4th edn. Marcel Dekker, New York Horvath G, Droppa M, Oraveez A, Raskin VI, Marder JB (1996) Formation of the photosynthetic apparatus during greening and cadmium poisoning barley leaves. Planta 199:238-243 Howlett NG, Avery SV (1997) Relationship between cadmium sensitivity and degree of plasma membrane fatty acid unsaturation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 48:539-546 International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (1999) Basics of chemical safety. International Labour Organization, Geneva Ivanov VB, Bistrova EI, Seregin IV (2003) Comparison of influence of heavy metals on root growth in connection with problems of specificity and selectivity of their action. Plant Physiol 50:445-454 (in Russian) Jafri S, Srivastava K, Ahmad KJ (1979) Environmental pollution and epidermal structure in Syzygium cumini L. Skeel Indian J Air pollut Control 2:74-77 Jager HG, Meyer HR (1977) Effect of water stress on growth and proline oxidation by water stress. Plant Physiol 59:930-932 Jemal F, Zarrouk M, Ghorbal MH (2000) Effects of Cd on lipid composition of pepper. Biochem Soc Trans 28:907-912

Kaiser WM, Weiner H, Huber SC (1999) Nitrate reductase in higher plants: a case study for transduction of environmental stimuli into control of catalytic activity. Physiol Plant 105:385-390 Kaschl A, Romheld V, Chen Y (2002) The influence of soluble organic matter from municipal solid waste compost on trace metal leaching in calcareous soils. Sci Total Environ 291:45-57 Keating MH, Mahaffey KR, Schoney R, Rice GE, Bullock OR, Ambrose RB, Swartout J, Nichols JW (1997) Mercury Study Report to congress. Washington DC, 3(1):6-7

Kelly-John J, Haggblom Max M, Tate-Robert L (2003) Effects of heavy metal contamination and remediation on soil microbial communities in the vicinity of a zinc smelter as indicated by analysis of microbial community phospholipids fatty acid profiles. Biol Fertil Soils 38:65-71

Keltjens WG, Van Beusichem ML (1998) Phytochelatins as biomarkers for heavy metal stress in maize (Zea mays L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): combined effects of copper and cadmium. Plant Soil 203: 119-126 Keswick BH (1984) Sources of ground water pollution. In: Bitton G, Gerba CP (eds) Ground water pollution Microbiology. John Wiley, New York, USA, pp 39-69

Kevreson S, Ksristic B, Popovic M, Kovacev L, Pajevic S, Kandrac J, Malenic D (1998) Biochemical changes in sugar beet lines as dependence on soil moisture. Biol Plant 40:245-250 Khan MG (1996) Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities in soybean plants raised with saline water. Indian J Plant Physiol 1:128-129 Kobayashi T, Nakagawa Y, Mitsugi H, Watanabi H (1986) Estimation of atmosphere pollution by mercury by means of epiphyte lichens. Tayki osen gakkaysi, J Jap Soc Air Pollut 2:151-155 (in Japanese) Kramer U, Cotter-Howells JD, Charnock JM, Baker AJM, Smith JAC (1996) Free histidine as a metal chelator in plants that accumulate nickel. Nature 379:635-638 Kramer U, Grime GW, Smith JAC, Hawes CR, Baker AJM (1997) Micro-PIXE as a technique for studying nickel localization in leaves of the hyperaccumulator plant Alyssum lesbiacum. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res B 130:346-350 Krupa Z, Baszynski T (1989) Acyl lipid composition of thylakoid membranes of cadmium treated tomato plants. Acta Physiol Plant 11:111-116 Krupa Z, Skorzynska F, Maksymiec W, Baszynski T (1987) Effect of Cd2+ treatment on the photosynthetic apparatus and its photochemical activities in greening radish seedlings. Photosynthetica 21:156-164 Kulakov P, Zeeb K, Teritze I, Atanasov A, Vassilev R, Donkova, 2009. Textbook on phytoremediation of contaminated soils and sites. Academic Press, Agricultural University - Plovdiv. 104 (In Bulgarian) Lasat MM (2000) Phytoextraction of metals from contaminated soil: a review of plant/soil/metal interaction and assessment of pertinent agronomic issues. J Hazard Subs Res 2:5-25 Lata S (1989a) Effects of cadmium on seedling growth, mobilization of food reserves and activity of hydro-lytic enzymes in Phaseolus aureus cv. T-44 seeds. Acta Bot Indica 17:290-293 Lata S (1989b) Phasic pretreatment effect cadmium on seedling growth and activity of certain hydrolytic enzymes of Phaseolus aureus cv. T-44 seeds. Acta Bot Indica 17:222-224 Lavrinenko OV, Lavrinenko IA (1999) Heavy metal accumulation by lichens from Peltigora genus. Mater. of Intern. Conf. "Plant Physiology - Sci. of III millenium", Moscow, Russia Leuning R, Kelliher FM, De-Pury DGG, Schulze ED (1995) Leaf nitrogen, photosynthesis, conductance and transpiration: scaling from leaves to canopies. Plant Cell Environ 18:1183-1200 Lichtenberger O, Neumann D (1997) Analytical electron microscopy as a powerful tool in plant cell biology:

Examples using electron energy loss spectroscopy and X-ray microanalysis. Eur J Cell Biol 73:378-386 Lichtenthaler HK (1996) An introduction to the stress concept in plants. J Plant Physiol 148:4-14 Long SP, Farage PK, Garcia RL (1996) Measurement of leaf and canopy photosynthetic CO2 exchange in field. J Exp Bot 47:1629-1642 Lozano-Rodriguez E, Hernandez LE, Bonay P, Carpena-Ruiz RO (1997) Distribution of cadmium in root tissues of maize and pea plants: physiological disturbances. J Exp Bot 48:123-128 Lue-Kim H, Rauser WE (1986) Partial characterization of cadmium binding proteins from roots of tomato. Plant Physiol 81:896-900 Lutts S, Majerus V, Kinet JM (1999) NaCl effects on proline metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa) seedlings. Physiol Plant 105:450-458 Macnair MR, Tilstone GH, Smith SE (2000) The genetics of metal tolerance and accumulation in higher plants. In: Terry N, Banuelos G (eds) Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and water. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, pp 235-250 Macnicol RD, Beckett PHT (1985) Critical tissue concentrations of potentially toxic elements. Plant Soil 85: 107-129

Manto vi P, Bonassi G, Maestri E, Marmirolli N (2003) Accumulation of copper and zinc from liquid manure in agricultural soils and crop plants. Plant Soil 250: 249-257

Marschner H (1983) Heavy metals. In: Lauchli A, Bieleski RL (eds) Inorganic plant nutrition encyclopedia of plant physiol, vol 15A. Springer, Berlin, pp 39-49 Marschner H (1986) Mineral nutrition of higher plants.

Academic, London, 254 Martínez-Martínez S, Faz Á, Acosta JA, Carmona DM, Zornoza R, BüYükkili? A, Kabas S (2010) Heavy metals distribution in soil particle size fractions from a mining area in the southeast of Spain. In: 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World 1-6 August 2010, Brisbane, Australia. Published on DVD Masarovicova E, Cicak A, Stefancik I (1999) Plant response to air pollution and heavy metal stresses. In: Pessarakli M (ed) Handbook of plant and crop Stresses, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, Basel, AG, pp 569-599 Meagher RB, Rugh CL, Kandasamy MK, Gragson G, Wang NJ (2000) Engineered phytoremediation of mercury pollution in soil and water using bacterial genes. In: Terry N, Banuelos G (eds) Phytoremediation of contaminated soil and water. Lewis, Boca Raton, FL, p 201

Mehindirata S, Ali ST, Siddiqi MTO, Iqbal M (1999) Cadmium-induced changes in foliar responses of Solanum melongena L. Phytomorphology 49:295-302 Mengel K, Kirkby EA (2001) Principles of plant nutrition, 5th edn. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 849 Menzer RE, Nelson JO (1986) Water and soil pollutants. In: Kaassen CD, Andur MO, Doull J (eds) The basic science of poisons. Lasarett and Doull's toxicology. Macmillan, NY, USA, pp 825-856

Mills HA, Scoggins HL (1998) Nutritional levels for anthurium: young versus mature leaves. J Plant Nutr 21:199-203

Misra M, Olinski R, Dizdaroglu M, Kasprzak KS (1993) Enhancement by l-histidine of nickel(II)-induced DNA-protein cross-linking and oxidative DNA base damage in the rat kidney. Chem Res Toxicol 6:33-37 Mitchell RL (1964) Trace elements in soils. In: Bear FE (ed) Chemistry of the soil. Reinhold, New York, pp 320-368

Moniri HM (2005) Influence of pollutants on vegetation in Southwest Iran resulting from the burning oil wells of Kuwait in 1991. In: Siddiqi TO, Ahmad A (eds.) Book of a satellite Session of ICPEP-3 on "Herbal Drugs and Environmental Pollution". Absr. Depart. Of Botany, Faculty of Sci, Jamia Hamdard Univ, New Delhi, pp 73-74 Moreno FN, Anderson CWN, Stewart RB, Robinson BH (2004) Phytoremediation of mercury contaminated mine tailing by induced plant-mercury accumulation. Environ Pract 6:165-175 Nagoor S (1999) Physiological and biochemical responses of heavy metals to graded levels of heavy metal. II. Effect on protein metabolism in maize seedlings. Adv Plant Sci 12:424-433 Naidu R, Oliver D, Mc Cornell S (2003) Heavy metal phytotoxicity in soils. In: Langley A, Gilbey M, Kennedy B (eds) Proceedings of the 5th National Workshop on the Assessment of site contamination. NEPC Service Corp, Adelaide, pp 235-241 Neumann D, Nieden U, Lichtenberger O, Leopold I (1995) How does Armeria maritama tolerate high heavy metal concentrations? J Plant Physiol 146:704-717 Noctor G, Foyer CH (1998) Ascorbate and glutathione: keeping active oxygen under control. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 49:249-279 Nozaki JO (1986) Determination of the concentration of protein by dry wt: a comparison with spectrophoto-metric methods. Arch Biochem Biophys 249:437-446 Nwokolo E, Smartt J (1996) Food and feed from legumes and oil seeds. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA Nye PH, Tinker TB (1977) Solute movement in the soil-root system. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 342

Oleksyn J, Innes JL (2000) Air pollution and forests in heavily industrialized regions: An introduction. In: Innes JL, Oleksyn J (eds) Forest dynamics in heavily polluted regions, 1st edn. CABI Publishing, Oxon, pp 1-7 Ouarti O, Bussama N, Zarrouk M, Cherif A, Ghorbal MH (1997) Cadmium and copper induced changes in tomato membrane lipids. Phytochemistry 45:1343-1350 Pachepsky LB, Acock B, Hoffman-Benning S, Willmitzer L, Fisahn J (1997) Estimation of the anatomical, sto-matal and biochemical components of differences in photosynthesis and transpiration of wild type and transgenic (expressing yeast-derived invertase targeted to the vacuole) tobacco leaves. Plant Cell Environ 20: 1070-1078

Pahlsson AMB (1989) Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb) to vascular plants. Water Air Soil Pollut 47:287-319

Park CH, Keyhan M, Matin A (1999) Purification and characterization of Chromate reductase in Pseudomanas putida. Abs Gen Meet Am Soc Microbiol 99:536 Patel-Davendra K, Kumar R, Prasad S (2004) Variation in the chemical constituents of soybean due to industrial pollution. J Serb Chem Soc 69:635-640 Pleines S, Marquard R, Friedt W (1987) Recurrent selection for modified polyenoic fatty acid composition in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) 7th Rapesees Congress Poznan (Poland) 140-145 Poschenrieder C, Gunse B, Barcelo J (1989) Influence of cadmium on water relations, stomatal resistance and abscisic acid content in expanding bean leaves. Plant Physiol 90:1365-1371 Prasad MNV (1995) Cd Toxicity and tolerance in vascular plants. Environ Exp Bot 35:525-545 Pandey P, Tripathi AK (2011) Effect of heavy metals on morphological and biochemical characteristics of Albiziaprocera (Roxb.) Benth. seedlings. Int J Environ Sci 5(1):1009-1018 Puckett KJ (1976) The effect of heavy metals on some aspects of lichen physiology. Can J Bot 54: 2695-2703 Punz WF, Sieghardt H (1992) The response of roots of herbaceous plant species to heavy metals. Environ Exp Bot 33:85-98 Purves D (1985) Trace element contamination of the environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam Ralph PJ, Burchertt MD (1998) Photosynthetic response of Halophila ovalis to heavy metal stress. Environ Pollut 103:91-101 Rath P, Panigrahi AK, Misra BN (1986) Effects of both inorganic and organic Mercury on the ATPase activity of Westiellopsis prolifica Janet. Environ Pollut (Series A) 42:143-149 Rose AW, Hawkes FE, Webb JS (1979) Geochemistry in mineral exploration. Academic, London, England Ross SM (1994) Toxic metals in soil-plant systems. Wiley, Chichester

Saljnikov E, Mrvic V, Cakmak D, Nikoloski M, Perovic V, Kostic L, Brebanovic B (2009) Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in South eastern Serbia. Geophys Res Abs 11:1376 Salt DE, Blaylock M, Kumar NPBA, Vratcheslav D, Ensley BD (1995a) Phytoremediation: a novel strategy for the removal of toxic metals from the environment using plants. Biotechnology 13:468-474 Salt DE, Prince RC, Baker AJM, Raskin I, Pickering IJ (1999) Zinc ligands in the metal hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens as determined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Environ Sci Tech 33: 713-717

Salt DE, Prince RC, Pickering IJ, Raskin I (1995b) Mechanisms of cadmium mobility and accumulation in Indian mustard. Plant Physiol 109:1427-1433 Sanita di-Toppi L, Gabbrielli R (1999) Response to cadmium in higher plants. Environ Exp Bot 41: 105-130

Schickler H, Caspi H (1999) Response of antioxidant enzymes to nickel and cadmium stress in hyperaccu-mulator plants of the genus Alyssum. Physiol Plant 105:39-44

Schulze E, Beck E, Muller-Hohenstein K (2005) Plant

Ecol. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 702 Selvaraj K, Hemalatha C, Gandhi SJ (1995) Differential nitrate reductase activity in NO3 - grown cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.) and green gram (Vigna radiate L.): inhibitory effects of ammonia, amino acids and urea. Indian J Exp Biol 33:456-458 Seregin IV, Ivanov VB (2001) Physiological aspects of cadmium and lead toxic action on higher plants. Plant Physiol 48:606-630 (in Russian) Seregin IV, Kojevnikova AD (2006) Physiological role of nickel and its toxic action on higher plants. Plant Physiol 53:285-308 (in Russian) Seregin IV, Kojevnikova AD, Kozyumina EM, Ivanov VB (2003) Toxic action and distribution of nickel in maize roots. Plant Physiol 50:793-800 (in Russian) Serrano R (1989) Structure and function of plasma membrane ATPase. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 40:60-94

Setia RC, Bala R (1994) Anatomical changes in root and stem of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in response to different heavy metals. Phytomorphology 44:95-104 Setia RC, Setia N, Malik CP (1987) The pod wall structure and function in relation to seed development in some legumes. Phyton 27:205-220 Shacklette HT, Boerngen JG (1984) Element concentrations in soils and other surface materials of the contiguous United States. USGS professional paper 1270. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Shah K, Dubey RS (1997) Effect of cadmium on protein, aminoacids and protease, amino peptidase and car-boxypeptidases in rice seedlings. Plant Physiol Biochem 24:89-95

Somashekaraiah SV, Padmaja K, Prasad ARK (1992) Phytotoxicity of cadmium ions on germinating seedlings of mung bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): involvement of lipid peroxidation in chlorophyll degradation. Physiol Plant 85:85-89 Srivasankar S, Oaks A (1996) Nitrate assimilation in higher plants: the effect of metabolites and light. Plant Physiol Biochem 34:609-620 Sterritt RM, Lester JN (1980) Interaction of heavy metals with bacteria. Sci Total Environ 14:5-17 Terashima I, Evans JR (1988) Effects of light and nitrogen nutrition on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in spinach. Plant Cell Physiol 29:143-155 Tremolieres A, Dubacq JP, Drapier D (1982) Unsaturated fatty acids in maturing seeds of sunflower and rape: regulation by temperature and light intensity. Phytochemistry 21:41-45 Van Assche F, Clijsters H (1990) Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant Cell Environ 13: 195-206

Van Steveninck RFM, Van Steveninck ME, Wells AJ, Fernando DR (1990) Zinc tolerance and the binding of zinc as zinc phytate in Lemna minor. X-ray microana-lytical evidence. J Plant Physiol 137:140-146 Vassilev A, Berova M, Stoeva N, Zlatev Z (2005) Phytotechnologies for sustainable use management of metal contaminated soils: short review. Manage Sustain Dev 3(4):90-96 (In Bulgarian) Vassilev A, Nikolova A (2010) Mechanisms of plant metal tolerance. Ecology and Future Vol IX 2:3-13 (In Bulgarian)

Vazquez MD, Poschenrieder CH, Barcelo J, Baker AJM, Hatton P, Cope GH (1994) Compartmentation of zinc in roots and leaves of the zinc hyperaccumulator Thlaspi carulescens. Bot Acta 107:243-250 Verkleij JAC, Schat H (1990) Mechanism of metal tolerance in higher plants. In: Shaw AJ (ed) Heavy metal tolerance in plants: evolutionary aspects. CRC, Boca Raton^FL, pp 179-193 Vinogradov AP (1959) The geochemistry of rare and dispersed chemical elements in soils. Consultants Bureau. Inc., New York, NY Vogeli-Lange R, Wagner GJ (1990) Subcellular localization of cadmium and cadmium binding peptides in tobacco leaves. Plant Physiol 92:1086-1093 Vyas J, Puranik RM (1993) Inhibition of nitrate reductase activity by mercury in bean leaf segments. Indian J Plant Physiol 1:57-60 Wood JM (1989) Transport, bioaccumulation and toxicity of elements in microorganisms under environmental stress. In: Proceedings International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment. Geneva CEP Consultants Ltd. Edinburgh 1:1-12 Wood JM, Wang HK (1983) Microbial resistance to heavy metals. Environ Sci Tech 17:582-590 Woolhouse HW (1974) Cell ageing and cell death. In: Davies I, Sigee DC (eds) Cambridge University Press, London 123-153 Woolhouse HW (1983) Toxicity and tolerance in the response of plants to metals. In: Lange OL, Nobel PS,

Osmond CB, Zeigler H (eds) Physiological plant ecology III, vol 12. Springer, New york, pp 245-300 Wu JT, Chand SJ, Chou TL (1995) Intracellular proline accumulation in some algae exposed to copper and cadmium. Bot Bull Acad Sin 36:89-93 Wyttenbach A, Tobler L, Bajo S (1989) Na, Cl and Br in needles of Norway spruce and in the aerosol adhering to the needles. Toxicol Environ Chem 18:249-256

Yadav VK, Yadav N (1995) Influence of cadmium on germination, seedling growth and biochemical traits of wheat. Plant Physiol Biochem 22:74-77 Yancey PH, Clarke ME, Hand SC, Bowlus RD, Somero GN (1982) Living with water stress: evolution of complete system. Science 217:1214-1222 Young AJ, Britton G (1990) Carotenoids and antioxida-

tive stress. Curr Res Photosynth 4:587-590 Zayed AM, Gowthaman S, Terry N (1998) Phytoac-cumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: I. Duckweed. J Environ Qual 27:715-721 Zel J, Sehara M, Svetek J, Nemee M (1993a) Influence of Al on the membrane mycorrhizal fungi. Water Air Soil Pollut 71:101-109 Zel J, Svetek J, Crne H, Sahara M (1993b) Influence of Al on the membrane fluidity of mycorhizal fungus Anamita muscaria. Physiol Plant 89:172-176 Zhang H, Jiang Y, He Z, Ma M (2005) Cadmium accumulation and oxidative burst in garlic (Allium sativum). J Plant Physiol 162:977-984 Zhu YL, Pilon-Smits EAH, Jouanin L, Terry N (1999) Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Indian mustard is enhanced by overexpressing g -glutamylcysteine synthase. Plant Physiol 121:1169-1177

Cd Accumulation and Subcellular Distribution in Plants and Their Relevance to the Trophic Transfer of Cd


Cadmium (Cd) is an elemental substance that occurs naturally in the earth's crust, and is variously taken up and incorporated into plant biological systems. Environmental contamination with this non-essential metal presents a challenge to plant species because they are often not equipped to regulate internal concentrations of Cd or to employ proper detoxification mechanisms. This review examines the movement of Cd from soil to plants, how different plant species handle Cd stress by evolutive acquisition of different mechanisms of tolerance and accumulation patterns. The consequences and toxic effects of Cd (hyper)accumulation in plants and other organisms to animal consumers in terrestrial ecosystems are highlighted. Understanding Cd uptake of plants, how they handle Cd contamination and how they made Cd bioavailable in trophic food chains is critical to the long-term safety and conservation of agricultural resources and ecosystems services and functions.


Cadmium • Metal compartmentalization • Metal trophic transfer • Plant hyperaccumulation • Ecotoxicology

(Amini et al. 2005; Peris et al. 2007). Compared to other metals, cadmium (Cd) is of great concern due to its high toxicity to animals and humans. Cadmium in soils is easily concentrated in particular edible parts of plants, which can threaten human health via food chains.

Cadmium is a naturally occurring element, and its presence has been detected in more than 1,000 species of aquatic and terrestrial flora and fauna (Eisler 1985). With one known exception, there is no evidence that Cd is biologically essential or beneficial; on the contrary, it has been

Was this article helpful?

0 0
Growing Soilless

Growing Soilless

This is an easy-to-follow, step-by-step guide to growing organic, healthy vegetable, herbs and house plants without soil. Clearly illustrated with black and white line drawings, the book covers every aspect of home hydroponic gardening.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment