The Genus Prunus

The genus Prunus (family Rosaceae) comprises more than 400 species adapted to temperate areas and cultivated in Europe. In particular, stone fruit crops, such as peach (Prunus persica L.), plum (P cerasifera L. and P. domestica L.), almond (P. dulcis L.), apricot (P. armeniaca L.) and cherry tree (P. avium L.), are typical and economically important and mainly localized in Mediterranean regions. Productive stone fruit trees are usually grafted plants with a lower part, the rootstock and an...

References

Agrawal GK, Rakwal R (2006) Rice proteomics, a cornerstone for cereal food crop proteomes. Mass Spectrom Rev 25 1-53 Agrawal GK, Bourguignon J, Rolland J, Ephritikhine G, Ferro M, Jaquinod M, Alexiou KG, Chardot T, Chakraborty N, Jolivet P, Doonan JH, Rakwal R (2010) Plant organelle proteomics collaborating or optimal cell function. Mass Spectro Rev 30 772-853 Ahsan N, Donnart T, Nouri MZ, Komatsu S (2010) Tissue-specific defense and proteomic approach. J Proteome Res 9 4189-4204 Aken OV, Zhang...

Classification Composition and Structure of SOM

The SOM content is one of the most varying pedosphere properties, ranging from < 0.2 in salt-affected sandy soils of arid and semi-arid climate zone (Khoshgoftarmanesh et al. 2006) up to > 99 in highly organic Histosoils from uplands in humid and boreal climates of northern hemisphere (Ondrasek 2008). In cultivated topsoils, SOM represents a fairly small fraction (1-4 ), but it is one of the most complex, dynamic and multifunctional soil components. Although its importance was recognised...

Heavy Metals in Different Environmental Matrices

The problem of such heavy metals and metalloids as cadmium, mercury, nickel, lead or chromium accumulation in various ecosystems is not new and is increasing significantly because of the improvement of the level of life, population expansion and heavy industry development. High natural levels of the pollutants in environmental matrices are the result of agricultural and semi-industrial activities, energy supply, mining or waste disposal. Heavy metal ions are ubiquitous in water (ground or...

Atmospheric Treatments

4.1 Controlled and Modified Atmosphere Storage Exposing fresh fruits and vegetables to reduced O2 and or elevated CO2 can either be beneficial or harmful, depending on the concentration of these gases, temperature, exposure duration, and commodity. Controlled atmosphere (CA) or modified atmosphere (MA) storage utilizing reduced O2 and or elevated CO2 are known to maintain quality and consequently extend shelf life of many fresh fruits and vegetables (Kader 1986). The beneficial effects of CA or...

Supplementation on Plants Stress Responses

Peroxide radicals, and singlet oxygen (Xue et al. 2001) . Selenium stimulates plants growth even under nonstress conditions. A considerable growth promotion up to 59 has been reported for cabbage plants in response to Se supplementation at 20 mM. This effect was accompanied by increase in the activity of GR and CAT but not SOD, APX, and POD (Hajiboland and Amjad 2007). Selenium is an essential micronutrient for animal and human nutrition because it is an integral part of the enzyme glutathione...

Soil Cd Contamination

The release of Cd into the environment constitutes a significant pollution problem. The release of Cd from anthropogenic activities is estimated to be about 4,000 to 13,000 tons per year, with major contributions from mining activities, and burning of fossil fuels (ATSDR 1999). The Cd-yellow oil colours used by landscape painters, including Claude Monet (Fig. 21.1a) is just one of the many valuable uses of Cd, contrasting with the pernicious effects that Cd can cause in plants (Fig. 21.1b)....

Conclusion and Future Perspective

Exposure to metals through contaminated air, food, drinking water, beverages, or soil may represent a threat to the existence of many plants and animals. Although some of the major health hazards linked to metals such as mercury and cadmium have been known for centuries, a growing body of evidence is nowadays linking these (and other) metals to adversely affect a number of agricultural crops as well as health effects. The challenge of responding to the health and environmental impacts of metal...

Fatty Acids Profile Under Heavy Metal Stress

Adverse environmental conditions such as high and low temperature (Tremolieres et al. 1982 Pleines et al. 1987), salinity (Elenkov et al. 1996 Allakhverdiev et al. 1999), and heavy metals (Fodor et al. 1995 Howlett and Avery 1997 Jemal et al. 2000) change the composition of fatty acids in plants. High temperature has been found to result in a significant increase of C 81 and C182 desaturation, resulting in a higher C183 (Tremolieres et al. 1982 Pleines et al. 1987). In a study carried out by...

Measuring Soils Heavy Metal Concentrations

The magnitude of heavy metal toxicity is affected by their binding to various ligands (SH- group, car-boxylate ion, imidazole, aliphatic amine). Merely a binding to SH-group can lead to multiple disturbances in the metabolism through the reduction of activities of more than hundreds enzymes having a SH-group in their protein molecule (Van Assche and Clijsters 1990 Seregin and Kojevnikova 2006). Differences in an action of metals with the similar properties are defined mainly by the differences...

Introduction

Anthropogenic activities, environmental pollution by heavy metal is becoming an important global health concern for human beings as well as for plants. They are toxic to all living organisms even at relatively low concentrations. On the contrary, metals are natural components of all the ecosystems and some of them as micronutrients (e.g., Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Mo) are essential for plant growth and yield (Marschner 1983 Purves 1985). Fine particles have high specific area that retains high amounts of...

Effect of Beneficial Elements on Plants Stress Responses

Mineral elements that either stimulate growth but are not essential or that are essential only for certain plant species or under specific conditions, are defined as beneficial elements. This definition applies to sodium (Na), silicon (Si), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), and aluminum (Al) (Marschner 1995). The main physiological functions of beneficial elements are presented in Table 16.5. For elements defined as beneficial, instead of application of the word deficiency, it seems to be more...

Proteomic Approach

But what is proteomics Proteomics is the global study of proteins that are expressed in a given organ, tissue, or cell line. This approach provides unique insights into biological systems that cannot be provided by genomic or transcriptomic approaches, simply because there are many more proteins than protein-coding genes (Wienkoop et al. 2010) . Proteomics has been used for systematic purposes, qualitative and quantitative profiling, and evaluation of the functions of proteins that are present...

Lcms Peptide Mass Fingerprints Expressed Proteins And Its Ident

OF TRYPTIC DIGEST OF DIFFERENTIALLY IFICATION USTING MASCOT SOFTWARE Fig. 10.2 Schematic overview of proteomics Fig. 10.2 Schematic overview of proteomics in the first dimension (isoelectro-focalization) and to their molecular weight in the second dimension (SDS-PAGE), has been the most powerful technique for the separation of complex mixtures of proteins. Methods of identification MALDI-TOF (matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time of flight) instruments allow the high-precision...

Introduction Abiotic Stress Responses Importance

Stress is the negative effect that an organism may suffer, and can be classified as internal or external. Internal stress is that derived from mutations or abnormal cell divisions that can lead to metabolic changes. External stress can have a biotic or abiotic origin. Biotic stress may be caused by the attack of herbivores and pathogens. Biotic stress refers to the physical or chemical changes in the environment of the individual (Madlung and Comai 2004) . Among the most common abiotic stresses...

Effect of Heavy Metals on Plants

The presence of metals in the leaves can hamper plant metabolism and growth even at very low concentrations. The oldest leaves of metal exposed plants exhibit the highest metal content (Ernst 1998 Mills and Scoggins 1998). Under metal stress, plants exhibit a thickening of root tips and a decreased root hair density (Punz and Sieghardt 1992). The reduction in growth and yield depends on the type of metal ions, types of growth media and species, and the stage of plant growth (Woolhouse 1983 Lata...

Plant Tolerance and Fatty Acid Profile in Responses to Heavy Metals

Asiya Hameed, Tabasum N.Qadri, Mahmooduzzafar, and T.O. Siddiqi Heavy metals are more widespread around the world and dangerous for biosphere because they cannot be degraded or destroyed rather tend to be bioaccumulated. Plants can survive even in the extreme environmental conditions, but some environmental factors can affect its various growth aspects and hence the plant productivity. The problem of heavy metal toxicity is further aggravated by the persistence of the metals in the environment....

Conclusions and Future Perspectives

It may be deduced from the above discussion that ALA could be a very promising plant growth regulating compound for increasing plant productivity and enhancing abiotic stress tolerance of crop plants since under certain conditions it has been found to mitigate the deleterious effects of various abiotic stress factors in numerous crop species (Fig. 12.5). The fact that it is the precursor of chlorophyll and all other porphyrins molecules, exogenous application of ALA enhances chlorophyll content...

Arbuscular Mycorrhizae and Soil Pollution

Heavy metal (HM) pollution is one of the main problems that negatively affects both human and environmental health. Some HMs are important as micronutrients (Fe, Mo and Mn). Some toxic HMs are trace elements (e.g., Zn, Ni and Cu) they are required in numerous enzyme catalyzed or redox reactions and in electron transfer as well as playing structural function in nucleic acid metabolism (Zenk 1996). Although some of these metals are essential for life, when they are present in excess, they induce...

Chieen Ka Kaac Ka

Addy HD, Schaffer GF, Miller MH, Peterson RL (1994) Survival of the extraradical mycelium of a VAM fungus in frozen soil over winter. Mycorrhiza 5 1-5 Almeida AM, Silva AB, Araujo SS, Cardoso LA, Santos DM (2007) Responses to water withdrawal of tobacco plants genetically engineered with the AtTPS1 gene a special reference to photosynthetic parameters. Euphytica 154 113-126 Anselmino O, Gilg E (1913) Ueber das Vorkommen von Trehalose in Selaginella lepidophylla. Ber Deut Pharm Ges 23 326-330...

GR As a Detoxifying Gene in Transgenic Plants

A critical component of the ROI-scavenging system is the maintenance of ascorbate and glutathi-one pools in a reduced state. Of all the enzymes that are involved in this process, GR has been most extensively studied (Pooja et al. 2008). Initial attempts to enhance the GR expression in transgenic tobacco plants using a GR gene from E. coli resulted in a 3.5-fold increase in extract-able GR activity and leaves of these plants were found to have reduced visible damage after MV exposure but no...

Review Of Heat And Light Stress In Medicinal Plants

Acharya BR, Assmann SM (2009) Hormone interactions in stomatal function. Plant Mol Biol 69 451-462 Agarwal S, Sairam RK, Srivastava GC, Tyagi A, Meen RC (2005) Role of ABA, salicylic acid, calcium and hydrogen peroxide on antioxidant enzymes induction in wheat seedlings. Plant Sci 169 559-570 Ahmad P, Jaleel CA, Salem MA, Nabi G, Sharma S (2010) Roles of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in plants during abiotic stress. Crit Riv Biotechnol 30 161-175 Anchorodoguy TJ, Rudolph AS,...

In Plant Reaction to Stress

Salicylic acid (SA) (ortho-hydroxybenzoic acid) is one of the phenolic compounds commonly present in higher plants. The highest contents of salicylic acid in the free form as well as in the form of its glucoside have been found and reported in plants of Salicaceae, Betulaceae and Ericaceae families. Volatile methyl salicylate (MeSA) is one of the main ingredients of essential oils of Apiaceae, Violaceae and Rosaceae families, attracting insects and aiding plant reproduction this way (Shlaev et...

Root Growth Pattern Under Drought Conditions

Generally plants exposed to drought condition exhibit an inhibition of root growth (Westgate and Boyer 1985 Robertson et al. 1990). A significant reduction in root elongation caused by the application of osmotic stress has been found in maize and bean (Robertson et al. 1990). In cotton and in seedlings of three boreal conifers, a reduction in lateral roots number was also observed (Croser et al. 2001 Zolla et al. 2010). Furthermore, using Arabidopsis plants, osmotic stress severely represses...

Trophic Ecotoxicology of Cd Accumulation

Apart from the question and research around of ecological function and evolutionary value of hyperaccumulation, the consequences of this trait for other species in hyperaccumulator habitats is also raising questions and concern in ecotoxicol-ogy (e.g. Gongalves et al. 2007 Monteiro et al. 2008). High metal levels in plant tissue will have consequences for other organisms that share those habitats. In the absence of metal avoidance behaviours, trophic biomagnification of metals, including Cd...

For Engineering Tolerance

Many genes linked to different pathways and processes such as stress perception and signalling, contributing to molecular, biochemical, cellular, physiological and morphological adaptations are differentially regulated in response to plant stress (Munns and Tester 2008) . Stress responsive genes include those that alleviate the effect of the stress and lead to adjustment of the cellular environment and plant tolerance. The gene products are classified into three major groups those encoding...

Other Mediterranean Fruit Species

Pomegranate trees (Punica granata L.) are considered as a crop with a high level of tolerance to soil water deficit. Pomegranate cultivation is mainly confined to the tropics and subtropics and it grows well in arid and semi-arid climates, but it is now widely cultivated in Mediterranean (Hepaksoy et al. 2009). In Spain, for example, its culture is concentrated in the south east, where fresh water available for agriculture is very scarce. The water relations of field grown pomegranate trees...

The Olive Tree

The genus Olea encloses more than 30 species belonging to the family Oleaceae. The cultivated species, Olea europaea L., is a very important crop in the world and occupies an area of about 9 Mha (FAOSTAT, 2010) with more than 2,600 cultivars, many of which may be ecotypes (Therios 2009). Olive is an evergreen and long-lived species cultivated between 30 and 45 of latitude but it finds the optimal conditions for its growth and productive expression in Mediterranean countries. In such area,...

And Assimilation Efficiency

One critical parameter in understanding the trophic transfer and accumulation of a metal is its assimilation efficiency (AE) in animals from the ingested food (Wang and Fisher 1999). Assimilation efficiency has been defined as the fraction of ingested metal that is assimilated across the gut lining into the body tissue (Wang and Fisher 1999) . Assimilation efficiency measurements are difficult to make and often yield variable results (Fisher and Reinfelder 1995) they can be determined by the...

Effect of Micronutrients Deficiency on Oxidative Stress in Plants

Reactive Oxygen Species Plant

Increasing evidences have indicated that much of the injury to plants due to various environmental stresses is associated with oxidative damage through direct or indirect formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (Apel and Hirt 2004). Production and scavenging of ROS is tightly linked with the presence of micronutrients such as Zn, Fe, Mn, and Cu in plant tissues. These micronutrients are components of antioxidant defense enzymes and modulation in the activity of these enzymes in...

Drought Stress Induced Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidants in Plants

Jagadish Aerobic metabolism in plants results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are produced constantly in plants under physiological steady state condition, and plants have evolved to efficiently scavenge and maintain the levels of ROS at non-damaging levels. However, plants when exposed to either abiotic or biotic stress conditions, the production of ROS exceeds their scavenging capacity, leading to an outburst of highly reactive...

Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

Distribution and accessibility of heavy metals to plants is important while assessing the environmental quality of an area. The levels of the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in the agricultural soils of the Bursa plain have been shown in the Table 20.1 to determine the degree of pollution and was found generally higher than the levels reported in literature for similar soils, suggesting some degree of pollution with heavy metals. The...

Effect of Salinity on Crop Plants

Salinity inhibits seed germination and alters the physiology and anatomy of the plants resulting in reduced crop yield. Salt accumulates in soil due to movement of salty water from adjacent areas during flooding or poor quality irrigation water. When water recedes after flooding, salt from lower soil profiles comes to the soil surface due to the capillary movement. Salinity is a soil condition characterized by a high concentration of soluble salts, mostly chloride and sulfates of sodium in the...

Abiotic Stress Reaction In Spruce Trees

Several different soil samples have been investigated for main soil fertility characteristics (pH, humus, available K and P) as well as concentrations of selected heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb). Soils graded as very acidic cover 46 of the area, which are mainly mountains with acidic parent materials. Content of humus in 41 of soil samples were below 3 . Most of the soils (71 ) are weakly supplied available phosphorus, while available potassium in more than 70 is presented in the...

MRNA Processing Transport and Degradation

ABA responses are considerably affected by the defects in mRNA processing, transport, and degradation (for review, see Hirayama and Shinozaki 2007). The cap-binding complex (CBC) binds the 5' terminal cap structure of mRNA, protects it from decapping enzymes, enhances its splicing, and promotes the first-round translation. Cap-binding protein ABA hypersensitive 1 (ABH1) was reported to modulate early ABA transduction (Papp et al. 2004). Hypersensitivity to ABA was reported also upon mutation of...

Exploiting the Impact of Drought Stress on Plant Physiology

3.1 Exploiting Stomatal Closure Deficit Irrigation and Partial Rootzone Drying It has been known for some time that chemical compounds synthesised in drying roots can act as long-distance signals, which induce stomatal closure in the leaf or restrict leaf growth via arrest of meristematic development. As a result, in some cases, stomatal closure can occur without significant changes in shoot water status. This occurs where plant water potential is buffered by controlling stomatal aperture via...

Understanding the Impact of Drought Stress on Plant Physiology

Stress Plants Physiology

Under mild to moderate water deficits, stomatal closure is one of the earliest plant responses, concomitant with the reduced water potential and turgor associated with even a small decrease in relative water content Chaves et al. 2003, Lawlor and Tezara 2009 . Reduced stomatal conductance limits water loss and CO2 diffusion, and hence photosynthetic assimilation. Intercellular partial pressure of CO2 pi is determined both by the supply of CO2 to the chloroplasts and the demand for CO2 for...

Toxic Secondary Metabolites of Fungi Mycotoxins in Oxidative Stress

Plants encounter many different pathogens during their lifetime, and are armed and ready to defend themselves with a combination of pre-formed and inducible defence mechanisms Thatcher et al. 2005 . Interactions of plants and their pathogenic fungi are now an interesting and rapidly developing field in plant science, with a significant impact in new strategies for plant protection. The plant response to infection is determined by the genetic background of the host as well as the pathogen...

Effect of Salicylic Acid on Various Abiotic Stress Responses

Besides plant defense, SA is involved in the response to abiotic stresses. However, the actual role of SA in abiotic stresses remains unresolved. Generally, deficiency of SA or a very high level of SA increases plant susceptibility to abiotic stresses. The optimal concentration 0.1-0.5 mM for most plants enhances abiotic stress tolerance. Because SA is also involved in redox regulation, a high concentration of SA may decrease stress tolerance through disturbance of redox status. The...

Abiotic Stressors Effecting Mineral Uptake

Salinity is the major environmental factor, which limits plant growth and productivity. Salinity changes the biological properties of plants, such as facilitating their retention and acquisition of water and maintenance of ion homeostasis Parida and Das 2005 . Grattan and Grieve 1999 showed that soils have extremely high ratios of Na Ca2 , Na K , Ca2 Mg2 , and Cl- NO3- under saline conditions, which leads to ion toxicities e.g., Na and Cl- and ionic imbalance. In Parida and Das' review 2005 of...

Info

Identified as the sodium transporter OsHKT8 Ren et al. 2005 . Combining superior alleles underlying the component traits could potentially result in higher levels of tolerance. Based on QTL-linked marker profile, Manneh et al. 2007 identified superior salt-tolerant genotypes of rice to improve selection efficiency while selecting for yield in stress environments. Wang et al. 2011 mapped 16 QTLs for salt tolerance of rice at the seed germination stage and four QTLs with major effect could be...

Aminolevulinic Acid

Foliar Spraying Bad Effects

ALA is a keto-amino acid with a molecular weight of 131 kDa Fig. 12.1 . ALA is known as a precursor of all porphyrins compounds such as vitamin Fig. 12.1 Structure of 5-aminolevulinic acid ALA B12, chlorophyll, heme, and phytochrome, and it is naturally found in plants, animals, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria Wang et al. 2005 Tabuchi et al. 2009 . It is generally assumed that in plants, algae, bacteria except for the a-pro-teobacteria group , and archaea, ALA is synthesized via...

Abscission as a Drought Avoidance Strategy

Trees show a consistent decline in their leaf-specific xylem conductivity as water moves from trunk to minor branches and leaves Zimmermann 1978 . These results in ever steeper pressure gradients and lower xylem pressure Px toward the distal ends of the flow-path. According to the segmentation hypothesis Zimmermann 1983 this could be an adaptive response ensuring that cavitation would be confined to cheap distal organs that could be sacrificed during a drought. Especially in trees, avoidance of...

Effect of Boron Deficiency on Plants Stress Responses

Boron is directly or indirectly involved in many physiological and biochemical processes during plant growth, such as cell elongation and division, cell wall biosynthesis, membrane function, leaf photosynthesis, and N metabolism Marschner 1995 . Function of B is mainly related to cell wall stability caused by borate cross-linking of apiose residues in the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II O'Neill et al. 2004 . Boron is required particularly at the initial phases of organogenesis for...

How To Write Preface Of Environmental Stress Books

Climate constrained world represents an ideal scenario of abiotic stresses in which there has been a change in the statistical distribution of weather temperature, soil moisture, salinity, ecohydrology, soil fertility, emission of greenhouse gases, etc. over periods of time that range from decades to centuries to millions of years. Plants do respond to these changes in the process of acclimation and acquiring tolerance - morphologically, structurally, physiologically, biochemical and molecular...

Conclusions and Future Perspectives in Phytoremediation

To conclude, phytoremediation - being one of the most interesting methods of environment cleaning - seeks for an alternative solution to hyperaccumulators or high biomass green plants. Symbiosis between plants and bacteria or fungi together with genetically modified plants are of the greatest chance for phytoremediation development. The major concern of the process efficiency is plants' resistance to environmental stress factors represented by the pollutant its self heavy metal, xenobiotic , as...

Trehalose Metabolism

So far, five different biosynthetic pathways for trehalose have been described Fig. 14.2 . The most extensively distributed was discovered about 50 years ago by Cabib and Lenoir 1958 , and since then, it has been described in diverse organisms including eubacteria, archaea, fungi, insects, and plants 1. This pathway is constituted by two enzymatic steps catalyzed by trehalose-6-phosphate synthase TPS and trehalose-phosphatase TPP . TPS transfer glucose from UDP-glucose to glucose 6-phosphate...

Variations in Heavy Metal Tolerance in Plants

Heavy metal tolerance to plants represents the ability of particular plants to thrive under conditions that are characterized by excess of metal ions, which have toxic effect for other plants Macnair et al. 2000 . The first research on the plants' tolerance toward HM ever made dates back to the beginning of the twentieth century, when it was established that two populations of the species Silene dioica have different tolerance toward the excess of Cu Ernst et al. 1992 . Environmental pollution...

The Arbuscular Mycorrhizae

Of all the mycorrhizal associations, AMs are the most widespread and ancient. They are made up by a wide range of land plants, including at least 80 angiosperms, and fungi belonging to glom-eromycota Smith and Read 2008 Fitter et al. 2011 After contact between the symbionts is established Fig. 11.1a , the fungus forms an appressorium on the root surface and enters the root. Colonization of the root system, by the fungal partner, is restricted to the parenchymatous cells of the cortex, where it...

Deficiency on Plants Stress Responses

Molybdenum as component of specific plant enzymes participates in reduction and oxidative reactions. Molybdenum is a component of some bacterial nitrogenases and therefore is especially important for plants that live in symbiosis with N-fixing bacteria Marschner 1995 . Molybdenum deficiency influences plant metabolism at various levels. These responses are related mainly to the requirement of Mo for different types of molyb-doenzymes in plants. Molybdenum is an integral part of an organic...

Uptake and Transport of Cd by Plants

Cadmium accumulation by higher plants can occur through foliar or root uptake. However, the primary point of entry for Cd into plants is through the roots. Cadmium uptake by plants grown in contaminated soils has been extensively studied, particularly in sludge-amended soils e.g. Jackson and Alloway 1991 McLaughlin et al. 2006 Singh and Agrawal 2007 Speir et al. 2003 and in soils treated with Cd-enriched phosphate fertilizers Crews and Davies 1985 He and Singh 1994a, b Huang et al. 2003 . In...

Role Of Cactus Opuntia Ficus Indica In Waste Water Treatment Scuience Direct

Abid N, Lal R 2008 Tillage and drainage impact on soil quality I. Aggregate stability, carbon and nitrogen pools. Soil Till Res 100 89-98 Aganchich B, El Antari A, Wahbi S, Tahi H, Wakrim R, Serraj R 2008 Fruit and oil quality of mature olive trees under partial rootzone drying in field conditions. Grasas Aceites 59 3 225-233 Aiyelaagbe I, Orodele O 2007 Leaf gas exchange and growth response of juvenile 'Valencia' orange trees to dry season irrigation in south western Nigeria. Proceedings...

On Plants Stress Responses

There are approximately 300 enzymes in which Zn is an integral component of the enzyme structure. In these enzymes Zn has catalytic e.g., carbonic anhydrase, carboxypeptidase, alkaline phos-phatase, and phospholipase or structural e.g., alcohol dehydrogenase, CuZn-SOD, and RNA polymerase functions. Besides Zn-containing enzymes, Zn is either required for the activity of a large number of enzymes, or at least modulate their activity. Zn is required for maintenance of integrity of biomembranes...

The Future of Transgenic Approaches

The current plant genetic engineering approach for developing salt stress-tolerant transgenic plants includes altering the expression levels of native genes or incorporating alien genes for osmolytes, ion transporters, transcription factors and other signalling molecules. The advent of global transcription profiling has demonstrated that large numbers of other genes are also up- and down-regulated simultaneously in response to salt stress. This second category of genes encode proteins related...

Approaches for Developing Salt Tolerant Crop Plants

Pepper Dihaploid 2012

3.1.1 Germplasm Screening and Classical Breeding The success of the crop-breeding program largely depends on the availability of natural genetic variation among the germplasm resources. Large number of cultivated and wild germplasm in major crops, preserved in the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research CGIAR institutions and national centers, provide unique resources for systematic screening for discovery of novel variability to improve adaptation of crop plants in saline...

Stress Induced Biosynthesis of Flavonoids

A brief summary of stress-induced changes in secondary metabolism, particularly in the biosynthesis of flavonoids has been reported in Table 9.1. Hundreds of experiments conducted over the last three decades have conclusively shown that fla-vonoid biosynthesis is mostly upregulated as a consequence of high UV-B and or full solar irra-diance it is noted that UV-B radiation does not account for more than 5 of the total UV-radiation at mid-latitudes, Ballar 2003 . It is interesting to note that...

Temperature Treatments

Heat treatments have been used for insect disin-festations, decay control, ripening decay, and modification of fruit responses to other stresses and maintenance of quality during storage Lurie 1998 Paull and Chen 2000 . There are three methods in use to heat commodities hot water, vapor heat, and hot air. Hot water treatment was originally used for fungal control, and first reported in 1922 to control decay on citrus fruit Fallik 2004 . But its use has been extended to disinfestations of...