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Andrea Furtado Macedo

Abstract

Plants are sessile beings, so the lack of mechanisms to escape from adverse conditions has fostered, through evolution, the development of unique and sophisticated responses to environmental stress. Depending on the degree of plasticity that a plant possesses to deal with a new environmental situation, in response to abiotic stress, morphological, anatomical, and physiological changes may occur. These changes can affect plant growth, productivity in agriculture, metabolic profile, and plant nutritional potential, for example. Therefore, plant abiotic stress has been a matter of concern for the maintenance of human life on earth and especially for the world economy. To meet these challenges, genes, transcripts, proteins, and metabolites that control the architecture and/or stress resistance of crop plants in a wide range of environments will need to be identified, in order to facilitate the biotechnological improvement of crop productivity. The combination of different "omics" tools, which rather than investigating a limited number of substances, enable the large-scale scanning of various substances, offers great potential for postgenomics to elucidate the geno-type-phenotype relationships. This chapter is intended to be a synopsis of current knowledge on this regard. It focuses on plant proteome and metabolome affected by abiotic factors. It will include informations on recent advances in methods of omics like proteomics and metabolomics, which should be considered as a new opportunity to understand abiotic responses and identify genes responsible for important crop traits.

Keywords

Abiotic stress • Plant responses • Productivity • Proteome • Metabolome • Tolerance

Laboratorio Integrado de Biologia Vegetal, Departamento de Botánica, Instituto de Biociencias,

CCBS, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil e-mail: [email protected]; [email protected]

P. Ahmad and M.N.V. Prasad (eds.), Abiotic Stress Responses in Plants: Metabolism, Productivity andSustainability, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4614-0634-1_3, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

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